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JOURNAL 



OF THE 



BOMBAY 

llntopl Stotffi ^0#g* 



No. L] 



BOMBAY. 



[Vol. VIII. 



THE BULBULS OF NORTH CACHAR. 

By E. C. Stuart-Baker. 

Part V. 

( With a Plate.) 

{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 
19th April, 1893). 

Hemixus maclellandi. 
The Rufous-breasted Bulbul. 

Oates' " B. of B. B." No. 72, Vol. I., p. 171 ; Hypsipetes 
maclellandi, Jerdon's " B. of India," No. 447, Vol. II., p. 79 ; 
Hume ; " Nests and Eggs," (2nd Ed.), Vol. I., p. 168 ; Oates' 
" Fauna of India, " Vol. I., p. 275. 

Description. — Forehead, crown and back of head bright vandyke-brown, 
the shafts being pale reddish-white give the head a streaky appearance. 
Remainder of upper plumage, including wing-coverts and tertiaries, olive-green ; 
brightest and sometimes inclining to yellow on the upper tail-coverts ; primaries 
and secondaries brown edged with olive-green ; tail bright olive-green ; lores 

and cheeks grey, or grey and white; ear-coverts, sides of neck, breast and 

l 



2. JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY^ Vol. VIII. 

flanks chestnut ; belly albescent, more or less suffused with rufous ; chin and 
upper throat white ; under tail-coverts flavescent-rufous. Bill, upper mandible 
dark blue-grey, culmen, tip and base of lower mandible dusky, remainder 
fleshy-white ; legs dull yellowish to purplish-brown i irides of various shades of 
reds and red-browns. 

Male— Length 9'5" ; wing 4'4" ; tail 4'4" ; tarsus '75" ; bill at front -8", 
and from gape 1'2". 

Female — Length barely 9" ; both wing and tail as nearly as possible 4* 2", 
the wing sometimes as much as 4" 2 5" or even more. 

Nidification. — I have taken a considerable number of nests of this species, 
all of which were of almost exactly the same description. They are placed in 
trees at heights varying from twenty to forty feet, more often nearer the former 
than the latter, and in every instance the nest has been suspended from a fork of 
a small branch. It is suspended much in the same manner as an Oriole's, and 
not like that of Hypsipetes and other bulbuls. The main portion of the nest is 
made of coarse grasses, bamboo leaves,, soft bark in long shreds, and of other 
suitable fibrous materials. Moss is never used, moss roots and fern roots very 
seldom, except in the lining, which is sometimes composed of the latter. 

The grass is so used as to pass under and through the base of the nest, and 
is then brought inside and over the fork, round the nest again and over the 
fork on the opposite side. This is carried out with all, or nearly all, the longer 
materials, so that the nest assumes a rather bulky and, often, very untidy 
appearance. It is, though, very strong, and it requires no inconsiderable force 
to detach it from its support. 

The lining is generally composed of rather fine grasses, more or less mixed 
with fine, soft fern roots. In some nests it is composed almost entirely of the 
last material, and in a few there is little or no lining of any sort whatsoever. 

They are rather shallow, as a rule, but differ considerably in this respect. I 
have taken nests of depths ranging from l - 2'^only to over 2* 9". In breadth 
they vary from 3 - 2" to. very nearly 5". 

The branch selected as a site for the nest is generally one towards the outer 
part of the tree, and it is, therefore, often very difficult to obtain without 
cutting off a large portion of the branch. 

The normal number of the eggs is three, four is quite exceptional, and two 
very common. 

The ground-colour is a very pale reddish-white or dead-white, and they are 
spotted profusely throughout with dark brownish-red. Underlying these 
marks are numerous tiny specks of pale inky, which, however, are not notice- 
able until the egg is very closely looked into, 



THE BULBULS OF NORTH CACIIAR 3 

In a few eggs the general tone is rather brighter, and in these there is also 
more of the ground-colour to he seen, but the typical egg is decidedly dull- 
coloured. 

Towards the large end the markings generally tend to form a cap or, less 
often, a zone. 

In shape they are typically a rather long regular oval ; in a few eggs a little 
compressed towards the small end. Abnormal specimens tend towards the 
short broad oval or broad peg-top form. 

The shell is smooth and fairly close in texture, but none of my eggs exhibit 
any gloss* 

In size they vary more than any other bulbuls' eggs that I know. I have 
them varying in length from '141' to 1'V and in breadth from '58" to '11". 
The average size of 19 eggs is '91" X "6 6", or rather more both ways. 

They are rather late breeders. June is the month in which most eggs will be 
taken, and nearly as many in July. My earliest and latest dates are the 23rd 
May, 1890, and 22nd July, 1888, respectively. They, no doubt, lay well on into 
August, but I have never been in their principal breeding haunts during 
that month. 

I have only once or twice observed this bulbul as low as 2,000 feet, even in 
the cold weather, but it does sometimes descend into the Plains. 

.They are most common between three thousand and four thousand feet, 
breeding chiefly at and above the latter height up to nearly 7,000 feet. I have 
not personally observed it in flocks ; and from the little that has been recorded 
of its habits, it does not appear to be sociable during the cold weather as are 
most bulbuls. 

They keep much to the higher branches of tall trees, but do not hesitate to 
descend lower, even to scrubby bushes when these are rendered attractive by 
the plentitude of their berries. I have examined a good many birds, but have 
never discovered any remains of insects, and I believe they are almost entirely, 
if not quite, vegetable feeders. 

It has a very pleasant call, and its many other and diversified notes are all, 
more or less, agreeable, none that I have heard being at all harsh in character. 
It has also a full sweet song, consisting / ^ee bars, which it constantly 
repeats, but I have only heard this uttered during the breeding season. When 
singing, it erects its crest, the feathers of which, though short, are full. The 
lanceolate feathers of the chin and throat are often also puffed out, giving the 
bird the appearance of having a most disproportionately large head. 

It is not a shy bird, and I have frequently watched either a single bird or a 
pair within less than twenty yards. They have not been at all disturbed by my 



4 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

appearance on such occasions, but continued to feed until I tried to approach still 
nearer, when they would fly away for a short distance and recommence feeding. 

The flight is rather quicker and straighter than most bulbuls', but not as 
strong as, though more level than, tbat of Htjpisipetes. 

It is nowhere very common, and is rather local in its habits. I have noticed 
that where Psarisomus is to be found, there are nearly always a few of these 
birds also. This species, however, keeps to the outskirts of the forest, and will 
not be found in the interior. Its favourite resort is scattered trees, with an 
undergrowth of grass (not bush). I have also seen it in thin scrub jungle, in 
cultivation jhums, and very often amongst the jungle of nullas which are 
surrounded by open country. 

mlceopds melanocephalus. 

The Black-headed Bulbul. 

Brachypodius melanocephalus, Hume's Cat. No. 457 bis.; Hume 
and Davison, S. F., "Vol. VI., p. 318 ; Micropus melanocepkalus, 
Oates, " B. of B. B. 5 " Vol. I, p. 181 ; id., u Fauna of B. I. Birds," 
Vol. L, p. 294. 

Description. — Whole head and throat, extending to the upper breast, black, 
brilliantly glossed with blue and purple •, remainder of upper plumage olive-green, 
brighter on the rump and yellow on the upper tail-coverts ; breast and flanks 
the same, shading into bright yellow on the belly and under tail-coverts. 
Tail olive-green for half its length, then black and tipped yellow, narrowly on 
the centre feathers and increasingly broadly on the others. 

Primary-coverts dull black, very narrowly edged olive-green ; other coverts 
wholly olive on the visible portions. Primaries and secondaries black, the first 
almost imperceptibly, the latter broadly-edged olive-green; the tertiaries, with the 
outer webs, all of this colour. 

The feathers of the rump and upper tail-coverts are very dark grey at the 
base and then black, the tips alone being broadly yellow, consequently the rump 
nearly always looks as if barred with black, though, in a perfect specimen, in 
which the rump feathers He properly, these black markings scarcely show at all. 
Bill very dark plumbeous, nearly black ; hides pale blue, varying a little in 
depth of colour, but never at all dark ; legs dark plumbeous, claws black, mouth 
and gape bluish, tinged fleshy occasionally. 

Length 6-8" to 7-1"; wing 3-2" to 3-85"; tail 3-3"; tarsus '5"; bill at 
front - 55" and from gape "8". 

NrDiFiCATiON. — I have taken but one nest of this bird, and on this the male 
bird was trapped. The nest might easily have been mistaken for one of the 



THE BULBULS OF NORTH CACHAR. 5 

common Bengal bulbul (31olpastes lengalmsis). It was a good deal stouter, 
however, than 8 out of 10 of the nests of that bird, and was also more neatly 
and compactly made. Outwardly it was made of the tough brown stems of a 
climbing plant, together with a few fine soft twigs, and one or two coarse pieces 
of grass blades ; inside these was a scanty, but neat, lining of fine grass-stems 
and a single skeleton leaf. It was placed in the fork of a stout branch of a 
thorny bush, some three feet from the ground. The surrounding country was 
dense jungle, merely a little lighter and clearer in the immediate vicinity. 
Heavy rain had fallen on the two days previous to my finding the nest, and 
when taken, it was sopped through and through, but it still, when removed, held 
well together, and was just as strong and compact as before when it again 
dried. 

The eggs were three in number, slightly incubated, and they, like the nest, 
may also be matched by many eggs of either M. lengdensis or lurmanicus. 
The ground-colour is a pale fleshy-pink, and the markings consist of large and 
small blotches and freckles of reddish and purplish-brown, the underlying 
marks being a pale dull inky. . Some of the primary blotches are very large 
varying from '1" to nearly '3" in length and up to -17" in breadth. 

The distribution of both blotches and freckles is fairly equal, and in two 
eggs very numerous over the whole surface. In the third egg the marks are 
fewer in number, with the exception of the very pale secondary blotches. The 
texture is just the same as in the eggs of Molpastes, but there is a very faint 
gloss. 

They measure -97" X -65", •%" X "60" and •93"X , 64 // . In shape they are 
long ovals, rather compressed towards the smaller end and slightly pointed. 

The nest was taken on the 12th of May, 1891, at an elevation of about 1,600 
feet. 

This bird is by no means rare in North Cachar, but I think it must bo 
partially migratory in its habits, for some years it is quite plentiful, and during 
others hardly a single bird can be obtained. 

During the cold weather, and well on into May, it is found in large flocks in 
company with the next species (if it is a good species), keeping, as a rule, to 
scattered forest or light jungle of some kind, rarely being found in quite open 
country, and very nearly as seldom in heavy forest. It appears to be most 
common in valleys which are well wooded, but at the same time have frequent 
open spaces at no great distance from one another, and the Jatinga Valley and 
the low hills surrounding the Tea Estates to the North-West of Cachar seem to 
be their most favourite haunts. It never, during the cold weather, seems to 
descend to low bushes, keeping almost entirely to the higher trees and to the 



6 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

tops of even such. Now and then, tempted by some unusually luxuriant 
growth of fruit or berries, it may descend to the higher bushes ; but, generally, 
they seem to withstand temptation, and I have seldom seen them lower down 
than the tops of small saplings. The very few birds I have come across 
during the breeding season alter their habits greatly, and I have most often 
seen them in thick bushes or undergrowth, sometimes in the interior of dense 
forest, more seldom just on the outskirts of it. At this period, too, they 
become very silent, though at other times then loud and musical chirp is con- 
stantly being uttered. The " melancholy double whistle," mentioned by Davi- 
son as being one of their notes, I do not think I have heard, but I once, during 
a rainy afternoon in March, 1892, heard some bird giving vent to his sadness 
in a long, soft whistle, suddenly terminating in a lower key, and this note may 
have been that of either M. melanocephalus or M. cinereivmtris. It was more 
like the rainy weather call of JEgithina typliia than that of any other bird 
I know, but it was far deeper and softer. 

The bird appears to be almost entirely a fruit-eater, but that it is not al- 
together so was proved by my finding two wood-lice in the stomach of one and 
the remains of a small green grasshopper in another. White ants, of course, 
these birds eat, but I know of no fruit or grain-eating bird that will not readily, 
even greedily, eat those insects. 

I have never come across this bird above 2,600 feet (about), but in Burma 
it seems to ascend far higher. 

Two of the birds of this species in my collection, as also two of the nest, 
I owe to Mr. H. A. Hole, of Jellalpur, and the notes he has sent me about the 
birds agree with my own experiences. 

mlceopus cineeeiventeis. 

The Geey-beeasted Bulbul. 

Bracliypodius cinereiventris, Hume's Cat. No. 457 ; quat.; Hume 
and Davison, S. F., Vol. VII, p. 319 ; Micropus cinerereivtris, Oates' 
" B. of B. B.," Vol. I., p. 295 ; id., " Fauna of B. I. Birds," Vol. I., p. 
295. 

Description.— Breast and flanks pure grey, darker nearest the head and 
paler lower, where it gradually merges into the yellow of the belly and vent. 
In some birds the grey extends over a great part of the abdomen, in others 
only over the upper portion. The interscapulary plumage generally, and the 
bind neck always, the same colour as the upper breast. 



THE BULBULS OF NORTH CACHAR. 7 

I can discover no other difference between this bird and the last. The 
margins to the primaries seem to me to be much the same in both birds. I 
know nothing in its habits, &c, to distinguish it from M. melanocepJmlus. 
In 1891 I also took a nest containing three young which, unfortunately, were 
merely naked squabs when found, and all died within two days, in spite of the 
most anxious care being bestowed on them. The female which I trapped on 
the nest was alone caught, and the male bird I never saw, so that I could not 
say whether it was of this or the last species. 

I have spent a good deal of time and trouble in trying to find evidence to 
prove either that M. melanocephalus and 31. cinereiventris are one and the same 
bird or that they are distinct. 

In the first place, neither Mr. Hole nor I have ever seen a flock of either 
kind unmixed with the other, and the only times I have taken either kind on 
the nest, the pah" to it was not obtained or even seen. 

It is queer that all the specimens of M. melanocephalus in my collection should 
be males, whereas aU those of M. cimreiventris except one, should be females. 
The one exception is a young male in imperfect plumage. One of my speci- 
mens of M. cinereiventris (given me by Mr. Hole) shows very narrow, obscure 
margins of olive-green on the grey feathers behind the neck. 

Again, one of the birds in Lord Tweedale's collection is said by him to be 
"in a stage of transition from yellow to grey." 

The amount of grey is not constant on the lower plumage, and on the 
upper is sometimes entirely absent. Personally I believe the two birds to be 
identical, but it would certainly seem that neither sex nor age can have any- 
thing to do with the differences in coloration. In Lord Tweedale's bird the 
change is from yeUow to grey, whereas in mine, if it is changing, the reverse 
would seem to be in process. Thus in the former bird it would appear that 
age was destroying the power of secreting the yellow pigment, whereas in the 
latter the assumption would be that the young bird had not developed the 
power. I have had several collectors kind enough to give me the sexes of 
then specimens and of the sexed birds. I have only heard of two male 
M. cinereiventris and of but one female M. melanocephalus. The birds in the 
Asiatic Museum are not sexed. Had sex, however, been the cause of the 
difference in coloration, it would most certainly have been ascertained in the 
fine collection in the British Museum, if not in those of private persons. 

The nest I have above mentioned was exactly like that of the former species 
already described, and was found in the same valley and on the following day. 
It was in a bush placed at about two feet from the ground, and, as it was 
surrounded by cane, was only got at with a good deal of difficulty. 



8 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Chloropsis aurifrons. 
The Gold-fronted Chloropsis. 

Phylornis aurifrons, Jerdon's l( B. I.," Vol. II., p. 99 ; Hume and 
Davison, S. F., Vol. VI., p. 326 ; Hume's Cat., No. 465 ; id., S. F., 
Vol. XI., p. 184 ; Chloropsis aurifrons, Oates' " B. of B. B.," Vol. I., 
p. 205 ; id. " Fauna B. I." Vol. I., p. 234. 

Description. — Forehead and crown golden-orange ; chin, cheeks 
and extreme upper throat brilliant porplish-blue ; remainder of throat, 
ear-coverts, round the eye, lores, and a narrow line up to the top of the nostrils 
black. An indistinct supercilium and a broad line smrounding the black 
golden ; a patch on the wing, consisting of nearly all the lesser coverts, bright 
pale blue ; edge of wing rather darker blue ; inner and concealed part of 
wing-feathers dark brown ; lower aspect of tail lead-colour ; remainder of 
plumage bright grass-green, lighter below and sometimes inclined to an 
emerald tinge. 

The female has the gold collar far less developed and often almost absent, 
the blue of the throat mixed with black, and the colour of the crown less vivid. 

The young bird in its first plumage has the head wholly green, a moustachial 
streak of the same colour as the wing-patch in the adult ; chin and throat tinged 
with the same. Primaries and secondaries edged with brilliant greenish-blue ; 
tail suffused with the same, and with the under surface wholly pale dusky-blue. 

A young bird in the Spring of the second year has the forehead golden ; the 
upper throat and chin green ; the black of the lower throat mixed with green, 
and with only two or three traces of the golden collar. The moustachial streak 
is small, and the wing patch the same. 

Bill black ; gape and base of lower mandible homy ; mouth bluish ; hides 
light to dark brown ; legs pale, clear to dark, dusky-plumbeous ; the younger 
the bird, the brighter and clearer the colour. 

Male— Length 7*5" to 7'8" ; wing Z'l" to 3*85" ; tail 2'7" to 2-9" ; tarsus 
"2" ; bill at front , 7" and from gape 1". 

Female— TV to 7"5" ; wing 3-5" to 3'65" ; tail 2-4" to 2-6". 

NiDiFiOATioisr. — The nest is a rather shallow cup, varying in breadth from 
about 3'5" to about 4" and in depth from about 1"3" to 1*8", few nests being 
more than V5". It is made of very fine twigs, moss roots and the tendrils of 
climbing plants, outwardly bound together, and also interwoven with grasses, 
moss, cobwebs, and a material which appears to be the inner bark of some tree. 
Some nests have no lining at all, but others are fined with fine grass-stems or, 
less often, with fern and moss roots. One nest taken in 1887 was lined with 



THE BULBULS OF NORTH C AC EAR. 9 

the dead dry fronds of a species of fern moss, and another one had a number 
of dead leaves mixed with the lining of grass-stems. 

Most nests are placed in between two or more horizontal twigs in a Semi- 
pendant position, not like the nest of the genus Oriolus but more like the nests 
of the genera Hemixus, Hypsipetes, &c, having little more than half the depth 
of the nest below the supporting twigs. About one nest in three is placed in 
an upright fork, and in such cases they are rather less strongly built, and 
fewer cobwebs are used for attachment purposes. As a rule, the nest is 
very neat, but some few have the outer surface covered with scraps merely 
hanging on by a cobweb or two. 

The eggs appear to be of two fairly distinct types. In the most common the 
ground varies from very pale cream to a reddish- cream, deep tinted eggs being 
exceptional. Most of the spots are very small, and in colour a dark reddish- 
brown ; intermingled with these are sometimes a few streaks and short irregular 
lines of brown, so dark as to appear black unless closely looked into. The 
second type of egg has the ground-colour a clear pale cream, and the whole 
surface blotched and mottled with reddish and reddish-brown, and again with 
others, beneath these, of pale purple and lavender. 

These last eggs show a strong resemblance to some badly-marked, dull- 
coloured eggs of Crinig&r flaveolus. In shape they are a long, pointed oval, or a 
long regular oval, hardly compressed at all towards the smaller end; The shell 
is fairly close grained and smooth, but rather delicate. About two eggs in three 
show a faint gloss. Fifteen eggs taken in North Cachar average '94" X '69", 
and vary in length between '86" and l'l", and in breadth between "62" and "69". 
They commence breeding in the end of May or beginning of June, and their 
nests may be found throughout June and July up to nearly the end of August. 

The earliest date I have recorded as having taken eggs is the 12th May, 1891, 
and the latest the 16th of August, 1892. Tins bird is the most common 
Chloropsis to be met with here, and is found in great numbers all the year 
round, descending in the cold weather to the plains, and sometimes, if but 
rarely, remaining there to breed, for in July, 1891, I had a nest sent to me 
containing two eggs, undoubtedly belonging to a bird of this genus and, I think, 
this species, which was taken at the foot of the hills to the north-west of 
Cachar. As a general rule, they keep much to the higher trees, small saplings, 
&c., in their quest for food ; but they do sometimes come down to low bushes, 
even quite close to the ground. They are nearly always to be seen in my 
compound any time from November up to the end of March, or even later, 
clambering about some tall shrubs which are covered during these months with 
clusters of red flowers — the attraction for numerous hisects of all kinds and 

also for many other birds, besides those of this species. Unfortunately, this 
2 



■*£ 



10 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

bird is most dreadfully pugnacious and quarrelsome, and whilst feeding on 
these bushes will allow no other bird to come near. I found out this trait 
very soon after I first became acquainted with the bird. I was engaged in 
watching a small party of Flower-peckers (Diccmm olivaceum) feeding on 
a babul tree, when a green bulbul appeared on the scene and promptly 
commenced chasing the unoffending small birds who, one by one, were forced 
to take shelter in a densely foliaged tree close by. The same day a King-crow, 
a bird usually so bumptious and aggressive, was badly hustled and punished by a 
pair of C.aurifrons. This occurred some time between the 25th November and 
the 5th December, so could not well have been the result of any grievance 
which the bulbuls had against the shrike on nesting grounds. They do not 
mind what kind of bird they bully, and if they can get nothing else to quarrel 
with, will fight amongst themselves. Twice have I picked up birds mortally 
wounded in these fights. Once, as I was walking to Cutcherry, I noticed two of 
these birds fighting in a cotton tree, and whilst I watched, one fell to the ground 
dead. Another time I was out for a stroll with a planter and his nephew, when, 
just in front, two of these birds fluttered fighting to the ground. One of my 
companions at once rushed forward towards the birds, whereupon one flew away, 
but the other, after a few convulsive movements, lay dead. On yet a third 
occasion, one of my servants succeeded in catching two males by rushing forward 
and throwing his puggree over them as they struggled in some grass, too 
engrossed in their quarrel to notice his approach. On this occasion neither 
bird was very badly wounded, though both of them showed signs of blood on 
the shoulders and heads. 

The only bird of its own size with which it does not care to compete is its 
first cousin G. hardivicliii, and rather than fight with this bird, it will even 
leave a choice feeding-ground. 

During the cold weather it assembles in fairly large flocks, generally num- 
bering nearly a dozen individuals, though sometimes only three or four, and 
very rarely they may be seen alone or in pairs. The separate members of the 
flock are very independent, and they often wander some distance from one 
another ; but, if driven away, they make off in the same direction, and keep up 
an intermittent conversation between themselves. 

They seem to be almost entirely insectivorous, and of the birds which I have 
examined, none contained seeds or other vegetable food in their stomachs, with 
two exceptions. 

These two had in them numerous small black seeds which had been taken 
from the pods of a bean-like climbing plant, and when I carefully examined the 
plant, I found that many of these pods, which had burst, were crowded with 



•< 



THE BULBULS OF NORTH CACHAR. 11 

tiny blue beetles, so it is possible that the seeds may merely have been 
swallowed by the birds, either by mistake for, or together with, the insects. 

I was once watching some Bronzed Drongo -shrikes catching white ants, when 
my attention was attracted by some other birds joining in the pursuit. At 
first I could not make out what they were, but one of them uttered a note 
which I recognised as being that of the genus Chloropsis, and on shooting 
the bird which uttered it, I found it belonged to this species. They were making 
swoops into the air from the top of a lofty tree, and before returning to their 
perch, they seemed to seize two and even three ants, whereas all the other 
bulbuls I have seen catching insects on the wing invariably perched after 
making one attempt to capture, whether successful or not. I noticed also that 
though the white ants were rising to our right and the birds were on our left, 
yet they appeared to see and give chase to insects which had disappeared far 
beyond the range of sight, either of myself or the more sharp-sighted Naga 
who accompanied me. 

The ordinary cry of this bird is, as many observers have already remarked, 
a low sweet rippling note, very like the softened cry of a Drongo-shrike. It has, 
however, a most wonderful range of notes, some like those of Molpastes and 
Otocompsa, and others harsh, loud and jarring ; a very common sound, uttered 
more especially during the breeding season, is just like the plaintive little chirp 
of a very young chicken which has lost the hen. This note, like most, seems 
to be common to the whole genus. 

The song is very pretty, but short and rather interrupted, and very inferior 
to that of the next bird, though perhaps rather louder. 

The flight is fairly quick and strong, and consists of long rises and dips 
alternately. They sometimes hover in front of a flower, exactly in the same 
way as many of the sun-birds do, and the movements of their wings when thus 
engaged are incredibly rapid. 

All the birds of this genus have a habit of spreading their tails whilst feeding, 
very much in the manner of Siphia, or, still more, like Myloplwmnstemmhwkii. 

It is a very early rooster, retiring directly the sun sets, sometimes even 
before this, and always before it becomes in the least dark. 

It does not always roost on high trees, and I am inclined to think that, more 
often than not, it prefers high, thick bushes to any other place. 

I have twice disturbed it from patches of sun-grass when coming home at 
dusk, and I have known it stay during the night in a dense orange-tree in my 
compound. It is, like the other members of the genus, a great mimic, and 
when in captivity, soon learns to imitate sounds made near it. 



12 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. Vlll. 

Chloropsis hardwioeii. 
The Orange-bellied Chloropsis, 

Phyllomis hatdwichii, Jerdon's " B. of I.," Vol* II, p. 100 \ 
Hume's Cat. , No. 460 ; Chloropsis hardwickii, Oates' "B. of B. B.," 
Vol. L, p. 206 ; id., ll Fauna of B. I., Birds," Vol. I., p. 236. 

Description. — Male. — Whole upper plumage, tertiaries and greater coverts 
next the back rather bright green ; the forehead, above the eye, down the neck 
tinged strongly with yellow, Lores, the ear-coverts and behind them on the 
sides of the neck, dead black ; chin, throat and upper breast black, velvety in 
appearance, and strongly glossed with deep purply-blue, moustachial streak 
bright dark ultramarine. Tail above purply-blue, the inner webs dusky black ; 
lesser wing-coverts verdigris-blue ; other coverts black, edged purple ; primaries 
the same, secondaries black on the inner and green on the outer webs ; flanks 
green ; remainder of lower plumage bright deep orange. 

■Female. — A moustachial streak bright pale cobalt ; lesser wing-coverts 
the same as in the male ; primaries and secondaries brown, the former very 
narrowly, the latter broadly, edged green ; remainder of wings and whole upper 
plumage green ; flanks and sides of the abdomen and breast green ; centre of 
lower breast, abdomen and under tail-coverts orange. 

Young birds in their first plumage are wholly green, there being only a faint 
indication of the blue on the lesser wing- coverts. 

First a cobalt moustachial streak appears, then the orange belly, &c, in 
patches, together with patches of black on the breast. As the black develops, 
the lesser wing- coverts assume their proper colour, and the moustachial streak 
deepens into the ultramarine blue of the adult, and, finally, the yellow on the 
head appears in the autumn of the second year, with the bright deep tints 
on the wing and tail, 

Bill black ; hides vary considerably ; in some they are almost a bright red- 
brown, in others dull and almost black, and they range between these 
extremes ; legs, plumbeous-blue, brightest and clearest in the young, and dull 
and dark in old birds. 

Length 7-3" to 7'6"; tail '3" to 3'1"; wing 3-7" to 3-95"; tarsus -71"; bill 
at front •67" and from gape "9 8". 

The female seems to be but little smaller than the male, and I have measured 
none under 7*25" and from that up to 7"5", the wing varying from 3'6" to 3'75". 

Nidification. — There is practically no difference between the nests of this 
bird and those of G. aurifrons, though two were rather deeper than any I have 
seen of that bird, one measuring 1'8" and the other 2'05" in depth. They 
build in just the same sort of places, but, generally, rather higher, and I have 
seen no nest under about 25 feet from the ground. 



THE B ULB ULS OF NOR Til CA CIIA R. 13 

The few eggs I have seen could nofc possibly be distinguished from those of 
the last bird. One clutch of two is of the blotched type, and five are of the 
other. In my remarks on this bird in the Asian, by mistake I wrote " the 
blotched eggs number four in every five taken" it should have been number 
only two to five of the other kind taken. Seven eggs average "91" X "67" ; in 
length they vary between '82" and I' Oh", and in breadth between '56" and '!". 
The largest egg is very much larger than any of the others, measuring 
1"05" X "7" whereas the next largest is only just '95" X '67". 

I have never seen this bird in as large flocks as those in winch C. aurifrohs 
assembles. As a rale, not more than five or six are seen together, and often 
they are found in pairs. They do not, either, descend as low as G aurifrons does. 
I have never heard of their being found quite in the plains, and only once or 
twice have I met with them anywhere below some 600 feet. Although they 
are very nearly entirely insectivorous, they are not altogether so, and in a caged 
state accustom themselves to a wholly vegetable diet. I have seen them two or 
three times, when wild, eating berries, and one I once shot in my compound 
had its stomach full of oranges about the size of a No. 4 shot. 

This bird and its mate lived in my compound, and did a good deal of damage 
to the one orange tree they particularly fancied. At first I flattered myself that 
they were destroying the red ants which infested the tree, but I soon discovered 
my mistake and did my best to drive them away, finally having to shoot one, 
that being the only way of ridding myself of their company. In captivity they 
seem to thrive on plantains and similar food, though they are grateful for any 
insects which may be offered to them, and more especially for any grasshoppers. 
A great friend of mine in Silchar had one of these birds in a cage, which was a 
most charming pet. It soon got to know that certain people gave it grass- 
hoppers or other dainties, and would become most excited whenever they came 
into the verandah, coming to the side of its cage and calling loudly to 
attract their attention. When I last saw it, it was beginning to sing, but had 
not come to its full powers, though it possessed, even then, a very sweet and 
musical little song. This bird had a habit of turning complete somersaults from 
off the top perch of its cage on to one of the lower ones, and this it would 
do some half-dozen, or even more, times in rapid succession. This trick, 
however, is one which is common to the species — and, I believe, to the genus — 
and in a wild state they may occassionally be seen indulging in these acrobatic 
feats. In turning these somersaults, the bird does not appear to open its wing 
in the least ; it suddenly turns round on its perch, and drops, with closed wings, 
on to the place it desires to reach, either seizing something edible as it first 
turns round, or else directly after arriving on the lower twig. 



14 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

It is not nearly so quarrelsome a bird as its cousin already described, but it 
is quite as bold and plucky, and seems to be even a more finished fighter, for, 
as I have mentioned before, G. aurifrons does not care about attacking this bird, 
and gets the worst of it when he does. 

The song is the fullest and most prolonged, as well as by far the sweetest, of 
any bird of this genus, and it shares with the other members of it the wide 
variety of notes and wonderful power of mimiciy. 

I have one female of this bird, which, however, is not an adult, which 
measures as follows : — 

Length -7"; tail 2-8"; wing 3" 5 7 . 

This is the bird whose measurements I gave in the Asian ; but now, with 
my greater experience of the species, I think that these figures are abnormally 
small, or that the bird would have become slightly larger with increased age. 

Chloropsis chloeocephala. 

The Burmese Chloropsis. 

Phyllornis clilorocephala^ Hume's Cat., No. 463, bis. ; Chloropsis 
chlorocephala, Oates' " B. of B. B. } " Vol. I., p. 208 ; id., li Fauna of 
B. I., Birds/' Vol. I., p. 237. 

Description. — Lores, feathers under and in front of the eye, cheeks, chin 
and throat, black ; forehead and a broad band from eye to eye passing round 
and encircling the throat pale yellowish-green ; front of the crown above the 
forehead and a broad streak passing over the eyes and ear-coverts pale green ; 
a very short moustachial streak cobalt ; crown of the head and nape golden- 
green ; back, rump, upper tail-coverts and scapulars deep green ; tail blue ; 
primaries and their coverts black, edged with blue ; secondaries black on the 
inner, blue on the outer webs, and edged with green ; tertiaries and inner- 
coverts green tinged with blue ; lesser coverts glistening smalt- blue ; medium 
and greater-coverts green, tinged with blue at the base, under plumage bright 
green, tinged with yellow on the breast (Oates). 

I have only seen one male of this species, and that in such bad condition 
that I give Oates' description. 

The female has no black on the head, these parts being bluish-green ; the 
moustachial streak is paler and less glistening, and the plumage generally is 
duller. 

Length '7"; tail 2-7"; wing 3-3"; tarsus -75"; bill from gape ■ 9" (Oates). 

I have only seen a single pair of these birds in North Cachar. They were shot 
at Gunjong, in January, 1891, feeding on a very high cotton tree. I know of 
nothing in their habits differing from those of the other members of the genus. 



THE BULB ULS OF NOR TH CA CI1A R. 15 

The male several times uttered a cry exactly like one of the lower notes of 
the large Racket-tailed Drongo-shrike, and for some moments I thought that 
it was one of these birds calling, nor did I find out my mistake, until I shot 
the bird which uttered it and saw that there were no others in the tree. 

Chloropsis jerdoni. 

Jerdon's Chloropsis. 

Phyllornis jerdoni, Jerdon's u B. of I.," Vol. II., p. 97 ; Hume's 
Cat., No. 463 ; Chloropsis jerdoni. Gates' " Fauna of B. I., Birds," 
Vol. L, p. 238 ; id., Hume's " Nests and Eggs/' Vol. I., p. 155 
(2nd Ed.). 

Description. — Male. — Whole visible plumage, with the exceptions noted 
below, bright grass-green, paler below and brightest on the head, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts ; shoulder-patch, formed by the lesser wing-coverts, bright 
smalt-blue, moustachial streak bright purplish-blue or ultramarine, chin and 
throat, lores, and over the moustache, black surrounded by yellowish, com- 
mencing from the forehead and continuing through the eyes downwards. 

The female has no black, and the moustachial streak is paler and inclined to 
greenish-blue. 

The young are wholly green. 

Nidification. — If I confine my notes on this subject to those nests taken 
in North Cachar, I can give practically no information beyond what is already 
known, for, most undoubtedly, the bird is not an inhabitant of these hills, and 
the few which have been seen are only the progeny of tame birds let loose. 

As far as I can ascertain, the original birds, some three or four, were brought 
up to Gunjong by some sepoys in, or about, the year 1883, and released when 
the sepoys left the stockade. The first bird I ever saw was shot by Mr. Hughes, 
of the Frontier Police, at Gunjong, and two more birds were obtained by me 
that same year. 

In 1886 I found a nest containing three eggs, and this is the only one I have 
actually taken in North Cachar itself. It was just like those described as 
belonging to 0. aurifrons, and was built in a smaU tree quite close to the cotton 
tree, on which the first bird was shot. 

The whole of my eggs, including the three found in Gunjong, average 
•91" X"60", but I have only had a very small series pass through my hands, and 
out of this series two pairs were abnormally large, the four eggs measuring 
between '1" and T06" in length and "68" and "7" in breadth. 

Deducting these four eggs, the remaining nine average only *86" X *58" 
even narrower than the dimensions given by Gates (vide "Nests and Eggs"). 



1G JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

A pair of eggs which I took in Nuddea has not been included in these 
measurements. 

In captivity this species also seems to be fed by natives principally on a 
vegetable diet, and it appears to thrive on this ; but I have noticed — it may be 
only fancy — that birds feci thus are duller in colour than those fed on a meat or 
insect diet. Such is certainly the case with G. hardwicMi, the blue parts being 
duller and the green the same, and, moreover, tinged with blue, much as is the 
case with caged green magpies (Gissa sinensis). The first bird of this species I 
ever saw in captivity belonged to one of my servants, and I have never seen one 
as tame since. As it was allowed to fly about without restraint, it naturally 
gave free vent to its appetite for insects, and thus retained its proper coloration ; 
but at the same time it by no means despised plantains, and when shut up, 
as it sometimes was, ate them freely. I was told by the servants that this 
bird caught and devoured wasps and bees, but could get none at the time to test 
the truth of the assertion, and shortly afterwards the bird died a violent death. 

This habit of catching wasps may have been copied from a tame Kacket-tailed 
Drongo (Dissemunis paradiseus) which shared with it its semi-imprisonment. 
It was remarkably noticeable how the small bulbul "bossed" its much larger 
companion who, had he wished, could have easily killed him. As a rule, they 
got on very well together, but the bulbul was very jealous and resented any 
attention being shown to the shrike. 

I am much afraid that this bird, like Myiopliomus temmincMi, has died out, 
for, since 1890, I have not seen a single bird, of course, amongst the many 
C. aurifrons that I am constantly seeing, it is quite possible that I may over- 
look one or two birds of tins species, and it is to be hoped that such may be 
the case. 



17 

LES FORMICIDES DE L'EMPIRE DES INDES ET DE 

CEYLAN. 

Par Auguste Forel, 

Professeur a 1' University de Zurich. 

Part III. 

2 me Genre Polyrachis, Shuck. 
Tableau des ouvrihres des especes de la faune de V Empire des Indes 

et de Ceylan. 

1. Yeux proeminents, perpendiculairement tronques a leur face inferieure- 

posterieure (comme la moitie d'un ceil). Hemioptica (Roger)... 2 
Yeux arrondis, de forme ordinaire „ 4 

2. Une fente verticale, profonde, etroite et sinueuse entre le mesonotum et le 

metanotum. Thorax convexe, sans epines, non borde. Glabre. 

Ecaille bidentee P. sciSSA (Roger). 

Thorax sans fente, ni echancrure, convexe, avec deux longues epines au 
pronotum. Poilues. Thorax borde. Ecaille bispineuse 3 

3. Luisante, faiblement chagrinee. Pubescence tres eparse. Metanotum 

inerme, borde P. aculeata (Mayr). 

Subopaque ou opaque ; rugueuse-striee ; abdomen densement coriace- 
ponctue. Une pubescence jaunatre formant toison. Metanotum 

bidente, borde entre ses deux faces. L : 5 Mill 

P. pubescens (Mayr). 

Angles superieurs, lateraux de l'ecaille prolonges en lobe large, 

bispineux, alif orme. L'epine anterieure est courte, dentiforme. 

var : alatisquamis, nov. var. 

4. Thorax fortement borde lateralement dans toute sa longueur; ses cotes 

verticaux 5 

Thorax non borde, ou bien le metanotum seul est distinctement borde ; 
pronotum nullement borde 17 

5. Thorax arme de quatre larges epines ; ceUes du pronotum sont les plus 

courtes. L'ecaille a deux longues epines qui embrassent l'abdomen 
et deux dents entre deux. Abdomen borde devant et a, ses angles 

anterieurs. Corps court et large. L : 4*5 a 5*3 Mill 

P. jerdooti (Forel). 
Thorax n'a que deux epines ou n'en a pas 6 

6. Pas d'epines au pronotum, qui n'a que deux angles plus ou moins arrondis 

ou deux dents 7 

Deux epines aigiies au pronotum. Pas d'epines au metanotum, tout au plus 
deux petites dents et en general une arete transversale entre elles.,.12 



18 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

7. Ecaille avec une epine impaire ou un cone au milieu 8 

Toutes les dents ou epines de Tecaille sont paires., 11 

8. Ecaille nodiforme, avec un cone median et deux angles lateralis. Prono- 

tum avec deux angles. Le metanotum a deux cornes deprimees, 
courb6es en dedans, formant ensemble un croissant (quart de lime) 

P. selene (Emery) 
Ecaille avec une longue epine mediane 9 

9. Ecaille squamiforme, quoique, epaisse, trispineuse. Les faces anterieure et 

posterieure de 1' epine mediane sont la simple continuation des faces 
anterieure et posterieure de 1'ecaille. Tete carree, a peine plus longue 
que large, a peine plus large derriere que devant. Metanotum avec 
deux fortes dents obtuses et verticales. Aretes frontales aussi 
rapprochdes derriere que devant, non divergentes. Dents de l'epistome 
plus ecartees que chez les P. fraamfeldi et tlirinax*. L : 6 Mill. 

D'un jaune roussatre P. saigonensis (Forel). 

Ecaille nodiforme, aussi epaisse que large, ou peu s'en faut, avec une surface 
superieure convexe, au milieu de laquelle l'epine mediane est implantee. 
Tete plus longue que large et bien plus large derriere que devant... 10 

10. L: 8 a 9'5 Mill. Aretes frontales comme chez la P. saigonensis. Tete 

et thorax mats, densement reticules-ponctues, sans rides. Dents du 
metanotum aussi courtes ou plus courtes que celles du pronotum. 
Dents laterales de l'ecaille longues et pointues. Noire ; extremite 
des funicules et des tarses d'un jaune bnm...P. fratjenfeldi (Mayr). 
L : Environ 8 Mill. Noire, avec le front, l'epistome les mandibules, 
l'extremite" des funicules et celle des tarses d'un brun roussatre. Tete 
et thorax rides. Metanotum avec deux epines tres courtes. Ecaille 

avec deux courtes epines laterales (d'apres Smith"}") 

P. textor (Smith). 

L : 4 a 5"5 Mill. Aretes frontales divergeant en arriere ou elles sont 

bien plus Ecartees que devant. Tete et thorax reticules et longitudi- 

nalement rides, mats ou subopaques, epines metanotales assez longues, 

subverticales. D'un brun plus ou moins chatain ou roussatre 

P. thbxnax (Roger). 
L : 5 a 5*5 Mill. D'un brun roussatre. Ecaille avec deux dents 
ou spinules laterales pointues race : P. thrinax id. sp. 

* La P. thrinax race : javana (Mayr) de Java a l'ecaille a peu pres conformee 
comme la P. saigonensis, mais les caracteres de la tete sont comme chez la P. thrinax. 

t C'est avec doute que je place cette espece Sous le chiffre 10, car je ne l'ai pas vue. 
Smith et Mayr ne disent pas si l'ecaille est nodiforme et ne parlent pas de la forme de 
la tete, les aretes frontales, &c. 



LES FORMICIDES DES INDES ET DE CEYLAN. 19 

L: 4 a 5 Mill. D'un brun chatain. Ecaille au moins aussi epaisse, 

sinon plus epaisse que large ,var : P. lanceaeius n. var, 

[L : 55 Mill. Ecaille plus mince, trispineuse, (e"pines subegales). 
Dents du pronotum plus fortes. Java, .race : P. JAVANA(Mayr).] 

11. Borcl superieur de l'ecaille faiblement convexe, porfcant au milieu deux 

dents pointues et a ses angles lateraux deux epines assez longues, 
droites, dirigees en haut et en dehors. Tete et thorax fortement 

rides en long, et r^ticules-ponctues. L : 6'4 a 7 Mill 

P. halidati (Emery). 

Bord superieur de 1'ecaille fort convexe, arme de deux longues epinea 
medianes tres rapprochees l'une de l'autre et a peu pres verticales, 
Les deux epines laterales sont situees plus bas que chez Yhaliclayi et 
sont en general un peu plus courtes que les medianes. Dents du meta- 
notum plus aplaties et plus horizontales. Tete et thorax reticules- 
ponctues, avec de fines rides longitudinales moins apparentes. L : 

5 a 7"3 Mill P. cltpeata (Mayr) [=indica (Mayr).] 

I L : 7'5 Mill. Tete et thorax regulierement et tres distinctement 
rides longitudinalement , race: P. easteata (Emery). 

Ecaille quadridentee. Dents du metanotum verticales. Subopaque, fine- 
ment pubescente (pruineuse). Yeux spheriques. Abdomen reticule- 
ponctue. Tete et thorax rides-ponctues. Noire. L : 5 Mill, 
(d'apres Eoger) P. punctillata (Roger). 

12. Tete plus large derriere que devant. Robuste. Grossierement striee- 

ridee. Ecaille avec quatre epines courtes, subegales. Nohe. Poilue. 
Eparsement pubescente. Aretes frontales divergentes. Thorax a 
bord biincise. L : 9 a 10 Mill P. STKIATO-eugosa (Mayr). 

Ecaille comme chez la prece'dente. L : 5*5 a 6 Mill. Pruineuse. Ridee- 
ponctuee. Une pubescence grisatre sur le corps, jaunatre sur l'abdo- 

men. Pilosite dressee presque nulle. Thorax fort convexe 

P. convexa (Roger). 

Ecaille armee en haut de deux longues epines verticales ou subverticales, 
de cote de deux dents ou petites epines beaucoup plus courtes. Tete 
aussi large ou plus large devant que derriere ..., 13 

13. Tete fortement retrecie en arriere, a partir des yeux, sans autre borcl 

posterieur que 1'articulation occipitale. La distance d'un ceil a Tangle 
post^rieur de la tete est aussi grande que celle d'un ceil a l'autre. 
Opaque, reticulee-ponctuee ; thorax et tete en outre stries. Noire. 
Pilosite noiratre. Faiblement pubescente. Thorax etroit, allonge, a 

peine plus large devant que derriere. L. 9 a 1 Mill 

P. steiata (Mayr). 



20 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Tete pas ou a peine retrecie derriere les yeux, avec un bord particulier, 
distinct, en avant de l'articulation occipitale. Yeux bien plus eloignes 
Tun de l'autre que des angles posterieurs de la tete. Plus robuste... 14 

14. Une pubescence plus ou moins grisatre, doree ou argentee, formant un 

duvet tres abondant et apparent, qui cache la sculpture, au rooins 

sur 1'abdomen 15 

Une pubescence courte, espacee, ne cachant pas la sculpture et ne formant 
pas de duvet apparent. Tete et thorax stries. Noire 16 

15. Aretes frontales tres rapprochees l'une de l'autre, a peine distantes comme 

^ ou ^ de leur longueur. Pronotum aussi large derriere que devant. 
Epines laterales de l'ecaille tres courtes et bimucronees. Pilosite 
Sparse. Pubescence plutot argentee ou faiblement doree. Taille un 

peu moins robuste que chez la P. mayri. L : 8 a 9 Mill , 

P. proxima (Roger). 
Aretes frontales distantes de la moitie de leur longueur environs. Prono- 
tum un peu elargi devant. Taille robuste et courte. Pubescence grise- 
doree, parfois plusgris atre ou un peu argentee. L : 7*5 a 9 Mill... 

P. mayri (Roger). 

Pilosite abondante sur le corps et sur les pattes. Pubescence 

dense et d'un gris dore. Aretes frontales tres distantes.. .race : 

P. mayri, id. sp. 

Pubescence grise et peu dense sur 1'abdomen... var : pauperata 

(Emery). 
Pilosite dressee tres eparse partout. Abdomen avec une pubes- 
cence grise ne formant qu'un assez faible duvet. Abdomen 
brun. Aretes frontales plus rapprochees que chez le type 

race : P. intermedia (Forel). 

Stature trapue et pubescence doree dense de la P. mayri, i. sp. 

Aretes frontales presque aussi rapprochees que chez la P. 

proximo,. Pilosite tres eparse, comme chez la P. intermedia... 

var : proximo-mayri, n. var. 

16. Epines me"dianes de Te'caille courbees en arriere pres de leur extr&nite et 

plus rapprochees l'une de l'autre a leurs bases que des epines later- 
ales. Pas de pilosite" dress6e, sauf quelques poils roussatres au deux 
extremites du corps. Pubescence jaunatre tres courte, formant sur 
1'abdomen un tres faible duvet pruineux. Abdomen subopaque, tres 
finement reticule". L : 8 a 9 Mill. Pas de dent m^diane entre les 

epines superieures de l'ecaille P. yeebueyi, n. sp. 

Epines methanes de l'ecaille droites, bien plus eloigners l'une de l'autre 
que des epines laterales. Pilosite" dressee abondante sur le corps, les 
pattes et les antennes. Abdomen mat, rid^-ponctue ou strie. 
Pubescence grise, plus Sparse que chez la precedents Une dent 
m£diane entre les epines superieures de l'ecaille. L : 9 a 12 Mill. 

P. SUMATEENSIS (Smith). 



LES FORMICIDES DES INDES ET DE CEYLAN. 21 

Epines superieures de l'ecaille de longueur mediocre ; dent 

mediane forte, spiniforme. Metanotum sans dents distinctes. 

Abdomen rideponctue ..., race : P. sumateensis, id. sp. 

Epines superieures de l'ecaille longues ; dent mediane tres faible 

et obtuse. Metanotum avec deux fortes dents verticales. 

Abdomen strie race : P. hamulata (Emery). 

17. Luisantes, lisses ou faiblement chagrinees. Thorax sans epines ou avec 

deux dents ou epines plus ou raoins caduques, greles des leur base, 

au metanotum seulement. Pas de pubescence ........18. 

Sculpture accentuee. Mates ou subopaques (sauf chez la P. Icevigata). 
Thorax epineux • 19. 

18. Pronotmn avec deux angles anterieurs aigus, dentiformes. Ecaille a 

peine quadriclent6e. Metanotum inerme. Noire ; pattes rougeatres, 

sauf les tarses. L : 5'5 a 6"2. Mill P. l^evissltoa (Smith). 

Abdomen et pattes d'un roux jaunatre. Antennes et devant de 

la tete rougeatres .var : dicheotjs (Forel). 

Pronotum avec ses angles anterieurs arrondis. Ecaille quadrispineuse 
(epines laterales courtes, epines medianes rapprochees). Noire ; pattes 
brunatres ou rougeatres. L : 5 a 6. Mill... P. eastellata (Latreille). 

Metanotum absolument inerme race : P. eastellata, id. sp. 

Metanotum arme de deux epines greles, plus ou moins caduques, 

aussi etroites a leur base que vers leur extremite 

race : P. l^vioe (Roger). 
Metanotum arme seulement de deux petites dents... var : debilis 

(Emery). 

19. Mesonotnm arme de deux fortes epines, recourbees en arriere 20 

Mesonotum inerme. Ecaille bispineuse 22 

20. Metanotum arme de deux fortes dents. Epines du pronotum fortement 

courbees en dehors. Ecaille surmontee d'un pilier d'ou partent deux 
longues epines medianes, d'abord verticales, paralleles et contigues, 
puis divergentes et recourbees en dehors en cornes de chamois a, leur 
sommet. Thorax, sauf les epines, base de l'ecaille, devant du premier 
segment abdominal d'un roux fonce ; le reste noiratre. Pubescence 

peu dense. L : 8 a 9 Mill P. bellicosa (Smith). 

Metanotum arme de deux tubercules dentiformes plus ou moins obtus, 
souvent peu distincts. Epines du pronotum longues, recourbees a la 
f ois en dehors et en arriere. TaiUe plus grande 21 

21. Ecaille comme chez la P. Mlicosa. D'un roux vif. Tete, antennes, 

tibias, tarses, articulations, extremite des epines et moitie posterieur 
de l'abdomen noiratres. Pubescence longue, abondante, jaunatre 

L : 9"5 a, 10 Mill , P. bibamata (Drury). 

Les epines de l'ecaille divergent des le sommet du pilier d'ou elles 
partent, comme les branches d'un Y. Abdomen tres large. Tubercules 



22 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

du metanotum presque nuls. Entierement noire, avec la base 
de l'ecaille, et parfois une partie du thorax, d'un roux brunatre. 
Pubescence plus grisatre que chez la P. Wiamata. L: 10 a 11 
Mill P. ypsilon (Emery). 

22. Lisse et luisante. Noire. Angles anterieurs du thorax aigus. Metano- 

tum avec deux longues epines divergentes, dirigees en arriere, ce qui 
la distingue de la P. lavior. Cuisses et hanches ferrugineuses. 
Ecaille avec deux longues epines embrassant l'abdomen. L : 5 a 6 

Mill (d'apres Smith) ., P. laevigata (Smith). 

Corps, en partie du moins, avec une sculpture bien distincte, mat ou 
subopaque . 23. 

23. Pronotum avec deux angles anterieurs aigus, subdentes. Deux epines 

au metanotum. Ecaille avec deux epines dirigees en arriere et 
embrassant l'abdomen. Sutures du thorax assez nettes. Subopaque ; 
tete et thorax finement reticules-ponctues. Abdomen reticule. 
Pilosite dressee nulle. Pubescence extremement courte et tres 
eparse. Noire, avec un reflet metallique bleuatre fonce, surtout 
apparent au metathorax. Funicules et pattes, sauf les metatarses, 

testaces. L : 4 a 47 Mill P. hippomanes (Smith). Eace : 

ceylonensis* (C. Emery). 
Pronotum arme de deux epines 24. 

24. Suture meso-metanotale distincte. Ecaille simplement bispineuse. 

Pilosite dressee a peu pres nulle. Metanotum ordinairementborde...25 

Suture meso-metanotale indistincte ou nulle. Souvent deux dents entre 

les epines de l'ecaille. Metanotum nullement borde 31 

25. D'un noix verdatre bronze. Metanotum borde. Beaucoup plus grele que 

la P. venus. Tete et thorax densement reticules-ponctues ; les 
points ou reticulations fines sont plus ou moins disposes par groupes 
de 5 ou 6, separes les uns des autres par une maille reticulaire unpeu 
plus elevee, souvent peu distincte. Abdomen subopaque, assez 
luisant, assez faiblement et tres finement ponctu«-ride transversale- 
ment. Tibias et scapes comprimes. L: 7 Mill... P. ^dipus, n. sp. 

D'un noir brunatre mat ; uniformement et densement reticulees-ponc- 
tuees. Abdomen parfois d'un brun roussatre. Tibias et scapes 
comprimes, ces derniers du raoms vers l'extremite 27 

D'un bleu fonce, metallique en tout ou en partie. Deux longues epines 
au pronotum. Subopaques ; abdomen luisant, finement chagrine. 

* Je dois a mon ami M. C. Emery la * connaissance des caracteres qui distinguent 
eette race de VMppomanes id. sp. C'est done sous son nom et avec sa signature que 
je publie la diagnose de ce tableau. — A, For el. 



LES F0RM1CIDES DES INDES ET DE CEYLAN. 23 

Face basale du me'tanotmn subbord.ee. Epistome echancree au milieude 
son bord anterieur. Scapes, cuisses, et tibias, comprimes. Depourvues 
de pilosite dresse'e et de pubescence. L : 8 a 9 Mill 26 

26. Tete retrecie fortement derriere les yeux. Epines du metanotum plus 

courtes que celles du pronotum, paralleles, dressees. Thorax etroit, 
allonge, finement rugueux transversalement, nullement convexe 
dessus. Ecaille avec deux longues epines, tres ecartees et tres diver- 
gentes, courbees en arriere. Tete, pro thorax et meso-thorax noirs... 

P. chalybea (Smith). 
Tete non retrecie derriere les yeux. Epines du metanotum extremement 
fortes et extremement longues, longues comme plus de deux fois 
l'intervalle de leurs bases, tres fortement divergentes, beaucoup plus 
longues que les epines pronotales, dirigees en arriere et en riant. 
Thorax plus robuste que chez la P. clmlybm. Pronotum et meso- 
notum un peu convexes. Ecaille comme chez la P. chalybea. Tete 
et thorax reticules- ponctues ou reticules, et subopaques ou faiblement 
luisants, sauf la face basale du metanotum qui est tres luisante et 
faiblement chagrinee. En outre une ponctuation eparse, assez 
effacee. D'un bleu metalhque fonce, uniforme. Partes et anterum 
d'un noir bleuatre ...P. venus, n. sp. 

27. Tete considerablement retrecie par lignes convergentes, presque droites, 

derriere les yeux, sans bord posterieur distinct de l'articulation occipi- 
tale ; l'extremite posterieure de la tete est aussi etroite que l'articu- 
lation occipitale. Antennes, partes, et palpes tres longs et tres 
■ greles. Les palpes et les scapes depassent en arriere la suture pro- 
mesonotale. Corps tres etroit. Chaque article du funicule renfle' a 
son extremite. Epines metanotales paralleles, de la longueur des 
epines pronotales et des Opines de l'e'caille; ces demieres, assez 
dresse'es et courbe'es en arriere. Me'tanotum nonborcle'. Tout le corps 
mat, dense'ment reticule-ponctue' et glabre ou peu s'en faut. L : 7, 

Mill P. mulleei, n. sp. 

Tete mediocrement retrecie par lignes, plus ou moins convexes, derriere les 
yeux, avec un bord posterieur plus ou moins distinct, ou indistinct, 
mais toujours plus long que l'articulation occipitale a son ex- 
tremite poste'rieure. Palpes et scapes n'atteignant oune depassant pas 
la suture pro-m6sonotale. Metanotum borde ou au moins subborde.,28 

28. Front et aretes frontales elev^s, proeminents. Pas de dent sous l'extre'mite 

anterieure du l er segment abdominal. Pubescence extraordinahement 
courte et diluee, presque nulle. 06tes de la tete faiblement convexes 
entre l'oeil et le bord posterieur. Corps relativement robuste ou 
mediocrement grele. Abdomen souvent d'un brim roussatre 29 



24 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

Front et aretes frontales pen eleves, peu proeminents. Une dent lamelli- 
forme sous l'extremite anterieure du l er segment abdominal. Une 
pubescence grisatre, fort distincte, qui rend l'abdomen un peu 
pmineux, sans former de duvet. Cotes de la tete derriere les yeux plus 
fortement convexes que chez 28. Corps grele, etroit, mais les antennes 

ne sont pas longues 30 

29. Ecaille epaisse mais non cubique, surmontee de deux fortes et longues 
epines divergentes, dirigees en haut, en arriere et en dehors, m6dio - 
crement courbees en arriere, plus longues que les epines du metanotum. 
Ces dernieres divergentes, legerement courbees en dehors, pas plus 
longues que celles du pronotum ; leur bord anterieur ne se continue 
pas a sa base en une arete bordant la face basale du metanotum. 
Cette derniere plane, faiblement subbordee. Tibias posterieurs et 
medians armes a leur bord interne de deux ou trois petits piquants 
tres courts et tres obliques. Stature relativement robuste, presque 
comme P. armata. L : 10 Mill P. achilles, n. sp. 

Ecaille cubique, avec un angle plus ou moins droit entre sa face anterieure 
et sa face supe'rieure qui s'eleve dans sa moitie posterieure en bourre- 
let, d'ou partent deux epines assez longues, dirigees en arriere, en 
dehors et un peu en haut, assez fortement courbees en arriere. Face 
basale du metanotum concave, en gouttiere longitudinale, bordee 
d'une arete qui se continue directement dans le bord anterieur des 
epines. Ces dernieres tres longues, droites, a peine divergentes, plus 
longues que celles du pronotum et de l'ecaille. Tibias sans trace de 

piquants. Stature moins robuste. L : 8 a 9 Mill 

P. ABDOMINALS (Smith) ; [= PHYLLOPHILA (Smith).] 
30. Vertex bas, faiblement convexe, de meme que le front. Tibias arme's 
de piquants distincts a leur bord interne. Nceud du pedicule plus 
long que large, avec les stigmates fort proeminents. Face basale du 
metanotum bordee et concave de droite a gauche. Epines du 
metanotum et de l'ecaille comme chez la P. abdominalis, mais les 
premieres encore plus longues, extremement longues, pointues et plus 
divergentes. Articles 1 a 4 du funicule tres distinctement e'paissis 
a leur extremite'. Tete a ^eine retrecie derriere les yeux. Pronotum 

un peu concave entre les d'''"x epines. L : 7*8 Mill 

P. mutata (Smith) ? race : ajax. n. st. 

Vertex plus fortement convexe. Tete fort distinctement retrecie derriere 
les yeux. Tibias sans trace de piquants. Noeud du pedicule un peu 
plus large que long, arme derriere de deux epines fort courtes, 
dirigees presque horizontalement en arriere et en dehors, courbees 



LES FORMICIDES DES INDES ET DE CEYLAN. 25 

de facon a embrasser uu peu l'abdomen. Me'tanotum comroe chez 
l'espece precedente, mais les aretes qui bordent la face basale sont 
plus faibles et les epines un peu plus courtes et plus divergentes. 
Articles 1 a 4 du firnicule a peine epaissis a leur extremite. 
Pronotum faiblement convexe entre les deux epines. Tres voisine de 
l'espece precedente, mais L : 5'5 Mill, et pubescence un peu plus 

accentue'e ...P. binghamii, n. sp. 

81. Pedicule comme chez la P. ypsilon, c. a. d. surmonte d'un pilier epais 
et eleve' qui porte deux longues e'pines, divergeant en Y, un peu 
inclinees en arriere et recourbees en dehors a 1' extremite, comme les 
comes d'un chamois. Tete large derriere, nullement retrecie derriere 
les yeux. Pronotum et me'sonotum fort convexes ; me'tanotum tres 
abaisse, surmonte de deux epines tres longues. Abdomen giobuleux, 
attenue' devant, en dessus. Tete et abdomen lisses et luisants. Thorax 
et pe'dicule tres grossierement reticule's-ponctue's. Tres poilues. 
None, avec les pattes, les funicules, et souvent l'abdomen d'un 
roux plus ou moins branatre. L : 5*3 a 5*6, Mill.... P. ftjecata 

(Smith). 
TeSte distinctement retrecie derriere les yeux. Epines du meta- 
notum plus courtes. Pilier du pedicule plus grele et plus bas, 
surmonte' de deux epines, abaissees, tres divergentes, dirigees 
en dehors et a peine en haut, courbees en arriere et embrassant 
plus ou moins l'abdomen ; les epines de l'ecaille ne sont re- 
courbees que tout pres de leur extremite" oil elles forment un 
petit crochet. Avant ce crochet tres attenue, elles sont com- 
primees et larges. D'un roux jaunatre testace. Tete (sans les 
mandibules) et extremite des Opines noiratres. Scapes bruns. 

L : 4*5 Mill race : P. gracilior, n. st. 

Pedicule sans pilier ; ses epines nullement recourbees a l'extremite 32 

32. Epines du metanotum longues, fortes, recourbees en dehors a leur extre- 
mite, en forme de comes de chamois. Tete sans tubercules. Epines 
de l'ecaille embrassant l'abdomen, deux dents verticales entre elles, 
au sommet de Tecaille. Une petisse doree sur l'abdomen et sous les 
me'tatarses. Presque pas de poils dresses. Noire, mate. L : 8. 

Mill ••••••^ P- eupicapea (Roger). 

Epines du me'tanotum recourbe'es jK dehors a leur extremite', mais plus 
faiblement, ne formant pasOe come de chamois aussi accentue. 
Deux gros tubercules proe'minents sur la tete, a l'occiput, un derriere 
chaque ceil. Ecaille comme chez la P. nvpicatpm. Abdomen 
presque subborde et un peu avance devant, en dessus. Me'sonotum 
presque plan de profil ; pronotum fortement convexe devant. Noire, 
mate, finement reticulce-ponctue'e ; thorax, tete et e'caille en outre 



26 JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. Vllt 

grossierement reticules. Pilosite presque nulle. Pubescence tres 

diluee. L : 6*8 a 7 Mill P. tubericeps, n. sp. 

Epiiies du metanotum non recourbees en cornes de chamois, tout au plus 
faiblement courbe'es en dehors vers leur extremite. Tete sans tuber- 
cules « 33 

33. Tete et thorax grossierement et profondement reticules-ponctue's ainsi 

que l'ecaille, finement ponctues au fond des mailles. Abdomen fine- 
ment et densement re'ticule-ponctue et mat. Pedicule sabcubique, 
bidente a ses angles anterieurs superieurs, surmonte derriere de deux 
longues et fortes epines divergentes, courbees en arriere. Epines 
du pronotum et du metanotum longues et robustes ; l'espace qui 
separe leur bases un peu concave d'une epine a 1' autre. Epistome 
bidente devant. Presque glabre. Mate ; noire ; abdomen souvenb 

d'un brun roussatre. L : 8 a 10 Mill P. armata (Le Guillon). 

Abdomen d'un roux clair. Pattes, antennes, thorax et pedicule 

bruns. L : 7 Mill : seulement.... var : minor (Forel). 

Tete et thorax avec de grossieres reticulations qui sont faibles, plus ou 
moins effacees ; du reste finement et densement reticules-ponctues et 
mats comme 1'abdomen. Pronotum fort convexe devant. Epines du 
thorax assez courtes, surtout celles du pronotum. Celles du meta- 
notum divergentes, courbees on dehors, Ecaille et abdomen comme 
chez la P. tubericeps, mais les epines, et surtout les dents superienres 
de l'ecaille, sont plus courtes. Noire, mate ; pubescence tres courte 

et extremement diluee ; pilosite presque nulle. L : 4: - 8 a 5" 8 Mill 

P. simplex (Mayr). 

[=SP1NIGERA (Mayr)J. 

Eeticulations de la tete et du thorax presque entierement effacees. 

L : 4a 4'5 Mill var : obsoleta, n. var. 

I/a tete, le thorax et 1'abdomen n'ont guere qu'une sculpture fine. 
Poilues on pubescentes 34 

34. Les epines de l'ecaille n'embrassent pas 1'abdomen ; elles sont divergentes, 

dirigees en haut et pas ou a peine courbees en arriere. L'intervalle 
de leurs bases n'a pas de dents. Epines du metanotum paraUeles, un 
peu courbees en dedans. Pilosite dressed assez abondante sur le 
corps et sur les pattes. Pubescence jaunatre, assez abondante, assez 
grossiere et contournee, laissant voir la sculpture dans ses intervalles. 
Epines mediocres. Noire ; abdomen, pattes, antennes et mandibules 

d'un rouge branatre. L : 6 a 6*5 Mill P. bicolor (Smith). 

Les epines de l'ecaille sont abaissees en arriere, divergentes, courbees en 
dedans et embrassent la base de 1'abdomen. L'intervalle de leurs 



LES FORMICIDES DES INDES ET DE CEYLAN. 2? 

bases a deux petites dents. Pilosite" dressee presque nnlle. Pubes- 
cence serree, formant un duvet argente ou dore 35 

05. Epines du pronotum assez greles ; epines du metanotum a peine plus 
longues qu'elles, assez dressees, divergentes et courbees en dehors 
pres de leur extremity. Une impression transversals entre le pro- 
notum et le mesonotum. L'ecaille a trois dents entre la base de ses 
epines ; l'une d'elles est mMiane et situee devant les deux autres. 
Les tibias ont a, leur bord interne quelques petits piquants. Pubes- 
cence d'un gris dore. Epistome avec un lobe anteriem. Quelques 
ragosites plus grossieres sur la tete et le thorax. L : 4*5 a, 7 Mill... 

P. dives (Smith). 
Epines du pronotum robustes. Epines du m6tanotum bien plus longues 
qu'elles, tres divergentes, bien moins dressees, robustes, pas ou a peine 
courbees en dehors. Epines de l'ecaille plus longues ; seulement 
deux dents dans rintervalle de leurs bases. Stature bien plus robuste. 
Thorax plus large, bien plus convexe, sans impression transversale 
Tibias sans trace de piquants , 3Q 

36. Cotes du mesothorax renfles. Noire, avec une pubescence d'un dore 

pale. Epines de l'ecaille plutot greles. Noire. Eperons testaces. 

L : 4*5 a 5 Mill, (d'apres Smith) « P. afftnis (Smith) 

[=vici]srA (Roger)} 

Cotes du mesonotum non renfles Pattes rougeatres. Epines de 1 ecaille 

robustes. L : 5 a 6 Mill 37 

37. Le pronotum et le mesonotum forment une bosse tres proeminente. Tout 

le corps convert d'une pubescence argente'e tres dense. Robuste 

P. argentea (Mayr). 
Le thorax est moins fortement convexe et Test uniformement, d'avant en 
arriere. Taille moins robuste. Pubescence moins dense, laissant voir 
la sculpture sur la tete et le thorax, d'un grisatre moins argente, 
souvent en partie d'un dore" pale sur l'abdomen. Tres voisine de la 
precedente ; peut-etre simple race P. tibialis (Smith). 

LlSTE DES PoLYBAGSIS DE l'InDE AVEC DESCRIPTION DES ESPE'CES 
NOUVELLES, SYNONYMIE ET GEOGKAPHIE. 

l r P. scissa (Roger). 
Hemioptica scissa (Roger). 
Ceylon (Major Yerbury, Roger). 

$ : — L : 5'7 a 6"2 Mill. Entierement noir. Ailes brunes. "Valvules 
genitales jaunatres, avec l'extremite' de leurs prolongements d'un brun noiratre. 
Assez finement chagrine et assez luisant. Yeux allonges, assez comprimes 
dans le sens transversal, mais non tronques derriere. 



28 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

2. P. aculeata (Mayr). 

Ceylon (Major Yerbury) $ $ $ ; Kanara (E. H. Aitken) $ ; Travancore 
(H. Ferguson) $ . 

$ : — L : 6*5 Mill, Cornme l'ouvriere, mais les cuisses et les femurs sont 
noirs et les ailes teintees de brunatre. Pronotum avec deux courtes Opines. 
L'ecaille a, au lieu d'epines, a ses angles superieurs deux prolongements lamelli- 
formes, comprimes, bitubercules a I'extremite\ La pubescence grise est aussi 
plus abondante sur le devant de la tete et sur le thorax, C'est peut-etre une 
vari6t6. 

$ : — L : 5"8 Mill. Tete plus courte que chez la P. scissa. Yeux arrondis 
non comprimes ni tronqu^s, Tete et thorax r&icules-ponctues et subopaques, 
Ecaille en noeud arrondi, 

3. P. pulescms (Mayr). 
Birmanie et Tenasserim (Fea). 

var: alatisquamis, n, var, 
Birmanie (Major Bingham) (voir tableau). 

4. P.jerdonii (Forel). 

Ceylon (Major Yerbury) £ 9 (voir Forel : Die Wester der Ameisen, 
Zurich, 1892, et le tableau ci-dessus). 

$ : — L : 5'7 a 6 Mill. Ailes teinte'es de brun. Nervures et tache 
rnarginale foncees. Large, trapue ; thorax deprime en dessus. Epines du 
thorax un peu plus courtes que chez l'ouvriere a laquelle elle est du reste 
identique. Le thorax est subborde. 

5. P. selene (Emery), 

Tenasserim (Fea). 

6. P. saigonensis (Forel), 
P, thrinax var : saigonensis (Forel), 

Saigon (par M, L. Lortet). 

7. P. fraumfeldi (Mayr). 
Ceylon (ma collection). 

8. P. textvr (Smith). 
Malacca (d'apres Smith). 

9. P. thrinax (Roger). 
Ceylon (Major Yerbury) ; Calcutta (G. A. J. Eothney) ; Travancore 
(H. Ferguson) ; Kanara (T. E. D. Bell). 

$ : — L: 6"8 a 7*5 Mill. Ailes jaunatres ou d'un jaune brunatre, a nervures 
pales. Le pronotum n'a que deux angles obtus. Epines du metanotum plus 
courtes que chez l'ouvriere. Ecaille moins epaisse, moins cubique, avec l'epine 
mediane plus courte et les epines laterales plus longues que chez $ , ces 
dernieres presque aussi longues que l'epine mediane. Du reste comme 2 . 



LES FORMICIDES DES INDES ET DE CEYLAN. 29 

£: — L: 5*7 a 6 Mill. Brunatre, varie de brun jaunatre; funicules pins 
fonces. Chagrine, assez luisant. Pedicule avec un noeud plus ou rnoins dis- 
tiuctement bitubercule ou tritubercule au sommet. 

var : lancearius n. var. (voir tableau) $ 9 • 
Trevandruni (H. Ferguson) ; Kanara (E. H. Aitken). 

10. P. halidayi (Emery). 
Tenasseriin (Fea). 

1.1. P. clypeata (Mayr). 
PolyracMs inclica (Mayr) (d'apres Emery in litt): 
Camponotus indicus (Forel). 
Thana District (F. Gleadow) ; Kanara (T. Bell); Pooree, Bengale (Tull 
Walsh) ; Orissa (Jas. Taylor) ; Travancore (Ferguson) ; Ceylon (Mayr). 
race : P. rastrata (Emery). 
PolyracMs rastrata (Emery). 
Tenasserim (Fea). 

12. P. pimctiUata (Eoger). 
Ceylon (d'apres Eoger). 

13. P. striato-rugosa (Mayr). 
Birmanie (d'apres Mayr). 

Id. P. convexa (Roger). 
Ceylon (d'apres Eoger). 

15. P. striata (Mayr). 
Singapore (Dr. Arthur Miiller). 

16. P. proxima (Eoger). 

Birmanie (Major Bingham et Fea) ; Singapore (Dr. A. Miiller). 

17. P. mayri (Eoger). 
PolyracMs relucens (Mayr) ; nee Latreille. 

Ceylon (d'apres Eoger et Major Yerbury) ; Kanara (E. H. Aitken) ; Siam 
Frontier (Major Fulton) ; Birmanie (Major ■ Bingham) ; Tenasserim (Fea) ; 
Darjeeling, pres de Sikkim (Christie) ; Travancore (H. S. Ferguson), 
var : pauperata (Emery). 
Tenasserim (Fea). 

race : P. intermedia (Forel). 
Sibsagar, Assam (Wood-Mason). 

var : proximo-mayri n. var. (voir tableau). 
Birinanie (Major Bingham). 

18. P. yerluryi n. sp. 
Ceylon (Major Yerbury). 

^ : — Mandibules striees, mates, avec quelques points et 5 dents. Epistome 
sans carene, avec un lobe anterieur arrondi et convexe, non e'ehancre'. Dessous 



30 JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

de la tete borde d'tine arete laterale faible. Front convexe et assez preeminent. 
Aretes frontales plutot rapprochees. Scapes cylindriques. Tete plus longue 
que large, a cotes convexes. Epines du pronotum fortes et assez divergentes. 
Pronotum et mesonotum plus larges que longs (chacun) ; face basale du 
metanotum un peu plus longue que large, a peine plus large devant que derriere, 
terminee derriere par une arete transversale et par deux dents verticales tres 
accentuees et comprimees dans le sens antero-posterieur. Thorax biincise, 
borde d'une arete vive un peu moins prolongee que chez la P. sumatrensis. 
Ecaille epaisse a sa base et aniincie vers le haut. Epines laterales de l'ecaille 
plus fortes que chez la P. sumatrensis et surtout que chez la race P. hamulata. 

Tete et thorax stries en long (stries-rides sur les cotes du thorax et le devant 
de la tete), finement rugueux entre les stries, ce qui les rend mats ou soyeux. 
Pedicule rugueux ; abdomen densement et tres finement reticule. Sur la tete 
et sur le thorax la pubescence est plus jaune (moins grise) que sur 1'abdomen. 
Entierement noire, avec les palpes et le dernier article des tarses roussatres. 
Pas de reflet m^tallique distinct (voir du reste le tableau). Stature bien moins 
robuste que chez la P. pruinosa. 

$ : — L : 10 Mill. Ailes brunatres avec les nervures et le pterostigma 

fonces. Absolument semblable a $ ; Opines aussi longues que chez elle et 

disposees de meme. Tres voisine de la P. pruinosa (Mayr) de Borneo dont 

elle differe par la forme du metanotum et de l'ecaille. 

19. P. sumatrensis (Smith). 

race : P. hamulata (Emery). 

Birmanie (Major Bingham) ; Tenasserim (Fea) ; Sibsagar, Assam (Wood- 
Mason). 

La race sumatrensis id. sp. ne se trouve qu'a Sumatra. 

20. P. Icevissima (Smith). 
Polyrachis glohularia (Mayr). 
Barrackpore (Eothney, Minchin) ; Birmanie (Major Bingham et Fea) ; Orissa 
(Jas. Taylor) ; Calcutta (Wood-Mason) ; Bangkok (Sigg). 

var : dichrous (Forel). 
Sibsagar, Assam (Wood-Mason). 

21. P. rastellata (Latreille). 
Polyrachis busiris (Smith). 
Polyrachis euryalus (Smith). 
Ceylon (Major Yerbury) ; Kanara (E. H. Aitken et T. Bell) ; Birmanie 
(Major Bingham) ; South Konkan (R. C. Wroughton). 
22. P. Mlicosa (Smith). 
Singapore (Dr. A. Midler), 



LES FORMICIDES DES INDES ET DE CEYLAN. 31 

23. P. Uhamata (Drury). 
Formica affinis (Le Guillon ; nee Smith). 
Birmanie (Major Bingham) ; Tavoy (Wood-Mason) ; Tenasserim (Fea). 

24. P. ypsilon (Emery). 
Ceylon (Tristschler) ; Malacca (recue du Dr. Emery). 

25. P. Icevigata (Smith). 
Malacca (d'apres Smith). 

26. P. hippomanes (Smith). 
Bace : P. ceylonensis (Emery). 
M. Emery publiera plus tard le diagnostic de cette race qui cliff ere de la vraie 
P. hippomanes de Celebes. 

27. P. chahjbea (Smith). 
Singapore (d'apres Smith). 

28. P. venus n. sp. 

Ataran Valley, Birmanie (Major Bingham). 

$ : — Tete an moins aussi large derriere que devant. Thorax plus large 
devant que derriere (aussi large devant que derriere chez la P. chalybea.) Les 
mandibules sont tres finement strie'es et eparsement ponctue'es. Bord ante'rieur 
de l'e'pistome avec une impression mediane. Epistome sublobe devant. Une 
marche d'escalier assez distincte du me'sonotmn a la face basale du me'tanotum. 
Stature plus robuste que celle de la P. dbdominalis (phyllophila), presque aussi 
robuste que celle de la P. armata. Tout le corps est d'un magnifique bleu 
fonce, metallique, rappellant celui des especes bleues des coleopteres du genre 
Meloe. La teinte du thorax et de la tete the un peu sur le verdatre, tandis que 
le bleu de l'abdomen est pur (voir du reste le tableau). 

Mes amis les Prof. G-. Mayr et C. Emery m'ont indique les differences qui 
existent entre la P. venus et la P. chakjbea en la comparant a leurs types, ce 
dont j'ai a les remercier ici. 

29. P. cvdipus n. sp. 

Ceylon (Major Yerbury). 

$ : — L : 7 Mill. Longueur d'un scape 2'G, d'un tibia posterieur 3'3 Mill. 
Mandibules armees de 6 dents, finement striees, avec une ponctuation espacee. 
Epistome avec une faible carene et un lobe anterieur trape'ziforme, tres com-t, 
h bord anterieur rectiligne et subcrenele. Aretes frontales fort rapprochees. 
Front preeminent. Tete assez arrondie derriere, d'un ceil a l'autre ; cot^s de 
la tete a peine convexes devant les yeux. Dessous de la tete sans aretes laterales. 
Thorax long et etroit, sans convexite dorsale, sauf le pronotum qui est 
legerement convexe ; pronotum et mesonotmn chacun beaucoup plus long 
que large. Pronotum nullement subbord^ ; mesonotum fortcment subborde. 



32 JO UBNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOB Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Face basale du metanotum If fois plus tongue que large. Le dos du thorax 
est a peine convexe d'avant en arriere. L'ecaille est conformee tout a fait 
comme chez la P. abdominalis (voir le tableau), aussi epaisse que large, mais 
ses epines sont plus abaissdes et embrassent un peu 1'abdomen. Pubescence 
d'un jaune grisatre, courte, assez eparse partout, plus abondante sur l'abdonien 
ou elle forme un leger duvet grisatre. L'abdomen a encore une ponctuation 
espacee tres fine. 

Tout le corps, les pattes et les antennes d'un verdatre bronze, tres fonce, 
en partie noiratre, ayant souvent des reflets d'un rouge cuivre (voir du reste le 
tableau). 

80. P. mulleri n. sp. - 
Singapore (recoltee par le Dr. Arthur Miiller auquel je la declie). 
£ : — L : 7 Mill. Longueur d'un scape 3*2, d'un tibia posterieur 3*9 Mill. 
Epistome fortement carene ; du reste l'epistome, aretes frontales et mandibulea 
conformes comme chez YJEdipus. Front beaucoup plus preeminent et vertex 
beaucoup moms convexe que chez la precedente. Thorax encore plus etroit et 
plus allonge que chez V^Jdipus mais sans apparence de bordure nulle part. Une 
legere echancrure entre le pronotum et le mesonotum, ce qui clonne au dos du 
thorax deux covexites tres faibles. Le mesonotum est deux fois aussi long que 
large, la face basale du metanotum 2J fois aussi tongue que large. Epines 
metanotales legerement courbees en dedans (comme chez la P. bicolor), assez 
greles comme celles du pronotum. Ecaille haute, conique, avec deux epines 
divergentes. Pubescence extremement eparse. Scapes elargis et deprimes vers 
rextremite seulement. Noire ; abdomen en partie d'un rouge femigineax fonce 
(voir du reste le tableau). 

31. P. achilles n. sp. 
Birmanie (Major Bingham). 

A part sa taille plus robuste, la forme de Tecaille, la face basale du metano- 
tum non bordee et ne continuant pas ses bords dans l'epme, enfin a part les 
petits piquants des tibias, cette espece est identique a Yabdomimlis (pliyttopkila~) 
dont elle n'est peut etre qu'une race locale (voir le tableau). 
32. P. abdominalis (Smith). 
Polyraclus phyllophila (Smith). 
Tenasserim (Fea). 

33. P. mutata (Smith) ? 
Race : P. ajax n. st. 
Birmanie (Major Bingham). 

^ : — L : 7*8 Mill. Longueur d'un scape 2"6, d'un tibia posterieur 4*1 Mill. 
Mandibules finement et densement strides, armees de 5 dents distinctcs. Epis- 



LES FORMICIDEB DES INDES ET DE CEYLAN. 33 

tome a peine subcarene, brievenient lobe devant, largemenfc et faiblement 
echancre au milieu de son bord anterieur. Thorax allonge, £troit, sans con- 
vexite dorsale c. a. d : le mesonotum est concave d'avant en arriere, ce qui donne 
une faible convexite a la region de la suture pro-mesonotale, Pronotum et 
mesonotum chacun un peu plus long que large ; face basale du metanotum deux 
fois aussi Iongue que large. Mesonotum fortement subborde, pronotum nulle- 
ment. Epines du pronotum longues et divergentes. Abdomen ovale. Noire. 
Abdomen d'un noir branatre. Tibias tres comprimes (voir du reste le tableau). 
Est-ce bien une race de la P. mutata (Smith) ? La description de Smith ne 
suffit pas pom le prouver, mais cela me parait probable. Smith en disant 
" entirely destitute of hair" aura neglige la pubescence, comme il le fait souvent 
quand elle est faible. La couleur ne Concorde qu'a moitie et les tibias ne sont 
pas " without spines." Du reste la figure de Smith ne convient pas mal a 
notre type. 

34. P. UngMmii, n. sp. 
Birmanie (Major Bingham). 

9 : — L : 5*5 Mill. Longueur d'un scape 2*1, d'un tibia posterieur 2*5 
Mill. Epistome sans apparence de carene, avec un lobe court, trapeziforme, 
nullement echancre a son bord anteriem'. Antennes faiblement mais visible- 
ment renflees vers l'extremite. Mesonotum legerement concave. Tibias moins 
deprimes que chez la precedente. Voir du reste le tableau qui indique les 
autres caracteres qui distinguent cette espece de la precedente. 

La P. UngMmii est du reste extremement voisine de la P. mutata race : 
ajax, mais les caracteres indiques (antennes, forme de la tete, ecailles/piquants, 
tibias, dimensions, &c.) sont assez importants pour que je croie qu'il faille Ten 
separer specifiquement. 

35. P. furcata (Smith). 

Sibsagar, Assam (Wood-Mason) ; Birmanie (Major Bingham) ; Tenasserim 
(Fea). • 

Les exemplaires de ces diverses provenances ont l'abdomen noir, tandis que 
le type de Smith (Bhmame) l'avait d'un roux testace. 

Bace : P. gracilior n. st. (voh* le' tableau). 

Trevandrum (H. Ferguson) ; Sibsagar, Assam (Wood-Mason). 

36. P. rupicapra (Roger). 
Ceylon (d'apres Eoger). 

37. P. tubericeps, n. sp. 
Barrackpore et Benares (Rothney). 

$ : — L : 6*8 a 7 Mill. Voisine de la P. rupicapra et de la P. spinig&ra, 
dont elle se distingue cependant du premier coup par le tubercule proeminent 
situe" de chaque cote de la tete, un peu en dessus de Tangle posterieur. Epis- 
tome subcarene, avec un lobe court et etroit, subbidente. Sculpture grossiere 
beaucoup plus forte que chez la P. simplex. Tibias cylindriques, sans petits 

5 



34 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

piquants. Les deux dents, entre les epines de l'ecaille, sont tres pointues. 
Epines metanotales fort distantes a leur base. La fine sculpture reticulee- 
ponctuee est tres dense. Couleur absolument noire partout. Un peu plus 
robuste que la P. simplex. 

38. P. armata (Le Guillou). 
Polyrachis pandams (Smith). 
Polyrachis defensus (Smith). 
Birmanie (Major Bingham et Fea) ; Sibsagar, Assam (Wood-Mason), 
Myingyan, Birmanie inferieure (E. Y. Watson). 

var : minor (Forel). 
Sibsagar, Assam (Wood-Mason). 

39. P. simplex (Mayr). 
Polyrachis spinigera (Mayr). 
Poona District (R. Wroughton) ; Calcutta et Barrackpore (Rothney) ; 
Mussoorie, N.-W. P. (Rothney) ; Thana District (F. G-leadow) ; Siwaliks, 
N .W. P. (H. M. Phipson) ; Birmanie (Major Bingham) ; Trincomali, Cey- 
lon (Major Yerbury) ; Myingyan, Birmanie inferieure (E. Y. Watson). 
Certainement l'espece la plus commune du genre en Inde. 
9 : — L : 7 Mill. Ailes subhyalines, faiblement teintees de jannatre. 
Le pronotum n'a que deux dents triangulaires fort petites. Mesonotum et 
scutellum avec une grossiere ponctuation espacee, en partie un peu eff acee, 
outre la dense ponctuation reticmaire. Sur la tete, le metathorax et le pro- 
thorax, de grossieres ponctuations divisent la fine ponctuation reticmaire en 
groupes. Du reste comme 5 • 

Yar : dbsoleta n. var. 
Poona (R. Wroughton). 

40. P. Hcolor (Smith). 
Barrackpore (Rothney) ; Birmanie (Major Bingham). 

41. P. dives (Smith). 
Pegu Hills, Birmanie (Major Bingham) ; Tounghoo, Birmanie (E. Y. Wat- 
son) ; Ceylon (Major Yerbury) ; Bangkok (Sigg) ; Hongkong (Dr. Ris) ; 
Singapore (d'apres Smith). 

42. P. affinis ( Smith ; nee Le Guillou). 
PolyracMs vicina (Roger). 
Birmanie (d'apres Smith). 

43. P. argmtea (Mayr). 
Kanara (E. H. Aitken). 

Yariete k thorax un peu moins convexe et a stature un peu moins robuste 
que les types de Manille que je dois a 1'obHgeance de mon ami le Prof. Emery. 

$ : — L : 6" 5 Mill. Comme 5 ,mais les epines plus courtes. Ailes bnmatres, 
a nervures bien marquees. 



LES FORMICIDES DES INDES ET DE CEYLAN. 35 

$ : — L : 5 a 5 # 5 Mill. Pubescence plus grisatre et moins dense, n'ayant 
qu'un faible reflet argente. Ecaille arrondie, ayant a peine deux angles lateralis 
arrondis. D'un noir en parfcie un peu brunatre. Pattes d'un bran jaunatre. 
Pas trace d'epines. Metanotum arrondi. Mandibules sans dents. Epistome 
subcarene. Tete aussi large que longue. 

44. P. tibialis (Smith). 

Barrackpore, pres Calcutta (Minchin) 9 ; Birmanie (Major Bingham). 

M. E. H. Aitken et M. Bell ont recolte a Kanara des exemplaifes qu'il est 
difficile a rapporter a la tibialis ou a Yargentea, car ils forment assez le passage, 
de sorte que je pense qu'on en viendra a considerer 1' argentea comme race de la 
tibialis. 

Dans le tableau j'ai ete oblige de ne tenir compte que des especes qui me 
paraissaient assez nettement decrites pour pouvoir etre determiners. II reste 
plusieurs especes de l'lnde et de Ceylon qui sont hidechiffrables, ainsi que 
d'autres dont la $ seule est decrite, ce qui ne permet pas de fixer leur identite, 
ni leur position dans la systematique. Voici la liste de ce reste dont on ne sait 
que faire : — 

45. P. hastata (Latreille). 
Indes orientales. 

S'agit-il do l'lnde continentale ? C'est peu probable, car o'est a Celebes qu'on 
a retrouve plus tard cette espece. 

46. P. relucens (Latreille). 

Ne se trouve probablement pas sur le continent Indien, ni a Ceylan. 

47. P. sexspinosa (Latreille). 
Ne se trouve probablement pas sur le continent Indien, ni a Ceylan. 

48. P. nidiftcans (Jerdon). 
Indechiffrable. 

IndechiiTrable. 
$ Seule decrite. 
Insuffisament decrite. 
9 Seule decrite, 
Insuffisament decrite. 
9 Seule decrite. 
Indechiffrable. 
9 Seule decrite. 



4-9. P. syMcola (Jerdon). 
50. P. tacteipennis (Smith). 
51. P. hector (Smith). 

52. P. piliventris (Smith). 

53. P.flavicornis (Smith). 
54. P. modesta (Smith). 

55. P. carbonaria (Smith). 
56. P. nigra (Mayr). 



36 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

57. P. acasta (Smith). 
D'apres Ford, Indian Ants, Part II. Je doute maintenant d'avoir eu la 
veritable P. acasta sous les yeux. Je n'ai plus l'exemplaire de Sibsagar sur 
lequel j'ai fait cette determination mais je soupconne qu'il s'agissait de la 
P. tibialis. 



Les determinations provisoires dont M. Wroughton s'est servi dans son travail 
" Our Ants " doivent subir quelques modifications. 

La P. Icevior race : debilis de ce travail est la P. rastellata. 

La P. chalybea est la P. vmus. 

Une partie des P. argmtea (Barrackpore) sont la P. tibialis. 

La P. indica est synonyme de clypeata. 

La P. sumatrensis est la race : P. hamulata (Emery). 

La P. sp. (40) est la P. tubericeps. 

La P. spinigera (Mayr). Se trouve etre synonyme de la P. simplex (Mayr). 
Les $ recoltees par M. "Wroughton m'ont amene a etablir cette synonymic 
KIDS DES POLYEACHIS. 

Dans un travail recent sur les nids des fourrois (Die nester der Ameisen, 
Zurich, 1892, Neujahrsblatt der Naturf : Gesellsch) : j'ai parle des differentes 
manieres dont les fourmis font leurs nids. Dans " Our Ants" M. Wroughton 
a decrit divers nids de fourmis des Indes. II a eu l'obligeance de m'en envoyer 
un grand nombre. 

Le nid des Polyrachis est unique en sont genre, et se distingue de celui de tous 
les autres genres de fourmis, en ce qu' il n'a qu'une seule cavite, tapissee de 
soie, comme le nid d'une arraignee. 

J'ai ete frappe du fait que ces nids presentent evidemment des faits 
de mimetisme qui servent a les rendre caches. lis simulent souvent la 
couleur des feuilles en partie seches (P. argmtea) ou l'aspect d'une feuille tordue 
par les galles d'autres insectes (P. scissd). Dans le nid de la P. argentea 
que je viens de recevoir de M. Wroughton, on peut bien observer comment 
les fourmis tapissent la feuille de soie pure, tandis qu'elles recouvrent la partie 
libre du nid de debris vegetaux grisatres, fixes a la surface exterieure des 
tissus, de facon a domier a cette portion du nid, qui ferme l'aperture de la 
feuille a demi ouverte, l'aspect grisatre de la portion dessechee d'une feuille en 
partie morte. L'ouverture par laquelle sortent les fourmis est situee a une place 
cachee, la ou le tissus de soie touche la feuille. 

Un nid de P. rastellata etait situe entre deux feuilles et ainsi entierement 
cache. 

Les Polyrachis ne paraissent pas tous fane des nids de soie filee ; c'est sm- 
tout le fait des groupes armata et amnion. La P. mayri fait un nid en carton 
qui rappelle celui des Dolichoderus et des Cremastogaster, et dont les materiaux 
sont unis par une substance gluante, non filee, mais evidement secretee, comme 
la soie, par les glandes rnandibulaires des fourmis. 



The illustrations for this paper (Plates E y L ani 31) will be issued in a 
subsequent number of the Journal, as soon as they arrive from England. The paper 
is published at once at the special request of the author.— .2^. • 



37 

ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN BUTTERFLIES 

FROM NORTH-EAST SUMATRA 
COLLECTED BY HOFRATH De. L. MARTIN.* 

By Lionel de Nice'ville, F. E. S., C. M. Z. S., &c. 
( With Plates K, L, and M.) 

All the butterflies described below were obtained by Hofrath 
Dr. L. Martin in North-East Sumatra, the rarer ones almost entirely 
from the little-known Battak Mountains. Dr. Martin has already 
enriched my collection with 265 species from Sumatra, and has sent me 
a list giving the names of 324 species contained in his own collection. 
All of these were collected within a comparatively small radius, so that 
it may probably be safely assumed that when the whole island is 
explored and thoroughly collected over, it will be found that fully 600 
species inhabit it, of which perhaps 50 may be endemic. The only 
papers of which I am aware written solely on the butterflies of Sumatra 
are by Heer P. C. T. Snellen, and are as follows : — 

I. " Tijdschrift voor Entomologie," vol. xx, p. 65 (1877), enu- 
merating 35 species. 
II. " Tijdschrift voor Entomologie," vol. xxxiii, p. 215 (1890), 
enumerating 48 species. 
III. ''Midden-Sumatra, Lepidoptera " (1892), enumerating 104 
species. 

Family NYMPHALID^. 

Subfamily Danainje. 

1. DANAIS (Caduga) TYTIOIDES, n. sp., PL K, Figs. 1, $ • 2, $ . 

Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 

Expanse : $, 3*2 to 3'5 ; $ , 4'0 inches. 

Description : Male. Uppeeside, forewing black, with the following pale 
bluish hyaline markings :— the posterior half of the discoidal cell bearing 
anteriorly and outwardly a fine black line ; two small oval costal spots divided 
by the second subcostal nervule ; followed by a very short and narrow streak in 
the subcostal interspace ; then another streak twice as broad and three times as 
long as the one above it in the upper discoidal interspace ; an oval spot in the 
lower discoidal interspace ; two nearly equal-sized spots in the upper median 
interspace, the outer spot rectangular, the inner triangular ; two similar spots in 
the lower median interspace, except that the inner spot of the two is twice as 
large as the outer one ; a very large streak occupies nearly the whole of the 

* A short preliminary description of the new species described in this paper ap- 
peared in vol. vii, page 555, of this Journal, 



38 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BISTORT SOCIETY, Vol. tilt 

submedian interspace from its base to one^f ourth from the margin ; a narrow 
streak in the sutural area from the base reaching to one-fourth from the outer 
margin ; a curved submarginal series of seven rounded spots ; a few obscure 
marginal dots towards the anal angle. Hindwing With the outer third 
castaneous darkening to the margin, the rest of the wing pale hyaline bluish ; 
the discoidal cell bears outwardly two narrow castaneous streaks ; two small 
subapical round bluish spots divided by the second subcostal nervule ; the usual 
secondary sexual characters of the subgenus at the anal angle. Underside, 
forewing marked as above, but the black ground-colour at the apex and outer 
margin tinted with dull castaneous. Hindwing as above, but the outer margin 
bears an anterior decreasing submarginal series of small round spots, and an 
incomplete (not reaching the apex) marginal series of dots. Female, differs from 
the male only in its much broader wings, the outer margin of the forewing 
slightly, instead of deeply, emarginate, the hindwing has the outer margin 
rounder, less obliquely cut off, and the castaneous colouring much redder ; 
the male secondary characters, of course, are absent. 

Allied to, but quite distinct from, D. tytia, Gray, which occurs throughout 
the Himalayas, Assam, Burma, with a slight variety in the Malay Peninsula. 
Differs therefrom in its much smaller size, conspicuously narrower wings, the 
male has the outer margin of the forewing much more deeply excavated, the 
hindwing with the outer margin nearly straight instead of rounded, greatly cut 
off obliquely ; in both sexes the forewing has the hyaline portion of the cell 
less than half as wide, the streak in the subcostal interspace very small and 
narrow ; the hindwing in the male deep dull castaneous instead of ferruginous. 

Of the D. tytia group of the subgenus Gaduga there are at present known, 
besides that species, D. niplionica, Moore, from Japan and doubtfully from 
Askold, North Formosa, and Chekiang, North China*; and D. looclwoana, 
Moore, from the Loo Choo Islands. The occurrence of a fourth species so far 
south as Sumatra is very interesting. 

D. tytioides is admirably mimicked by Hestina Carolina, Snellen, an insular 
modified race of the continental Indian Hestina noma, Doubleday. 

Described from three males and three females, which show but slight indivi- 
dual differences. 

2. EUPLCEA {Narmada) MARTINII, n. sp., PI. K, Pigs. 3, $ ; 4, 9 . 
Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 
Expanse : $, 3*9 to 4*1 ; 9 , 4'1 inches. 



* This species is entirely ignored by Mr. J. H. Leech in his " Butterflies from China, 
Japan, and Corea ;" he considers that the species occurring in those regions is B. tytia, 
and records it from " China common, is found all over Japan, and has been recorded 
by Oberthur from the Isle of Askold." 



NEW NORTH-EASTERN SUMATRA BUTTERFLIES. 39 

Description : Male. TTpperside, both wings very deep and rich velvety 
dead black. Forming with a minute costal white dot placed between the 
first and second subcostal nervules ; four subapical spots — the uppermost small 
and oval placed between the fourth and fifth subcostal nervules, the second and 
third much larger and oval placed in the subcostal and upper discoidal inter- 
spaces, the fourth equal in size to the first placed in the lower discoidal 
interspace. In two specimens there is a fifth smallest spot on the costa placed 
between the third and fourth subcostal nervules. This series of spots is placed 
obliquely outwards and appears to run into and coalesce with the marginal series 
at the eighth spot (counting from the apex),which latter series consists of fourteen 
small spots, decreasing in size from the inner angle to the apex, placed in pairs 
hi the interspaces ; the two sexual brands as usual in the submedian interspace — 
the upper short and narrow, the lower broad and twice as long as the upper. 
Eindwing with the costal area broadly whitish, followed by a broad pale 
castaneous area reaching to the middle of the discoidal cell, the abdominal area 
fuscous, all the rest of the wing deep black as in the f orewing ; a marginal series 
of thirteen rounded spots, with an inner series of seven spots from the second 
subcostal nervule to the submedian nervure. In two specimens these two series 
of spots, instead of being quite distinct and well separated, completely coalesce 
and form short streaks. Underside, both wings olivaceous-fuscous, the marginal 
series of spots as on the upperside. Forewing with an additional small spot 
at the lower outer end of the discoidal cell, two on the costa making a complete 
series one in each interspace divided by the subcostal nervules, and two in 
each median interspace ; the inner margin broadly s hinin g fuscous. Eindwing 
with two additional spots to the inner marginal series placed anteriorly, and a dot 
in the second median interspace just beyond the end of the cell. Cilia of both 
wings alternately black and white in equal proportions. Fe tvtat/r . Upperside 
both wings very much paler than in the male, black, but not of a deep, rich, 
velvety shade. Forewing with three costal spots in a cluster ; a complete 
submarginal series of eight spots ; two smaU spots in the median interspaces ; 
the marginal series of spots as in the forewing, but rather larger. Eindwing 
with the two marginal series of spots almost entirely coalesced into streaks ; only 
anteriorly are they free. Underside, both wings coloured as in the male. 
Forming as on the upperside, but the two spots in each of the median inter- 
spaces larger ; the inner margin broadly white ; a short white streak in the 
submedian interspace. Eindiving as on the upperside, but with an additional 
spot at the outer end of the cell, and a complete series of five beyond the 
cell — one in each interspace. 

I know of no species with which this can be compared. The beautiful deep 
velvety black of the male on the upperside is only matched, as far as I know, 



40 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

by the same sex of. E. (Anadard) gamelia, Hiibner, from Java. The coalescing 
of the submarginal with the marginal series of spots on the forewing in the male 
is, I believe, quite a unique character. 

Described from four males and two females in my own collection ; several 
others of both sexes are in that of Hofrath Dr. L. Martin, after whom I have 
great pleasure in naming the species as a slight tribute to his entomological 
knowledge, zeal, and enterprise in sending natives into the mountains of 
Sumatra to collect in spots inaccessible to Europeans. 

Subfamily Satyrinje. 

3. LETHE DAKENA, Felder, PL K, Fig. 7, $. 

Delis darena, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep., vol. iii, p. 498, n. 862, pi. lxviii, 
figs. 4, 5, female (1866). 

Habitat : Java (Felder) ; Sumatra, 

Expanse : $, 2*8 to 3'1 inches. 

Description : Male. Uppeeside, forewing black, but the basal three- 
fourths overlaid with long haix-like rich ferruginous scales ; an orange-coloured 
spot on the costa beyond the end of the discoidal cell ; a round whitish spot at 
the apex ; five marginal rich ferruginous spots one in each interspace from the 
lower discoidal nervule to the inner margin, the series of spots gradually, but 
regularly, approaching the outer margin of the wing — the posterior spot on the 
margin at the anal angle, the anterior spot well removed from it. Eindwing 
with the base fuscous, but so heavily overlaid with long ferruginous setae as to 
almost entirely hide the ground-colour, the outer half of the wing rich 
ferruginous free of long hairs ; a submarginal series of five almost blind round 
black ocelli, the uppermost ocellus much the largest, the middle one quite small 
in one specimen, but in two other specimens the three posterior spots are equal- 
sized ; the second spot anteriorly second also in point of size ; two submarginal 
closely approximated dark brown lines. Underside, loth wings richly variegat- 
ed, the ground-colour purplish-brown. Forewing with a broad rich deep brown 
bar across the discoidal cell at about its middle ; a still broader bar beyond ; 
a chevron-shaped mark across the submedian interspace at the point where 
the first median nervule originates, with its angle outwards ; a broad discal 
irregular band immediately beyond the outer end of the cell, commencing on the 
costa, ending in the middle of the submedian interspace ; a narrower, decreasing, 
pale purplish-white band placed outwardly against the first band ; followed by 
a large rich deep brown triangular area, its base on the costa, its apex in the 
first median interspace ; two whitish apical spots ; posterior to which in the 
discoidal interspaces are two perfect ocelli, the upper twice as large as the lower ; 
two submarginal rich deep brown lines ending posteriorly about the first median 
nervule, the inner line lunulated, the outer straight ; the submedian interspace 



NEW NORTH-EASTERN SUMATRA BUTTERFLIES. 41 

outwardly beyond the chevron mark rich chrome-yellow, this colour outwardly 
extending into the interspace on either side of the submedian one. Hindwing 
with a broad discal rich deep brown band crossing the middle of the cell, widest 
on the costa, dislocated and slightly shifted outwardly posterior to the cell, 
fading away to nothing in the submedian interspace ; a broad outer discal 
irregular similar band, anteriorly it curves round the large anterior ocellus and 
throws out inwardly a spur placed on the lower disco-cellular nervule, ending 
posteriorly on the submedian nervine ; a snbmarginal series of six perfect ocelli, 
the anterior one much the largest, the fifth the next largest, the second, fourth 
and sixth the next in size and equal-sized, the third the smallest, the sixth 
bipupilled ; two submarginal lines — the inner one broad and deep red, the outer 
narrow and deep brown ; cilia pale yellow inwardly defined by a fine dark 
thread. Antenna with the shaft red, the club black with a red tip. 

Described from three male examples obtained in the Battak Mountains. The 
species was originally described from a female example. It is the most beauti- 
ful species of the genus known to me, and is probably very rare, as out of some 
thousands of Javan butterflies I have received, I have not found L. darena 
amongst them. 

Subfamily Nympbalin^. 

4. TERINOS TEOS, n. sp., PL K, Figs. 5, $ ; 6, 9 . 

Habitat : Sumatra. 

Expanse : $, 2'85 ; 9, 2-90 inches. 

Description : Male. XJppeeside, both wings rich shining purple, all the 
veins more or less narrowly defined with reddish-ochreous. Forming with the 
usual velvety-black shining sexual patch occupying half the surface, commenc- 
ing on the inner margin at less than half the length of the margin from the base 
and reaching the anal angle, reaching to the lower discoidal nervule, and extend- 
ing on the disc along the first median nervule and submedian nervine, but never 
quite touching the discoidal cell ; a similar black streak extends broadly along 
both sides of the upper discoidal nervule. Hindwing with a large velvety-black 
shining sexual patch at the apex, ending abruptly at the second subcostal ner- 
vule ; the outer margin rather, and the abdominal margin very, broadly fuscous. 
Cilia of the hindwing reddish-ochreous, of the forewing posteriorly reddish- 
ochreous, anteriorly black. Underside, both wings castaneous, crossed by 
numerous more or less zigzag shining pale purple lines. Forewing with a 
round white subapical spot. Hindwing with a discal series of five oval deep 
castaneous spots, one in each interspace from the submedian to the upper sub- 
costal, except the discoidal which lacks a spot, the middle spot the smallest. 
Female. Upperside, both wings fuscous. Foreiving with the basal area 
extending just beyond the disco-cellular nervules rich shining purple ; a broad 
discal somewhat obscure dark fuscous fascia outwardly touched with the purple 

G 



42 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

colour ; a submarginal narrow waved similar fascia, the outer margin, especially 
at the apex, broadly dark fuscous. Hindwing with the base and a large discal 
area rich shining purple, the latter area inwardly bounded by the false termina- 
tion to the discoidal cell, anteriorly by the second subcostal nervule, posteriorly 
by the first median nervule, outwardly not reaching the margin ; a waved, 
rather broad, submarginal line. Underside, both wings as in the male, but 
the ground-colour and the shining pale purple lines all paler. 

Nearest to T. robertsia, Butler, from the Malay Peninsula, from which it 
differs conspicuously hi both sexes in lacking the two white (sometimes tinted 
with ochreous) spots on the upperside of the hindwing near the outer margin in 
the upper median and discoidal interspaces ; and on the underside of the hind- 
wing in having the marginal narrow slightly waved line, and the subrnarginal 
liighly waved broad line, pale purple throughout, in T. robertsia they are white. 

Mi-. A. E. Wallace describes a " Local form A " of T. rotertsia from 
Sumatra* thus : — " Browner [than T. robertsia'}, with the blue portions more 
violet, and the white posterior spots replaced by rufous." In T. teos these spots 
are barely traceable. " The [lower] disco-cellular [nervule of the forewing] 
meets the median nervure at the origin of the second median nervule." In the 
four specimens of T. teos and eight of T. robertsia before me as I write, I find 
that the lower disco-cellular nervule of the forewing, though varying a hundred 
per cent, in position, always meets the median nervure well before the origin of 
the second median nervule, which agrees with Mr. Wallace's remarks on the 
neuration of the latter species, and would appear to separate his Local form Ik 
and my T. teos from it. It is interesting to note that T. atlita, Fahricius, and 
T. teos, de Niceville, differ precisely in the same way, i.e., in the absence of the 
white spots on the upperside of the hindwing, these spots being present in their 
Malay Peninsula correlatives, T. teuthras, Hewitson, and T. robertsia, Butler. 

Described from three male specimens in my own and one female in the collec- 
tion of Dr. L. Martin. 

5. ATHYMA ASSA, n. sp., PI. K, Fig. 8, $. 

Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 

Expanse : $ , 2*3 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, both wings black. Forewing with the 
following milky-white markings : — a very narrow streak in the discoidal cell 
extending beyond it but for a very short distance ; three narrow subapical spots, 
the middle one the largest ; a large oval spot in the first median interspace, a 
quadrate one below it filling the interspace and indented at both sides, a small 
elongated spot on the sutural area, these three spots outwardly marked with 
pale blue ; a discontinuous submarginal whitish line, broken in the upper 

* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 342. Heer P. C. T. Snellen also records T. ro- 
lertsii (sic) from Sumatra in Tijd. voor Ent., vol. xxsiii, p. 218 (1889-90). 



NEW NORTH-EASTERN SUMATRA BUTTERFLIES. 43 

median interspace, being there curved inwards towards the base of the 
wing ; a very indistinct pale marginal line, Hindwing with a broad, out- 
wardly-blue-edged, discal white band, commencing broadly at the costal 
nervine, increasing in width to the submedian nervine, where it terminates ; a 
prominent but narrow subinarginal band, divided into spots by the veins, 
gradually increasing in width from the costa to the submedian nervure, where 
it ends ; a pale indistinct marginal line. Underside, both wings reddish- 
brown, all the white markings more prominent than above, and tinted with 
shining bluish. Forewing has the three subapical spots joined to the submar- 
ginal line ; an oval black spot in the submedian interspace, placed internally at 
the base of the first median nervule ; a diffused blackish spot in the same 
interspace between the large discal white spot and the submarginal line. 
Hindwing with an additional curved basal white streak, placed anterior to the 
costal nervure; the abdominal margin broadly metallic greenish. Cilia of 
both wings black, bearing a white dot in the middle of each interspace. Abdo- 
men at the base above with a broad bluish-white band. 

Nearest to A. nivifera, Butler, from Nepal and Assam (sic, Butter), the Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, Mas, and Borneo. Differs from Straits and Sumatran 
specimens in having the discoidal streak of the forewing narrower and much 
shorter, the three subapical spots half as wide, the two posterior of the discal 
spots narrower, thereby all combining to make the black ground- colour of the 
wing of considerably greater extent. In the hindwing the discal band is broader, 
and instead of ending anteriorly in a small round spot, it is continued uninter- 
ruptedly and widely to the costal nervine. The first subcostal nervule of the 
hindwing on the upperside is black not prominently snow-white as it is in 
A. nivifera. On the underside of both wings the ground-colour is reddish-brown 
or castaneous, not hair-brown ; in the forewing the discoidal streak is longer 
and quite undivided ; there are no black streaks placed on the ground-colour 
between the veins, on the hindwing the discal band is wider, especially so at 
each end, and the series of rounded blackish spots between the discal and sub- 
marginal bands in A. assa is larger, more diffused, and deep castaneous instead 
of blackish. I have not seen A. nejte, Cramer, from Java, but that species is 
probably distinct from A. assa to judge from Mr. Moore's figures of it in Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, p. 13, n. 7, pi. 1, fig. 5, male and jemale. A. reta, 
Moore, from Sumatra, is another closely allied species, but differs apparently 
from A. assa in the forewing in having the terminal spot well separated from 
the rest of the discoidal streak, in the presence of an additional spot in the 
second median interspace, and in the hindwing in having the discal band 
widest on the costa, narrowest on the abdominal margin, while in A, assa the 
reverse is the case. 

Described from two male specimens in my collection. 



44 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 



Genus EUTHALIA, Hiibner ; subgenus ISTOKA, nov. 

Differs from the subgenus Felderia, Semper, in the forewing being 
shorter, the apex acute, not truncate, the outer margin slightly, instead of 
strongly, excavated below the apex, the inner margin straight, not outwardly 
bowed, all the siibcostal nervules free, instead of the first anastomosing with the 
costal nervure. Hestdwing very triangular, the anal angle forming the apex of 
the triangle, instead of almost quadrate ; a patch of sinning glandular black 
scales at the base of the costa occupying the base of the subcostal interspace, 
anteriorly bounded by the costal nervure, posteriorly by the second subcostal 
nervule, the " male mark" being almost similar to that in Felderia, but is not 
perhaps quite so dense or conspicuous. Female. Forewing shaped much as 
in the male, the apex not quite so acute ; the first subcostal nervule anastomosing 
with the costal nervure as in both sexes of Felderia. Hindwtng broad, 
quadrate, shaped as in Felderia. Type, the " Adolias " Tcesava, Moore. 




Euthalia {Nora) kesava, Moore. 



NEW NORTH-EASTERN SUMATRA BUTTERFLIES. 45 

This subgenus will comprise the following species : — 

Euthdlia {Nora) Teesava, Moore. "j 

discispilota, Moore. > Probably one species. 

rangoonmsis, Swinhoe. ) 

ramada, Moore. 

decorata, Butler. 

bipunctata, Vollenhoven. 

salia, Moore. 

erana, de Mceville. 

(?) lavema, Butler. 

lavemalis, de Mceville. 

All these species I possess, except E. laverna and E. lavemalis. There are 
probably other described species which should also be included in the list 
which I have not seen. The subgenus is a very compact and natural one, all 
the species being closely allied. 

I give below a key to the subgenera which I would admit in the genus 
Euthalia. To my mind there is something peculiar and distinctive in all EutJialias, 
As far as is known, their transformations are similar, and in the field they have 
the same habits. They have a bold flight, settle with wings both closed and 
open, the former more especially when alarmed. They are particularly partial 
to the juices of over-ripe fruit. I deprecate as much the splitting up this genus 
into numerous genera as I do those of Banais, Eivplma, Lethe, Mycalesis, Neptis, 
CMraxes, Papilio, and others. At the same time, for classificatory purposes, it is 
most convenient to institute subgenera for the various groups into which the 
above-named and other large genera can be divided. If these subgenera be 
raised to the rank of genera, at once all connection between them appears to be 
lost, a Doplila becomes as good a genus as an Eutlialia, this being very far from 
the case, while Dophla, Euthalia and, say, Charaxes are aU genera of equal rank, 
which misrepresents the facts, as Charaxes is entirely distinct from the other 
two, which latter are closely allied. 

Key to the subgenera included' in the genus Euthalia. 

A. Forewing with the discoidal cell closed. 

a. Forewing, apex much produced. 

1. DOPHLA, Moore, type E. evelina, Stoll. 

b. Forewing, apex not produced, the outer margin slightly concave. 

2, LEXIAS, Boisduval, type E. ceropus, Linnaeus. 

B. Forewing with the discoidal cell open. 

a. Male, hindwing, upperside with a glandular patch of black scales below 
the costa. 



4Q JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

a 1. Male, forewing, apex produced, truncate, the outer margin deeply 
excavated, first subcostal nervule anastomosed with the costal 
nervure ; hindwing quadrate. 

3. FELDERIA, Semper, type E. phlegethon, Semper. 

b 1. Male, forewing, apex not produced, acute, the outer margin not 
deeply excavated, first subcostal nervule free from the costal 
nervure ; hindwing triangular. 

4. NORA, de Niceville, type E. kesava, Moore. 
b. Male, hindwing, upperside with no " male-mark." 

a 1. Palpi with third joint not slenderly produced, bristle-like. 
a 2. Hindwing triangular, anal angle produced. 

5. EUTHALIA, Hiibner, type E. lubentina, Cramer. 

Aconthea, Horsfield, type E. primaria, Horsfield, ==£7. aconthea, 

Cramer. 
Adolias, Boisduval, type E, aconthea, Cramer. 
Itanus, Doubleday, type E. phemius, Doubleday and Hewitson. 
b 2. Hindwing quadrate, anal angle rounded, not produced. 

6. SYMPHiEDRA, Hiibner, type E. thyelia, Fabricius,=.E. nais, 

Forster. 
b 1. Palpi with third joint slenderly produced, bristle-like. 

7. TANAECIA, Butler, type E. pulasara, Moore. 

6. EUTHALIA {Nora) ERANA, n. sp., PI. L, Figs. 1, $ ; 2, ? . 

Habitat : Sumatra. 

Expanse : $, 2*3 ; $, 27 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, doth wings dark brown. Forewing 
with the usual black linear markings in and below the discoidal cell ; a whitish 
brown-sullied discal lunular band, consisting of six portions, the two upper- 
most the widest, the third subequal to the fifth, the fourth rather smaller than 
the first and second, the sixth duplicated ; this band bears outwardly a fine 
highly lanceolate white line, itself outwardly narrowly defined with black ; the 
outer margin towards the anal angle paler than the rest of the wing. Hindwing 
with the usual black markings in the cell ; a broad discal white band from 
the costa where it is widest to the submedian nervure, bearing a prominent 
highly lanceolate narrow black line, which anteriorly divides the band almost 
equally, but posteriorly approaches the outer border of the band ; the outer 
margin broadly from the anal angle, but decreasingly towards the apex of the 
wing, blue, the posterior interspace green ; the three apical interspaces margi- 
nally of the colour of the ground ; the abdominal margin greenish-white. 
Underside, doth wings rich ochreous, with the usual basal black markings. 
Forewing with the discal band of the upperside but bluish-white, prominently 
outwardly defined with black. Hindwing with an even discal bluish-white 



NEW NORTH-EASTERN SUMATRA BUTTERFLIES. 47 

band, outwardly defined with the lunulated blackish line of the upperside ; 
the abdominal margin tinted with bronzy-greenish. Female. Upperside, 
loth wings much paler than in the male, dull ochreous-brown ; with the discal 
whitish band much as in the male, but with no outer blue band on the hind- 
wing. Underside, loth wings almost precisely like the male, except that the 
outer margins are tinted with opalescent-whitish. 

Nearest to E. salia, Moore, from Java,* from which E. erana differs in the 
male on the upperside of the forewing in the discal band not being " margined 
outwardly with dull blue," and on the hindwing in having the lanceolate black 
line much more deeply zigzagged, the discal white band twice as broad. The 
female differs on the upperside of the hindwing in having the discal white band 
much less prominent, sullied with brownish instead of pure white, and con- 
siderably narrower. 

The species figured as E. lavema by Butler in his "Lepidoptera Exotica," 
p. 174, pi. lx, fig. 5, male (1874), from Borneo, appears to be another closely 
allied species, differing at a glance from E. erana, however, in the discal band of 
the hindwing on the upperside in the male being blue instead of white, and with 
no blue region beyond. It is very close to E. decorata, Butler, but, as figured* 
has the discal band of the forewing on the upperside anteriorly composed of a 
double series of pure white highly angled lunales, while in E. decorata the band 
throughout is sulked with fuscous. As Mr. Butler has elected to consider the 
female of his E. laverna from Penang and Malacca as the type of his species 
(both sexes of which are described and figured by Mr. Distant in his 
" Rhopalocera Malayana"), I propose to name the male figured by Mr. Butler, 
Euthalia lavernalis, as it is at present unnamed. 

E. erana is described from a single pah* of specimens in my collection. 

7. EUTHALIA (Tanaecia ?) ELONE, n. sp., PI. L, Fig. 3, $. 

Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 

Expanse: $, 2' 7 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, loth wings dark hair-brown or fuscous. 
Foreiving with the usual linear black markings in and beneath the discoidal 
cell ; a discal very obscure pale band, to be seen only in some lights, broad on 
the costa, rapidly dimhnshing in width to the third median nervule ; the 
anal angle bearing three increasing metallic green spots divided from the 
margin by a fine line of the ground-colour and from each other by the veins. 

* Heer P. C. T. Snellen in Tijd. voor Ent., vol. xxxiii, p. 217 (1890), records 
" A&olias'' 1 salia from Sumatra, but the species here described was apparently not 
recognized by him as a species distinct from E. salia. 



48 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Hindwing with the usual linear black markings in the cell ; a discal series of 
six small obscure black spots, followed by a broad submarginal pure white band 
crossed by the black veins, decreasing in width at either end, bounded anteriorly 
and posteriorly by a narrow metallic green line, both lines increasing in width 
towards the abdominal margin where they meet in a point, the anterior line 
through four interspaces divided from the broad submarginal white band by 
narrow lunules of the ground-colour ; abdommal margin broadly pale fuscous. 
Cilia of both wings very narrow, white. Underside, forewing reddish- brown ; 
the discoidal black markings very prominent ; a discal irregular lunulated black 
band ; a slightly curved submarginal series of six increasing round black spots ; 
the apex and outer margin decreasingly pale violet. Hindwing pale violet, the 
outer margin fuscous ; the white submarginal band as above, inwardly boimded 
by a series of round black spots between the veins, the innermost spots linear, 
recurved to the abdominal margin ; followed by a series of four linear black 
spots from the third median nervule to the submeclian nervure; then an 
angulate series of eight spots extending right across the disc of the wing, the 
discoidal cell aud the base marked with numerous black spots. 

Nearest to Tanaecia nicevillei, Distant, from Perak, the type and two males 
of which I am able to compare with T. elone, differing conspicuously on the 
upperside of the forewing in having a very small metallic green area at the 
anal angle instead of a large blue area, and on the hindwing in having a large 
submarginal pure white band defined on both sides by metallic green, and not 
reaching the outer margin, not bearing a series of black spots at its middle, 
instead of a much broader blue band extending right up to the outer margin. 
On the underside of the hindwing the black macular markings are very well 
marked and prominent, much more so than in T. nicevillei, and the white band 
is again a conspicuous differential character. E. zicliri, Butler, from Sarawak 
(Borneo) and Malacca, appears to be another allied but quite distinct species. 

Can the genus Tanaecia be retained as a full genus ? As at present under- 
stood it contains a very heterogeneous collection of euthaliad butterflies ; but, as 
Mr. Doherty has pointed out,* the one character by which I once thought it 
could be separated from Euthalia, viz., by the anastomosis of the first subcostal 
nervule with the costal nervure of the forewing, has been shown by him to be 
utterly inconstant, even in the same species, and there appears to be, therefore, 
no other generic character left, unless the slender bristle-like terminal joint to 
the palpi be considered of sufficient generic significance, but, as far as my col- 
lection goes, only T. pidasara, Moore, which is the type of Tenaecia, T. aruna, 
Feidcr, and T. martigena, Weymer, possess this feature, all the other so-called 

* Jour. A. S. B., vol. lviii, pt. 2, p. 121 (1889). 



NEW NORTH-EASTERN SUMATRA BUTTERFLIES. 49 

Tanaecias, including T. nicevillei and T. elone, have the palpi normal and as in 

typical Euthalia. At best Tanaecia can, I think, only be retained as a subgenus. 

E. el/me is described from a single specimen in Dr. L. Martin's collection. 

8. CYBESTIS (Ghersonesia) CYANEE, n. sp., PI. L, Figs. 6, $ ; 7, 9 . 

Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 

Expanse : <£, $, 1"65 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, loth wings rich deep orange. Fore- 
wing with a short black basal line ; two subbasal lines filled in with fuscous ; 
the disco-cellular nervules enclosed by two exceedingly fine lines, the space 
between them of the ground-colour, these two lines themselves enclosed in two 
other lines filled hi with fuscous ; a broad discal single line ; a pair of sub- 
marginal lines enclosing two short lines, the anterior of these placed between 
the discoiclal nervules, the posterior between the second median nervule and 
the submedian nervure ; a marginal line — all these black fines almost 
straight, and reaching from the costa to the inner margin. Hindwing with no 
basal line ; the two following pairs of lines as in the forewing, but the outer 
pah, instead of enclosing two fine disco-cellular lines, has a single line on its 
inner edge ; the discal and submarginal lines as in the forewing, but the latter 
] air enclosing a continuous broad black line, ending at the anal angle in two 
detached spots ; a marginal diffused line, and a very fine anteciliary line. 
Underside, loth wings as above, all the black markings very prominent, the 
two basal pahs of lines not filled in with fuscous, the ground-colour a trifle paler 
perhaps than on the upperside. Female, much as in the male, but the wings 
broader, the ground-colour very much paler, all the black markings less intense. 

Nearest to G. risa, Doubleday and Hewitson, which occurs from Kumaon 
to Assam, in Burma, and again in Java, but not in the Malay Peninsula ; 
differs therefrom in the male in its darker ground-colour, the two basal pahs 
of lines on the upperside being filled in with fuscous, the discal single fine 
being much broader, and especially in the absence of all violet markings hi the 
space enclosed by the submarginal pah of lines, this being a very conspicuous 
feature in G. risa. In the hindwing of C. cyanee these purple markings are 
replaced by a broad black line ; also in G. risa there is always a more or less 
conspicuous series of pale yellow triangular markings in both wings, but more 
especially in the hindwing, placed internally to the inner of the two submar- 
ginal lines, which is quite absent in G. cyanee. 

Described from a single pair in my collection. 

Family LEMONIIDiE. 

Subfamily NEMEOBiiNiE. 

9. ABISARA AITA, n. sp., PL L, Fig. 10, $. 
Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 
Expanse;. $, 2*1 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, loth wings dull hair-brown. Forewing 
with two pale, almost straight, discal bands, extending from the costa to the 



50 JO URNAL, BOMBA Y NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII 

inner angle, rather far apart on the costa, close together posteriorly, the inner 
band twice as wide as the outer ; a short obscure fine marginal white line 
at the inner angle. Hindiving outwardly becoming pale brown ; the outer 
third of the wing pure white, but apically and anally of the brown ground- 
colour ; a small white spot at the apex, then two large jet-black spots divided 
by, and bounded anteriorily and posteriorly by, the rich ochreous terniina- 
tions of the second subcostal, discoidal, and third median nervules, the anterior 
black spot surrounded on three sides by a white Ene, the posterior spot 
marked anteriorly and posteriorly by a white line ; a rather large triangular 
brown spot at the base of the tail ; a very small brown spot ha the first 
median interspace ; a duplicated jet-black spot divided only by the fold in the 
submedian interspace ; a narrow black line at the anal angle along the margin, 
with similar, but still narrower, decreasing black lines in the three anterior 
interspaces ; a very narrow marginal black line ; tail white. Cilia of the 
forewing brown, of the hindwing pure white. Underside, both wings with 
the ground-colour much paler than above, hoary at the base, Forewing with 
the discal lines more prominent than on the upperside, pure white ; the fine 
white fine at the inner angle more prominent. Hindwing marked much as 
above, but the outer white area is seen to bear inwardly an almost continuous 
brown line, it being broken only in the median interspaces, where it is 
represented by two brown spots, and is recurved to the abdominal margin 
above the anal angle. 

In the ground-colour of the upperside, A. aita resembles A. neophron, 
Hewitson, but the two whitish bands of the forewing ally it more nearly to 
A. savitri, Felder, which also occurs in Sumatra. A. aita is abundantly 
distinct from all its allies by the presence of the large outer white area on both 
sides of the hindwing. 

Described from two examples hi my collection. 

Family LYCiENID^. 

10. YASODA PITANE, n. sp., PI. L, Fig. 5,£. 

Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 

Expanse : $, 1-35 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, doth wings rich orange-yellow. Fore- 
wing with a very broad deep black outer border with its inner edge evenly 
ciuved, the border broadest at the apex, nearly three millimeters broad at the 
inner angle ; a minute black dot in the second median interspace ; the base of 
the wing powdered with dusky. Hindwing with more than the outer half of 
the wing deep black, this black area commencing very narrowly on the costa, 
then broadly on the outer margin as far as the discoidal nervule, when it is 
continued across the wing to the abdominal margin parallel with the costa ; the 



NEW NORTH-EASTERN S UMA TRA B UTTERFL1ES. 51 

w male-mark " defined by a thin orange line ; the base of the wing powdered 
with dusky ; tail black. Underside, both ivings brownish-orange, with the 
usual annular fine macular markings. Hindwing powdered with violet and 
black in the anal area. 

Nearest to T. pita, Horsfield, which I have from Sumatra and Java, differ- 
ing therefrom in the broader outer black margin, to the f orewing, and especially 
in having more than half the area of the hindwing black, in the male of Y. pita 
the outer margin alone is narrowly black, with a broad black streak along 
the " male-mark." 

Described from a single male in my collection. 

Family PAPILJONID^E. 
Subfamily Pierims. 
11. DELIAS DANALA, n. sp., PI. L, Fig. 9, $. 

Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 

Expanse : $, 2' 2 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, loth ivings dead chalky white. Fore- 
wing with the costa as far as the subcostal nervure dusky ; the apex very 
broadly (extending, in fact, almost to the outer end of the discoidal cell), but 
rapidly decreasing to the anal angle, where it ends hi a point, dusky, bearing 
three indistinct whitish spots between the veins anterior to the third median 
nervule. Hindiving with the outer margin posteriorly narrowly black, the 
black colour extending inwardly slightly between the veins in a dusky powder- 
ing. Underside, forming as above, but the veins outwardly, rather broadly, 
defined with black ; there are also five subapical spots between the veins, of 
winch the uppermost on the costa is very small, the next the largest and pale 
yellow, the three following decreasingly smaller and dusky white. Hindiving 
clear yellow, all the veins narrowly black, the outer margin with a rather broad 
blackish border, bearing five lunular spots between the veins, of which the three 
posterior ones are whitish, the two anterior yellow. 

Nearest to D. singhapura, Wallace*, known to me by the figure and descrip- 
tion only, from Singapore and Borneo, differs ha its smaller size, that species being 
3*12 inches hi alar expanse, the fore whig rounded, not conspicuously elongated, 
and with the apex rounded, not highly pointed ; on the underside of the fore- 
wing the veins — especially the median nervure — are less broadly defined with 
black, the marginal spots are smaller and only five, instead of six, in number ; 
on the hindwing the outer black border is narrower, less deeply black, the spots 
smaller, less distinct, entire, not divided by the intemervular folds, five instead 
of six in number, the uppermost one of D. singhapura in the upper subcostal 
interspace being wholly wanting. Other allied species are D. agoranis, Grose 

* Trans. Eat. Soc. Load., third series, vol. iv, p. 353, a. 29, pi. vii, fig. 2, male (1867). 



52 JO UBNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBA L HISTOB Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Smith, Shop. Ex., vol. i., Delias I, figs. 7, 8, male (1889), from the Siamese 
frontier of Burma, and D. Imehni, Honrath, Berl. Ent. Zeitsch., vol. xxx, 
p. 295, pi. vi, fig. 2, male (1886), from Bangkai Island, near Celebes. 

Described from a single example in Dr. Martin's collection. 

12. DELIAS DERCETO, n. sp., PI. L, Fig. 4, $. 

Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 

Expanse : #, 3*0 ; $ , 27 to 3*4 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, loth ivings deep black. Foreiving with 
two white spots at the end of the discoidal cell defining the disco-cellular 
nervules ; a submarginal series of seven oval whitish spots placed between the 
veins. Hindwing bearing a large, anteriorly white powdered with dusky, 
posteriorly pale primrose-yellow, area divided by the veins, occupying the outer 
end of the cell, this area is bounded outwardly by a broad black border, which 
at the anal angle dwindles away to nothing. Underside, forming with the 
ground-colour black, but with a large area from the inner margin extending on 
to the disc powdered with whitish ; the discoidal and submarginal spots as 
above, but pure white, larger, and much more prominent. Hindwing with the 
immediate base of the wing black ; then a broad curved rich crimson area, 
commencing on the costal nervure and ending on the abdominal margin, 
crossed by the black veins, slightly sprinkled with black scales ; followed by a 
rather narrow highly irregular black band ; the outer half of the whig pale 
chrome-yellow, gradually darkening to a deeper chrome in the two posterior 
interspaces, the veins crossing this area black, from the first median to the 
second subcostal nervule gradually outwardly dilated and forming between those 
veins a broad black border. Female differs from the male only in the wings 
being somewhat broader, foreiving with the apex more rounded. 

Apparently nearest to D. minus, Wallace*, from Mount Ophir, Malacca, 
Malay Peninsula, but unknown to me except by the original description and 
figure, from which it differs in its larger size, both wings much broader, the 
forewing on both sides less heavily marked, two discoidal and seven submar- 
ginal spots only, no basal bluish patches whatever, the hindwing with no 
crimson basal patch on the upperside ; on the underside the crimson patch and 
the black band following it are twice as broad, thus reducing the chrome-yellow 
area in the discoidal cell by half. It is even more closely allied to 
D. crithoe, Boisduval, from Java, as identified by me, but may at once be 
known by the crimson band on the hindwing below being twice as broad, and 
with its outer edge evenly curved, instead of straight, and no discal white patch 
on the upperside of the forewing. 

Described from one male and two females in my collection. 

* Trans. Ent. Soc. Load., third series, vol. iv, p. 347, n. 9, pi. vii, fig. 1, male (18G7). 



NEW NORTH-EASTERN S UMA TRA B UTTERFLIES. 53 

13. DELIAS DATAMES, n. sp., PL L, Fig. 8, $. 
Habitat : Battak Mountains, Sumatra. 
Expanse : $, 2'3 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, joreiving dead chalky- white ; the costa 
as far as the subcostal nervure, the apex very broadly reaching almost to the end 
of the discoidal cell, and the outer margin decreasingly, black, bearing a series of 
five prominent small round white spots, of which the fourth from the costa is 
the smallest, the fifth the largest ; the disco-cellular nervules defined with black. 
Hindiving white, but not of as pure a shade as in the forewing, the black 
colour of the underside appearing to show through by transparency, especially 
at the base of the wing, and broadly along the outer margin, where it may 
almost be said that the wing has a broad outer diffused blackish border, more 
intense anteriorly. Underside, foreiving with the inner margin broadly white, 
gradually merging in the submedian interspace into the yellow colour of the 
disc and base ; the black apical and outer marginal areas much as on the 
upperside, but extending narrowly into the outer end of the cell ; bearing six 
submarginal spots, of which the two anterior ones are clear yellow, the rest 
white ; there is also a second white spot in the lower discoidal interspace mid- 
way between the submarginal spot and the lower disco-cellular nervule ; the 
base and disc of the wing reaching anteriorly to the costal nervure clear yellow. 
Hindiving dull bronzy-black throughout except a small streak of clear yellow 
anterior to the costal nervure ; a submarginal series of six small clear yellow 
spots placed between the veins, the one in the submedian interspace geminated. 

This species is perhaps one of the most remarkable in the genus. On the 
upperside it has somewhat the appearance of Huphina nama, Moore, which I 
have also from the mountains of Sumatra, and for which it would certainly 
pass without notice when flying. B. datames is very closely allied to D. momea, 
Boisduval, from Java, the male differing from the same sex of that species in 
the costa of the forewing being black up to the subcostal nervure instead of 
white, the black apical area of greater extent and reaching the inner angle, 
which it does not do in D. momea ; in the hindwing the black powdery outer 
border is unmarked, in D. momea it bears three white spots placed one in each 
interspace between the second median and second subcostal nervules ; on the 
underside of the forewing the yellow coloration is of a deeper shade, and is 
more extensive, in D. momea the white coloration of the inner margin extends 
outwardly as far as the second median interspace, thus greatly reducing the 
yellow area ; the two anterior spots of the submarginal series are yellow, in 
D. momea they are white ; in the latter species there are three discal white 
spots, in D. datames only one ; and in the hindwing there is no discal series of 



54 JO URN A L, BOMB A Y NA TURAL IIISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII, 

streaks between the veins as there is in D. momea. I possess a single pair 
only of D. momea. 

Described from a single male example in Dr. Martin's collection. 

Subfamily Papilionin^. 

14. PAPILIO (Dalclvina) SAKPEDON, Linnaeus, PI. L, Fig. 11, $. 
P. sarpedon, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ins., ed. x, p. 461, n. 14 (1758). 

The very remarkable melanoid aberration or " sport" of P. sarpedon figured was 
obtained on the Battak Mountains of Sumatra by Dr. Martin's Battak collectors. 
The upperside of both wings is entirely black, save in the forewing the anterior 
spot of the broad macular discal blue-green band of normal P. sarpedon, and in 
the hindwing the four middle submarginal blue-green lunules of the series of six 
of the typical form, are alone present. The markings of the underside similarly 
differ, the broad discal blue-green band of both wings of the normal form 
being reduced to the anterior spot of the forewing only, the submarginal lunules 
of the hindwing as on the upperside, but all the crimson and deep black mark- 
ings of the normal P. sarpedon are present. 

This unique butterfly is in Dr. Martin's collection. 

15. PAPILIO (Pangeranay&YCORAX, Grose Smith, PI. M, Fig. 1, $. 
Papilio sycorax, Grose Smith, Ent. Month. Mag., vol. xxi, p. 247 (1885) ; id., 

Distant, Rhop., Malay., p. 468, n. 29, pi. xlii, fig. 10, female (1886) ; P. egertoni, 
Distant, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., fifth series, vol. xvii, p. 251 (1886). 

Habitat : Perak, Malay Peninsula (Distant and collection de Nkhille)-\ 
Sumatra (Grose Smith and collections Martin and de Niceville). 

Expanse : $, 6'0 inches. (My largest $ expands 7"0 inches). 

Description : Male. Uppeeside, loth ivings very deep indigo-blue, 
slightly glossed with a greenish tint in some lights. Forewing obscurely 
streaked with greyish outwardly between the veins. Hindwing with the 
abdominal margin broadly twice folded over above ; the outer margin broadly 
dull olive-green, this area bearing anteriorly four rounded black spots, the ante- 
rior spot coalescing with the indigo-blue ground-colour, the posterior spot hidden 
beneath the fold ; a marginal series of five black spots. Underside, loth 
ivings deep black. Foreiving with the discoidal cell, as well as all the other 
interspaces, streaked with pale greenish-white. Hindwing with the outer half 
pale greenish-white, this area sharply defined, just reaching the cell at the 
bifurcation of the third median and discoidal nervules, bearing inwardly five 
oval black spots, the uppermost with its anterior end coalescing with the 
Ground-colour, and outwardly six round similar spots. Face posteriorly with 
lono- black hairs, anteriorly these hairs are pale buff -yellow, as also is the thorax 
anteriorly ; posteriorly the thorax, and the anterior third of the cibdomm above 
is black, the posterior two-thirds of the abdomen above is dull olive-green, 



NEW NOR TH-EA STERN S UMA TRA B UTTERFLIES. 55 

bearing on each side a series of four round black spots ; thorax beneath and 
anal valves black ; abdomen beneath bright chrome-yellow, the spiracles black. 

It is a very remarkable fact that in certain groups of Papilios the females are 
far more often met with than the males. This is especially noticeable in the 
small group which contains P. sycorax, P. priapus, Boisduval, and P. hageni y 
Rogenhofer, all of which are remarkable in having the face and anterior portion 
of the thorax above pale buff -yellow. Even the Battaks have noticed this 
curious feature, and call the butterfly " white-head." P. sycorax, as Mr. 
Grose Smith points out, is obviously close to P. priapus, from Java, but 
having only three female specimens of the latter, I am unable to make a 
comparison between the respective males of the two species. The females differ 
chiefly in the outer area of the hmdwing on both sides of P. sycorax being 
greenish, in P. priapus buff -yellow. 

Dr. Martin has only obtained three males of this fine species, two of which he 
has generously presented to me, together with four females. Mr. J. Wray, Jr., 
has also sent me a female from the Perak Hills. 

16. PAPILIO (Pangerana) HAGENI, Rogenhofer, PL M, Fig. 2, $. 
Papilio hageni, Rogenhofer, Verh. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, vol. xxxix, p. 1 
(1889). 

Habitat : Sumatra {Rogenhofer and collections Martin and de NiceviUe). 

Expanse : $ , 6*0 inches. 

Description : Female. Upperside, forewing sordid-white, semi-trans- 
parent, the base, costa, apex and outer margin fuscous, all the veins broadly 
marked with fuscous, the discoidal cell bearing four longitudinal black streaks, 
the interspaces beyond the cell also bearing a black streak each. Hindiving 
s hillin g black, the basal half tinted with dark olive-green ; the disc bears a large 
white area crossed by the black veins and by four large oval black spots, the 
anterior of these almost merged into the black ground-colour, the white area 
anterior to these spots pure white, posterior to them sprinkled with black scales. 
Underside, forewing a little paler than above, similarly marked. Hindiving 
with the ground-colour throughout deep black, the white area a little larger, 
ahnost pure white throughout, the anterior oval black spot better defined, 
anteriorly only coalescing with the ground-colour. Head in front and thorax 
anteriorly pale buff -yellow, thorax and abdomen above black, thorax beneath 
black, abdomen beneath rich crimson, cross-banded with black, and bearing 1 on 
each side a series of small black spots. 

This very fine species is closely allied to P. priapus, Boisduval, and to 
P. sycorax, Grose Smith, and has the face and thorax above anteriorly of the 
same colour as in those species. Dr. Martin has given me the specimen figured ; 
he has a male (still nondescript) and other females in his collection, but the 
species appears to be a very rare one. 



56 JO UBNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOB Y SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate K. 
Fig. 1. Danais (Caduga) tytioides, n. sp., $, p, 37. 
,) 2. „ „ „ „ V , p. 37. 

„ 3. Euplma (Narmada) martinii, n. sp., $ , p. 38. 
„ 4. „ „ „ ,., $, p. 38. 

„ 5. Terinos teos, n. sp., $, p. 41. 
„ 6. „ „ „ $, p. 41. 
„ 7. Lethe darma,~Fe~[&ev, $, p. 40. 
„ 8. Atliyma asset, n. sp., $, p. 42. 

Plate L. 

Fig. 1. EutMlia (Nora) erana, n. sp., $, p. 46. 
2 Q D 46 

„ 3. „ (Tanaecia f) elone, n. sp., <£, p. 47. 

„ 4. Delias derceto, n. sp., #, p. 52. 

„ 5. Yasoda pitane, n. sp., $, p. 50. 

„ 6. Cyrestis (Chersomsia) cyanee, n. sp., $, p. 49. 

J> * • 5) 5J JJ 5> + > P' 49. 

„ 8. Delias datames, n. sp., $, p. 53. 

„ 9. „ danala, n. sp., $, p. 51. 

„ 10. Abisara aita, n. sp., #, p. 49. 

„ 11. Payilio (Dalchind) sarpedon, Linnaeus, $, p. 54. 

Plate M. 
Fig. 1. Papilio (Pangerana) sycorax, Grose Smith, $, p. 54. 
„ 2. „ „ hageni, Kogenhofer, ? , p. 55. 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES, being NATURAL 

HISTORY NOTES FROM H. M. I. M. SURVEY 

STEAMER "INVESTIGATOR? Commander 

R. F. HOSKYN, R.N., COMMANDING. 

Series II., No. 5. By D. Prain. 

(Continued from Vol. VII., page 486.) 

Incomplete. 

NTCTAGINEiE. 

122. Mirabilis Jalapa Linn., Sp. PI. 177 ; Bosb., Horfc. Beng. 
16 ; Watt, Diet., v., 253. The Marvel of Peru. 

Akati ; cultivated, Fleming ! Minikoi ; cultivated, Fleming ! 
Native of America, but widely cultivated throughout tropical Asia on account 
of the supposed purgative properties of its root, and as a garden plant. 

123. Boerhaavia repens Linn : Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., iv, 709. 
var. typica. Boerlmavia repens Linn., Sp. PL, 3. 

Akati ; Fleming ! Ameni Hume ! 

A weed of fields, waysides and wasteplaces, cosmopolitan in tropical and sub- 
tropical countries. The more usual form of this species in India (var. pro- 
enmbens HooTc.f, For. Brit. Ind., iv, 709 ; Boerhaavia procumbens, Banks in 
Boxb. Flor. Ind., i, 146) does not appear to occur in the Laccadives ; the 
present form is that characteristic of the drier parts of India, of Beluchistan, 
Arabia and North-East Africa. 

var. diffusa Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., iv, 709. B. diffusa Linn., 
Sp. PL 3. 

Bitrapar ; on the shore, Hume I Anderut ; on the beach, Alcoclc ! Kadamum ; 
Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A littoral plant, cosmopolitan on tropical sea-shores. The sea-shore form 
differs so markedly in appearance from the usual inland forms and agrees so well 
with the description of vah„ diffusa Hook, f., that it might be convenient to 
restrict the varietal name " diffusa " to it alone. It does not, however, deserve 
specific rank, for, as is pointed out in the Flora of British India, it is impossible 
by then morphological characters to draw a line between the various forms. 
Even if recognised as a species, it could not be dealt with as B. diffusa Linn, 
since the probability is that Linneus based his descriptions, at least in part, on 
the examination of inland specimens. 

The " weed " has probably been introduced unintentionally by man. The 
" shore" form very probably owes its introduction to the agency of sea-birds, 
though it may have been introduced by ocean-currents. 



58 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

124. Pisonia alba Spanoghe in Linnasa, xv, 342 ; Hook. f. 3 Flor. 
Brit. Ind., iv, 711. 

Bitrapar ; Fleming ! 

A littoral species confined, if Spanoghe's species be really distinct from all the 
Polynesian and Malayan ones, to the Andamans and Mcobars. The species is 
rare in the Andamans beach forests (Kurz), but it is plentiful on the shores of 
Narcondam and on those of Batti Malv— one of the Mcobar group. The tree 
is only known in India and Ceylon as a cultivated species ; but as it does 
not occur on any of the other islands of the group, and as Bitrapar is an 
uninhabited island, the presence of the species in the sea-coast jungle here must be 
independent of human interference. Its fruits may have been introduced By 
birds, since the glutinous lines along their angles admirably adapt them for this 
mode of dispersal ; but as the majority of the birds that visit Bitra must be 
sea- fowl, it is much more likely that the species has been introduced by means of 
ocean-currents. Though not wild, it is frequently cultivated in Ceylon (e.g., at 
Colombo) near the sea — indeed away from the sea it refuses to grow — and,, if the 
tree does not exist in Malaya, Ceylon,, cultivated trees may be supposed to have 
yielded the fruits that have reached the Laccadives. One point, however, against 
the species being confined, as an indigenous tree, to the Andamans is that the 
species has been long cultivated in India and Ceylon, and it is therefore extremely 
unlikely that the plants originally introduced into India came from that group, 
of islands, with which, save for a short period in the end of the last century, there 
was, till thirty years ago, practically no communication. It appears, indeed, as 
Sir Joseph Hooker suggests, to be little more than a form of the Polynesian 
Pisonia inermis Forst. 

AMAEANTACE^. 

125. Amaranttis viridis Linn., Sp. PI. (ed. ii), 1405 ; Eoxb., Floiv 
Ind., hi, 605 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., iv, 720. 

Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A weed of waste places, cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

126. JSrua lanata Juss. in Ann. Mus., xi, 131 ; Hook, f., Flor. 
Brit. Ind., iv, 728. Acliyranthes lanata Linn., Sp. PI. 204 ; Eoxb., Flor. 
Ind., i, 676. 

Bitrapar ; Hume ! Kalpeni ; Alcoch ! Kadamum ; very common, Fleming 2 
Akati ; Fleming I Minikoi ; common, Fleming ! 

A weed of waste places and also, as here, a common littoral species throughout 
tropical and subtropical Africa, the Mascarene Islands, Arabia and South-Eastern 
Asia ; here almost without doubt a sea-introduced species. 

127. Achyranthes aspera Linn : Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., iv, 730. 
vae. typica. Acliyranthes aspera Linn., Sp. PI. 204 ; Roxb., Flor. 

Ind., i, 672. 



BOTANY OF THE LACCAD1VES. 59 

Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A weed of waste places, cosmopolitian in the tropics. 

var. porphyristachya Hook f., Flor. Brit. Ind., iv, 730. Achyranthes 
porphyristachya^ Walk, Cat. 6925. 

Bitrapar ; Hume 1 Bangaro ; Hume ! Kalpeni ; Alcock ! Kiltan ; Fleming I 
Kadamum ; Fleming ! Akati ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A weedy climber common in the littoral zone of the Indian and Malayan 
coasts ; also in the moist valleys of Sikkim, Chittagong, etc. 

The common weed is only reported from Minikoi, from which island also 
(and from most of the others) comes the usual littoral condition which in habit 
simulates A. Udentata, Bl., but which has the fimbriate staminodes of A. aspera. 
While A, aspera is undoubtedly a plant introduced unintentionally by man, 
there is no doubt that here, as often elsewhere, A. porphyristachya is a sea- 
introduced plant. 

POLYGOSTACE^. 

128. Polygonum foarfoatum Linn., Sp. PL, 362 ; Hook, f., Flor. 
Brit. Ind., v., 37. P. rivulare Koenig in Roxb., Flor. Ind., ii, 290. 

Kalpeni ; AlcocJc ! 

In wet places throughout tropical Asia and Africa. 

PTPERACEiE. 

129. Piper Betle Linn., Sp. PI. 28 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., i, 158 ; Hook. 
f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 85. 

Akati ; Kilatn ; Kadamum ; Minikoi ; in all the islands cultivated and, as 
is the custom generally in Southern India, trained round the trunks and over 
the branches of the Agati (Sersbania grandiflord). *"Ihis plant is an object of 
great care" (Fleming). 

Native of Malaya, where, and in the hotter parts of India and Ceylon, it is. 
cultivated. 

laurtne^:. 

130. Cassytha filiformis Linn., Sp. PI. 35 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., ii f 
314 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 188. 

Kiltan ; on Wedelia scandens in the coast zone, Alcock ! Kadamum ; on 
Pleurostylia Wiglitii, Fleming ! 

A leafless parasite, common on sea-shores, cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

131. Hernandia peltata Meissn. in DC, Prodr., xv., pt. i, 263 ; 
Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 188. Hernandia ovigera Gaertn., Fruct., i., 193^ 
t. 40, f. 3 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., in, 577, nee Linn. 

Korat Hume ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 



CO JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

A littoral species extending from the Mascarene Islands and Eastern Africa 
to Ceylon, the Andarnans, Malaya, Australia and Polynesia ; like Ochrosia 
borbonica this does not occur on the coast of India, though it is found as far 
north as Great Coco on the west and as Mergui on the east of the Andaman Sea. 

Meissner (DC. Prodr., xv, pt. 1, 262—264.) omits to quote, and the Mora of 
British India (v, 188) does not cite Roxburgh's account of Hernandia ovigera 
(Flor. Ind., iii, 577-578), which his own diagnosis clearly shows to be a species 
different from Hernandia ovigera Linn. (Amoen. Ac, iv, 125), founded on 
Kumf's figure (Herb. Amboin., iii, 198, t. 123) of Arbor ovigera. Roxburgh 
notes the discrepancies, and explains them by depreciating Rumf 's drawing. 
In reality, however, Roxburgh's description is a most vivid and accurate one, 
made from living specimens, of the species named by Meissner (DO. Prodr., xv, 
pt. i, 263) Hernandia peltata. Roxburgh cites Gaertner's figure (Fruct. i, 193, 
t, 40, f. 3) as a " very accurate" delineation of the fruit of this tree — an exceed- 
ingly just remark, which, however, Meissner has overlooked, for he quotes 
Gaertner's description and figure as referring to Linnaeus' species, though they 
differ very materially from both Rumf 's figure and Meissner's own description 
of the fruit of Hernandia ovigera. 

Hernandia peltata, the species now under review, is a purely old-world plant 
which has been treated by Linnaeus and, with the exceptions of Gaertner and 
Roxburgh, by all botanists subsequent to Linnaeus till the appearance of 
Meissner's treatise (1864) as conspecific with the American Hernandia sonora ; 
even now Sir J. D. Hooker (Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 189) suspects that H. peltata 
is no more than a variety of H. sonora. And the basis of the differentiation by 
both Gaertner and Roxburgh of the present plant from H. sonora does not lie iu 
the differences between the two plants that Meissner has pointed out, but in the 
fact that Linnaeus included under H. sonora not merely the American tree to 
which Meissner would restrict that name, as well as the Ceylon tree which is 
undoubtedly H.peltata, but also— though doubtfully and with the remark " sed 
fruetas alienus" (Amcm. Ac, iv, 117)— the tree figured by Rumf (Herb. Amboin., 
ii, 257, t. 85) under the name Arbor regis. Believing, apparently, that Rumf's 
Arbor regis was, as Linnaeus thought, a Hernandia — a belief perhaps partly just — 
but realising that it could scarcely be the tree he had before him, and seeing that 
it agreed so thoroughly with the figure and description of H. ovigera given by 
Gaertner, Roxburgh, not having in his possession specimens of the true H. ovigera, 
followed Gaertner in bestowing that name on this species. This course was hardly 
just to Rumf if Gaertner and Roxburgh believed Rumf's figure to be correct, 
hardly just to themselves if they had any grounds for supposing it to be erro- 
neous. It now appears that Rumf's figure is wonderfully reliable, for, besides his 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 61 

figure from a tree in Amboina, there are before the writer specimens of un- 
doubtedly this species from Java (Zollinger n. 2861, which, however, Zollinger 
himself has identified with H. sonord) and specimens recently collected by the 
officers of the " Egeria." hx Christmas Island, where H. ovigera occurs 
(Hemsl., Journ. Linn. Soc, xxv, 357) on the summit, elevation about 1,200 feet, 
a rather remarkable fact, since, according to Kumf, it occurs, like the other 
Hernandias, " semper in arenoso solo circa litoraP* 

As has been remarked, the belief of Linnaeus, and of Roxburgh that Kumf s 
Arbor regis is a Eernandia is probably partly justified, for it is possible, from his 
account of the habitat of his tree-—" occurrit tarn in More inter l&ves ac humiles 
"silvas " (quite the situation affected by Eernandia peltata) " qiiam in montibus 
" et altioribus silvis " (where to find E.peltata would be somewhat surprising) - 
that Eumf has included two trees in his description. His figure, moreover, bears 
out this, for some of the leaves are without, while others exhibit, a pah of glands 
where the petiole joins the leaf. The figure as a whole, however, suggests at once, 
as Lamarck (Encgc. Meth., iii, 123) a century ago pointed out, a Euphorbiaceous 
plant, while Rumf 's description of the fruit is altogether suitable to that of a 
species of this order. The first authors to recognise Rumf 's Arbor regis, 
however, were Teysmann and Binnendyk, who described it as Capellenia moluccana 
{Nat. Tijds. Ned. Ind., xxix, 239), founding a new genus to accommodate it ; as, 
however, Capellenia does not differ generically from Endospermum, the tree has 
been re-described by Beccari as Endospermum moluccanum (Malesia, h, 38) in his 
treatise Piante Ospitatrici, where another species from New Guinea (Endospermum 
formicarum Becc, Malesia, ii, 44, t. 2) is described, which shares with Rumf 's 
tree the character of sheltering a species of ant in its hollowed stems and branches. 
Teysmann and Binnendyk described then species from trees grown in the Botanic 
Garden at Buitenzorg ; Beccari does not mention the habitat of the New 
Guinea species; in the Calcutta Herbarium there are, however, examples 
of another closely related species, with the same hollow branches, collected in 
Sumatra by H. 0. Forbes, which were obtained on the volcano of Kaba at 3,500 
feet elevation. This fact, therefore, does not oppose, if it does not corroborate', the 
surmise that Rumf under Arbor regis has included two trees, one found only on 

* Two parallel instances known to the writer of littoral species ascending to a con- 
siderable height are met with inNarcondam, where Morinda bracteata ascends to 2,300 
feet and in Barren Island, where Terminalia Catappa ascends 1,100 feet. The expla- 
nation of all three cases is doubtless the same ; these « littoral" species being amongstthe 
first to appear on the respective islands were able to spread unchecked from the shore to 
the summit of their peaks, and the invasion of iuland species has not subsequently 
been sufficiently great to compel them to retire completely from the unusual localities 
they had at first invaded, 



62 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

the coast (Hernandia peltata) and one found inland and on the mountains 
(Endospermum moluccanum). 

EUPHOEBIACE^E. 

132. Euphorbia Atoto Forst., Prodr. n. 207 ; Hook, f., Flor. 

Brit, Ind., v, 248. 
Ameni ; Hume ! 
A littoral species ; seashores of India, Malaya, N. Australia and Polynesia. 

133. Euphorbia hypericifolia Linn., Hort. Cliff. 198 ; Hook, f., 
Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 249. E. parviflora Linn., Syst. Veg. (ed. x), ii, 1047 ; 
Koxb., Flor. Ind., ii, 472. 

Kadamum ; Fleming ! Kiltan ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
A weed of waste places and fields, almost cosmopolitan ; not occurring in 
Australia or in Polynesia. 

134. Euphorbia pilulifera Linn., Amcen. Acad., iii, 114; Hook, 
f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 250. E. hiria Linn. Amoen. Acad., iii, 114 ; Koxb., 
Flor. Ind., ii. 472. 

Anderat ; AlcocTc! Kadamum ; Hume! Fleming ! Kiltan ; Aleock ! Fleming ! 
Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
A weed of cultivation, cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical countries. 

135. Euphorbia thymifolia Burm., Flor. Ind. 2 ; Boxb., Flor. 
Ind, ii, 473 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 252. 

Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A weed almost cosmopolitan in tropical countries, not found in Australia. 

136. Pbtllanthus Emblica Linn., Sp. PI. 982 ; Eoxb., Flor. Ind., iii, 
671 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 289. The Aula. 

Ameni ; cultivated, Hume. 

Distributed, wild or cultivated, throughout South-Eastern Asia; here an in- 
tentionally introduced plant. 

137. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn., Sp. PI. 982 ; Eoxb., 
Flor. Ind., iii, 654 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 292. P. ohordatus Willd., 
Enum. Hort. Berol., Suppl., 65 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., iii, 656. 

Ameni ; Hume ! Anderut ; AlcocJe 1 Bitrapar ; Fleming ! Kiltan ; Fleming ! 
Kadamum ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A weed of dry places and fields throughout tropical Africa, Asia and Aus- 
tralia, probably unintentionally introduced by man even into the island of 
Bitra, which, though not inhabited, is regularly visited. 

138. Phyllanthus Urinaria Linn., Sp. PL 982 ; Roxb., Flor. 
Ind., iii, 660 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 293. 

Kalpeni ; Alcoclt ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
A cosmopolitan tropical weed. 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 63 

139. Phyllanthus Niruri Linn., Sp. PI. 981 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind. 
hi, 659 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 298. 

Anderat ; Alcock ! Akati ; Fleming ! Kadamum ; Fleming ! Kiltan ; 
Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A weed of cultivation almost cosmopolitan in the tropics, not occurring in 
Australia. 

140. Phyllanthus rotundifolius Klein in Willd., Sp. PL, iv, 
584 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 299. 

Kiltan ; Flsming ! 

A weed of cultivation distributed throughout tropical Africa, Arabia, 
Southern India and Ceylon. 

141. Phyllanthus distichus Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr., xv, pt. if, 
413 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 304. P. longifolius Jacq., Hort. Schoenb., 
ii, 36, f. 194 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., hi, 672. Cicca disticlm Linn., Mantiss. 124. 

Minikoi ; cultivated, Fleming. 

In gardens throughout Malaya, India and the Mascarene Islands. 

142. Claoxylon Mercurialis Thwaites, Enum. 271 ; Hook, f., 
Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 412. Tragia Mercurialis Linn., Sp. PI. (ed. ii) 1391 
(in parte) ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., hi, 576. Mercurialis alternifolia Desv. in 
Lamk, Encyc. Meth., iv, 120. Acalyplia Mercurialis A. Juss., Euphorb. 
Tent. 46. Micrococci Mercurialis Benth. in Hook., Niger Flora 503, 
Microstachys mercurialis Dalz. and Gibs., Bomb. Flor. 227. 

Akati ; Fleming ! Bitrapar ; Fleming ! Kadamum ; Fleming I Kiltan ; 
Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A tropical weed distributed throughout Africa, Arabia and India ; there are 
also specimens at Calcutta from the Malay Peninsula. Mercurialis alternifolia 
Desv. is not the same plant as Mercurialis alternifolia Hochst., Tin. It., which 
is an Acalijplia (A. Hochstetteri Muell.-Arg'). 

143. Acalypha indica Linn., Sp. PI. 1003 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., 
hi, 675 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v., 416. 

Akati ; Fleming 1 Kadamum ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
A weed of cultivation common in tropical Africa and S.-E. Asia. 

144. Acalypha fallax Muell.-Arg. in Linneea, xxxiv, 43 ; Hook. 
f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 416. A. indica Prain, Laccad. List. 7, nee Linn. 

Anderat ; Alcock ! Akati ; Fleming 1 Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
A weed of cultivation confined to South-Eastem Asia. 

145. Ricmus communis Linn., Sp. PI. 1007 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., hi, 
689 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v., 457. The Castor-oil Plant ; vmwc, 
" undel " {Robinson),, 



64 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Kiltan ; cultivated, Hume, Fleming 7 Anderat; cultivated, Alcoch Kadamum; 
Fleming ! Ameni ; cultivated for its oil, Robinson. Bitrapar ; growing near 
the centre of the island, Fleming ! Minikoi ; cultivated and a very common 
escape, Fleming ! 

A native of Africa, cultivated generally in the tropics for its oil, but 
readily escaping and becoming naturalised, its presence in the uninhabited island 
of Bitra being an excellent instance of the readiness with which it runs wild. It 
is noteworthy that it was not present in Bitra when Mr. Hume visited that 
island in 1875. 

tfRTICACE^. 

146. Ficus bengalensis Linn., Hort. Cliff. 471, n. 4 ; King in Hook, 
f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 499. F. indica Linn., Amoen. Acad. (ed. hi), i, 27, n. 
6; Boxb., Flor. Ind., hi, 539. The Banyan. 

Ameni ; planted, Hume. Kadamum ; four trees seen in the neighbourhood 
of some deserted huts, from their arrangement in a row evidently planted, 
Fleming. Minikoi ; planted, Fleming. 

Planted generally throughout India, wild on the lower slopes of the Himalayas 
and of the Deccan hills. 

147. Ifieus retusa Linn., Mantiss. 129 ; King in Hook, f., Flor. 
Brit. Ind., v, 511. F. Benjamina Willd., Sp. PI., iv, 1143 ; Boxb., Flor. Ind., 
hi, 550 nee Linn. 

VAR. nitida King, Ficus, 50 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 511. 
F. nitida Thunbg, Ficus 14. 
Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A large tree common throughout Eastern and South-Eastem Asia and 
extending to New Caledonia. Mr. Fleming does not note if the tree be planted 
in Minikoi. It is possible that it may be, but as its figs are a favourite food 
with many of the migratory fruit-pigeons, there is no reason why it should not 
be a " wild " bird-introduced species. 

148. Artocarpits mciSA Forst., PI. Escul. 23 ; Boxb., Flor. Ind., iii, 
527 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 539 ; Watt, Diet., i, 330. The Brcad- 
Fruit Tree. 

Kiltan ; does not thrive well, Rohinson ; not much appreciated, Hume ; 
Alcoclc. Ameni ; grows most luxuriantly, Robinson, Hume. Anderut ; culti- 
vated largely, AlcocJc. Akati ; only one tree, in a garden, Fleming ! Minikoi ; 
cultivated, Fleming ! 

A native of Polynesia and Eastern Malaya, occasionally cultivated in the 
hotter parts of India. The Laccadive Archipelago must be near the northern 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 65 

limit of its successful cultivation, a fact that is corroborated by the evidence 
given above of the want of success, and the small extent, of its cultivation in 
important islands like Kiltan and Akati. 

149. Aetocaepus integrieolia Linn, f., Suppl. 412 ; Roxb., Flor. 
Lid., iii, 522 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 541 ; Watt, Diet., i, 330. The 
Jaclc-fruit. 

Anderut ; a stately-looking tree, with dark green foliage not unlike the 
broad-leafed elm, Wood. 

Dr. Bang, to whose attention the passage in Lieut. Wood's paper has been 
brought, suggests that the notice refers most probably to the Jack. The tree is 
generally cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India and Indo-China and 
throughout Malaya ; it is said by Beddome to be truly wild in the Western 
Ghats above the Malabar Coast. That its cultivation should not have spread 
in the Laccadives is not at all surprising; doubtless the islanders generally view 
the Jack, as those of Kiltan, according to Mr. Hume {Stray Feathers, iv, 437), 
regard the Bread-fruit : trees that are all very well in then* way, but consider- 
ing that, instead of fruiting all the year round like the coco-nut, they all flower 
and fruit together, and their fruiting season lasts at the outside only two months 
out of twelve, they are hardly worth the trouble of propagating. 

150. Pouzolzia indica Gaud. : Wedd. in DC. Prodr., xvi, pt. i, 220 ; 
Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., v, 581. Urtica suffruticosa Roxb., Flor. Ind., iii, 
584. 

var. typica. P. indica Gaud, in Freycinet, Voy., Bot. 503. 
Kalpeni ; AlcocJc ! Kiltan ; Fleming ! Akati ; Fleming ! Kadamum ; Fleming ! 
Minikoi ; Fleming / 

A weed of cultivation common throughout tropical and subtropical Eastern 
and South- Eastern Asia. 

var. alienata Wedd. in DC. Prodr., xvi, pt. i, 221. P. alienata Gaud. 
in Freycinet, Voy., Bot. 503. 
Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
A common Indian form of the same weed. 

Monocotyledones. 

SCITAMINE^. 

151. Musa Sapientum Linn., Syst. Veg. (ed. x), ii, 1303; Eoxb., Flor. 
Ind., i, 663 ; Watt, Diet, v, 290. The Plantain. 

Anderut ; cultivated, Wood. Ame'ni; cultivated, Rolinson. Kiltan ; cultivated, 
Hume. Kadamum ; four plants seen near some deserted huts, evidently planted, 
Fleming. Minikoi ; cultivated, Fleming. 



66 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Amaryllidem. 

152. Pancratium zeylanicum Linn., Sp. PL 290 ; Bosk, Flor. 
Ind., ii, 124 ; Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind., vi, 285. 

Minikoi ; Fleming. 
India, Ceylon, Malaya. 

153. Agave vivipara Linn., Sp, PI, 323. A. Cantula Eoxb., Flor. 
Ind., ii, 167 ; Watt, Diet., i, 143. The Bastard American Aloe, 

Anderat ; cultivated, AlcocJc, Kiltan ; introduced from the mainland and 
grows well, Fleming. 

A native of America, cultivated and naturalised in most warm countries. 

Taccace^. 

154. Tacca PirarATiFiDA Forst., Plant. Escul. 59 ; Eoxb., Flor. Ind., ii, 
172. The SoutbrSea Taro ; vemac. " teemy," Robinson, 

Anderat ; cultivated, Wood, AlcocJc. Chitlac ; cultivated, Rolinson. Akati ; 
cultivated, Fleming ! Minikoi ; cultivated, Fleming ! 

A littoral species common on South-Eastern Asiatic and Polynesian coasts, 
but also extending inland either as a wild or cultivated species. Though a 
very common species on the Andaman coasts, the plant is here only found as a 
cultivated one. 

DlOSOOEEACE^E, 

155. Dioscorea bulbifera Linn., Sp. PL 1033. Wild Yam, 
Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A common species in a wild state throughout India, Indo-China, and Malaya; 
possibly conspecific with the next. Mr. Fleming does not note if it is a 
cultivated or a wild species. It is sometimes cultivated, and both the root and 
leaf -tubers are eaten. The latter are also in Ceylon used as a fish-bait. 

156. Dioscorea sativa Linn., Sp. PL 1033 ; Watt, Diet,, hi, 133. The 
Garden Yam. 

Ameni ; cultivated, Rolinson, Hume. Cultivated generally in the tropics, 
native country unknown. There are no specimens either in Mr. Hume's or 
in Dr. Alcock's collection, and it is, therefore, not impossible that it is note 
P. sativa but P. luTbijera that is grown in Ameni. 

LlLIACE^. 

157. Gloriosa superba Linn., Sp. PL 305 ; Eoxb., Flor. Ind., ii, 143. 
Anderat ; plentiful, AlcocJc ! 

Wild throughout South-Eastem Asia, but also often cultivated as an oma-. 
mental plant, and on account of the poisonous properties reputed to reside in its 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 67 

roots. It is not cultivated, however, in Anderut, and as it is a common littoral 
species throughout the Andamans and Mcobars, it is here quite possibly a sea- 
introduced species. 

COMMELYNEJE. 

158. Aneilema ovalifolium Hook. f., ex C. B. Clarke in DC. 
Monogr. Phan., iii, 218. 

Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A herbaceous weed of jungles and grassy places confined to Southern India. 

159. Cyanotis cristata Poem. & Schult., Syst., vii, 1150. Comme- 
lina cristata Linn., Sp. PI. 42. Tradescantia imbricata Koxb,, Flor. Ind., 
ii, 120. 

Kadamum ; Fleming ! Kiltan ; in grass along with Leucas aspera, Fleming / 
Minikoi ; on ground and also epiphytic on Oocos nucifera, Fleming I 
A weed of grassy places in the Mascarene Islands, India and Malaya. 

Palmes. 

160. Areca Catechu Linn,, Sp. PI. 1189 ; Koxb,, Flor. Ind., hi, 615 ; 

Watt, Diet., i, 2 91, The Betel-nut Palm. 

Ameni ; cultivated, Robinson, Hume. Anderut ; cultivated, Wood, Alcock. 
Kiltan ; does not thrive, Robinson. Minikoi ; cultivated, Fleming. 

Cultivated in tropical countries. 

161. Cocos nucifera Linn., Sp. PI. 1188; Koxb., Flor. Ind,, iii, 614. 
The Coco-nut Palm. 

Ameni ; Robinson, Hume. Anderut ; Wood, Alcock. Akati ; Fleming. 
Bangaro ; Hume. Bitrapar ; Robinson, Hume. Chitlac ; of slow growth and 
not productive, Robinson. Kadamum ; Robinson, Hume, Fleming. Kalpeni, 
Alcock. Kiltan ; Robinson, Hume, Alcock, Fleming. Korati ; Hume. Minikoi ; 
Fleming. 

Lieut. Wood's fist gives the coco-nut as present on all the islands except 
Kalpeni Feti and Akati Fe'ti, which are mentioned as mere sand-banks, but the 
sand-banks of Pirmalla and Pitti and the coral islets on Cherbaniani and — if, 
indeed, there are islets there — on Cheriapani reefs are quite devoid of vegetation, 
and if visited at all by the islanders are visited for the purposes of fishing or egg- 
collecting, not for coco-nuts and coir. Bitra, however, which is uninhabited ,has 
coco-nuts and is visited on account of these by people from the northern islands. 
The coco-nuts there, from their position as described by Bobinson and Hume 
and from the accounts of the people, are evidently only planted. Bangaro and 
(apparently) Tangaro, two uninhabited islands on the Akati reef, have coco-nuts 
clearly, from Hume's account of the former, sea-introduced and not planted. 
Whether there are coco-nuts on Suheli is not clear ; according to Wood's fist, 



68 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

they occur, but the people misinformed him concerning so many of the other 
islands, that till there is direct evidence, the point must remain doubtful. 

The question whether the appearance of the coco-nut in this archipelago 
preceded that of man, or if the first settlers there did not rather take the 
coco-nut with them, is one that it is somewhat difficult to answer. The species 
is pretty certainly indigenous in the Malay countries and, perhaps, Polynesia, 
and seems to have spread thence to India, the Mascarene Islands and 
Africa. It occurs also in America, but the question — which has been seriously 
discussed — as to whether it found its way to the New World from the Old or vice 
versa, has not yet been satisfactorily answered. The introduction of the coco- 
nut into Ceylon at all events has been in all probability a deliberate act, and, as 
M. de Candolle reminds us {Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 435), at a period so 
recent as to be almost historical. That the geographical extension of the tree is 
largely due to human agency does not admit of question, but that it has been in 
every place where it occurs intentionally introduced, it is neither possible nor 
necessary to believe. Its fruits are highly capable of ocean-distribution and form 
a constant feature of ocean-drifts on tropical shores, and it is one of the earliest 
species to appear on newly emerged coral or volcanic tropical islands. 

As regards the Laccadives, if man did not first settle there on account of 
coco-nut trees being already present, it is difficult to conceive what he went 
there for ; the surface is not adequate, nor are the conditions favourable for 
extensive cereal or pulse cultivation, and as for a certain period of the year 
the people have to take then boats away from the islands to places of safety on the 
Malabar Coast, it is clear that fishing could never have been a general or con- 
stant industry among them. On the other hand, the coco-nut is in the strictest 
sense a cultivated species on all the inhabited islands, and is a planted species 
even in Bitra which, on account of its want of a water-supply, is only a visited 
island ; and though in Bangaro it is not cultivated or planted, this island may 
have only been stocked by nuts from Akati, the main island on the same atoll, 
subsequently to a deliberate introduction of the species into Akati itself. 

Still the state of affairs in Bangaro proves that the tree here can be^ 
at least locally, sea-dispersed ; and taking into account the uninviting ap- 
pearance that the islands must offer, were they destitute of coco-nuts, one cannot 
but think it probable that the species reached the archipelago independently 
of human agency and prior to human settlement, while the necessity for 
constant renewal and, as the population increased, for planting to the greatest 
advantage, has insured that now in all the inhabited islands none but cultivated 
trees are to be found. 

In most of the islands it is deemed necessary to raise the seedling coco-nuts 
with care and attention till they are a year old, when they are transplanted and 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 09 

watered for a few weeks till they become firmly established. After this the 
young trees are left entirely to themselves, and are neither watered nor manured ; 
they come into bearing in Kiltan in from 8 to 10 years, and produce fruit so 
vigorously and plentifully that it is sometimes necessary to support the luxuriant 
growth of nuts artificially * ; in this island, moreover, the preliminary attention 
to seedlings is not required. 

In some of the other islands, as in Chitlac, where the soil is much poorer, the 
trees do not come into bearing till they are 15 to 20 years old, each tree at best 
producing only about 50 nuts per annum as against 80 to 85 nuts a year in 
Kiltan. In Kadamum, too, backward though the cultivation in that island is, 
the average per annum is about 80 nuts per tree ; in Ameni, where the 
cultivation is almost as extensive as in Kiltan, the average is only about 60 
nuts a year from each tree. These figures are given by Eobinson, after care- 
ful and prolonged enquiry, as representing the yield in 1844 and 1845 ; Hume 
gives the average all over for the four British islands in 1875 at 80 nuts per 
tree per annum] — doubtless rather a high general estimate, though probably 
representing the yield of what the people in any of the islands would themselves 
consider a good tree. Kobinson thinks that 60 to 70 nuts would be a pretty 
fan- general average for the whole of these islands, and this is likely to be nearer 
the truth than the higher estimate. The islanders try to plant only first class 
trees, and they aim at obtaining such as will come into full bearing in about 
10 years, throwing out every month after that age is reached a fruiting-spike 
bearing 15 to 20 nuts, and so yielding 180 to 250 nuts a year, and going on 
bearing at this rate till they are 60 years old. They often do go on bearing, it 
is said, till they are 70 or 80 years of age, and some are believed by the people 
to be more than a century old. But a tree that produces a fruiting-spike every 
month is quite a rarity ; 9 to 10 fruiting branches are all that can be hoped for 
in twelve months, and from accidents and casualties among the nuts, 8 to 10 
a spike is a very high average of nuts. Indeed, it is only trees with an eastern 
exposure and trees growing in the Teat in the centre of the islands that yield 
so highly ; those with a south-westerly exposure or those on the drier parts of 
the best islands yield as poorly as those of Chitlac, where the conditions, as a 
whole, are unfavourable. 

There is very little exportation of coco-nuts from the islands, much the 
greater portion of the crop being required for home consumption. As, more- 
over, the great product of the islands is con, not coco-nuts, an immense propor- 
tion of the crop is gathered before the nuts are perfectly ripe and before the 
kernel is in the best condition for yielding oil. If allowed to remain on the 

* Eobinson, Madras Journal, n. s. xiv, 24. 
t " Stray Feathers," iv, 410. 



70 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

tree for twelve or thirteen months, which is the time required for perfect 
ripening, the husk becomes hard and woody and the coir difficult to separate 
from the woody particles, requiring longer soaking in its preparation, winch 
darkens its colour and spoils it for the market ; being harder and coarser, too, 
it becomes, though not weaker than the best con* ought to be, much more diffi- 
cult to twist. If, on the other hand, the nuts are gathered too soon, the coir 
obtained, though excellent in colour and easy to manipulate, is too weak for 
yarn, though quite good for minor purposes, such as a stuffing material for 

Buttresses. 

The proper age of nuts for coir-making is ten months ; at the end of the 
tenth month they are cut and husked, the husks being thrown into soaking-pits, 
where they are left for a year. These soaking-pits are simply holes in the sand 
on the lagoon-shore of the various islands, in which the husks are buried and 
covered over by heaps of coral-blocks to protect them from the ripple of the 
waves. After twelve months' soaking the husks are taken from the pits and the 
coir is separated from the refuse of the husk by beating. If taken out earlier, it 
is very difficult to rid the con of impurities and woody particles ; if left longer, 
the fibre is found to be weakened. In Ameni, where, as has been said, the 
island occupies the whole lagoon-space, and there is, therefore, no protected 
seashore suitable for coir-soaking, the husks have to be buried in pits dug 
through the coral-crust within the body of the island. The coir is here, there- 
fore, soaked in fresh, instead of salt water, one result of which is that the Ameni 
coir is weaker than that produced in the other islands ; this is, no doubt, the 
result of the action of some of the products of decomposition in the water of 
these tanks. A further effect of this method of soaking is a discolouration of the 
fibre, for the water in the tanks never being changed becomes foul and dark- 
coloured by the decaying vegetable matter, and imparts this tinge to the coir. 
The two effects taken together, or perhaps rather the second, used by the buyer 
as an index of the first, renders Ameni coir a less marketable product than 
the coir of the other islands and reduces it to the level of most of the coir 
manufactured on the Malabar Coast itself, which is practically all made in this 
way, protected seashores on which to bury the husks being exceedingly rare 
except within the lagoons of coral islands. 

In separating the coir after the beating by sticks to break up the adhesion and 
remove impurities, the coir is hand-rubbed, chiefly by the women, to remove the 
woody tissue between the fibres. It is then rolled into loose pads as thick as 
one's finger by the palms of the hands before being twisted into yam, of which 
two strands are made at once.* 



* J. Shortt, p.l.s, ; Monograph of the Coco-nut-palm, p. 16, Madras, 1888. 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 71 

The yield of fibre is estimated by Robinson at one pound of coir from each 
10 nuts, giving 35 fathoms of yarn. He adds* that " 2 lbs. of such yarn 
" measuring from 70 to 75 fathoms, are made up into soodies, of which there are 
" fourteen to a bundle, averaging about a maund of 28 lbs. A Mangalore candy 
" of 560 lbs. will, therefore, be the produce of 5,600 nuts, and should contain 
" about 20,000 fathoms of yarn." 

In contrast with this yield, Robinson mentions that it takes only three of the 
large coarse coast nuts to yield a pound of coir, but that this coir will only 
produce 22 fathoms. A ton of Laccadive coir will thus produce 80,000 fathoms 
of yarn as against 50,000 yielded by a ton of Malabar con. 

By Mr. Robinson's figures, it will take over 20,000 nuts (22,400) to yield a 
ton of coir, which should produce 784,000 fathoms of yarn. Mr. Hume {Stray 
Feathers, iv, 440) says it takes about 30,000 nuts to yield a ton of coir. 

It is clear from what has been written regarding the Laccadives that they 
yield by far the best con produced in India, and it will be equally evident from 
what has been said here that their superiority lies altogether in the facilities for 
sea-soaking offered by then lagoons. Yet from all the information that a 
consultation of the ordinary trade returns will yield, an enquirer into them 
might, as Watt remarks,! conclude that the Laccadives export no coir. In trade 
returns the Laccadive con from British Islands is given along with that from 
the Malabar Coast, and in European markets the best Malabar or Indian coir 
is spoken of as Cochin coir. As a matter of fact, little coir comes from Cochin 
and it does not present any features peculiar to itself or superior to those of coir 
from other parts of Malabar. What the European merchant means by Cochin 
coir is pretty certainly Laccadive coir. Even when the coir is known to be from 
theLaccadives,some misunderstanding is produced by its being spoken of asKiltan 
coir or Ameni coir. As a matter of fact, Kiltan coir has not quite the local 
reputation of either Chitlac or Kadamum coir, whereas Ameni coir is distinctly 
inferior to that produced in any of the other British islands. The application of 
the term Ameni con to the best qualities arises from two circumstances— the fact 
that the island of Ameni is one of the largest and often gives its name Amendivi 
to the whole group, and that, till quite recently, the lower caste people of 
Kadamum, where excellent coir is produced, were in some degree subject to 
then higher caste neighbours of Ameni, and were compelled to ship their 
produce to the mainland in Ameni boats. 

Besides coir manufacture, a certain amount of coarse sugar {jaggery) manu- 
facture is carried on, not at all extensively, however, in the British islands, since 

* Robinson, Madras Journal, n. s., xiv, 16. 
t Diet. Econom. Products of India, ii, 421. 



72 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

the higher prices given for their coir render its manufacture more profitable 
to the people. In the Cannanore Islands, where coir is under monopoly and the 
Cannanore Eaj gives much poorer prices for that article than the inhabitants of 
the British islands obtain, large quantities of jaggery are produced both for 
home consumption and for export to the people on the British islands, the 
chief islands in which it is manufactured being, according to Kobinson, those 
of Anderut and Korati. 

162. Pandanus odoratissimus Linn, f., Suppl. 424 ; Eoxb., Flor. 
Ind., hi, 738 ; Balf. f., Jour. Linn. Soc, xvii, 54. 

Bangaro ; abundant, Hume. Kadamum ; very abundant, Hume. Ameni ; 
Hume. Kiltan ; only a few plants, Hume. Kalpeni ; Alcock. Minikoi ; Fle- 
ming ! a regular sea-fence of this plant surrounds the island, Hamilton. 

A littoral species extending from the Indian Coasts to Malaya, Australia 
and Polynesia. 

In the Laccadive Islands proper there is not, in densely peopled and carefully 
planted islands like Kiltan, more than the merest remnant of a Pandanus sea-fence 
left, though in uninhabited islands like Bangaro and in partially occupied ones 
like Kadamum, it is well represented. But, curiously enough, it is quite absent 
from the uninhabited island of Bitra, where also Oocos nucifera does not occur as 
a littoral and sea-introduced species. In Minikoi, however, where the island is 
fully occupied and carefully planted, the Pandanus sea-fence has been allowed to 
remain as a belt all round the island. This belt of jungle harbours an immense 
number of rats (Mus rattus vau. rufescens)*, which here, as in the other islands, 
prove very destructive to the coco-nut crop. Captain Wentworth Hamilton, 
Port Officer of Gopalpur, who commanded the S. S. " Marffia Heathcote " 
during a recent official visit to Minikoi, informed thewriterin 1889 that 
the disturbances which led to the visit arose out of a Government order 
to cut down this jungle and, by removing their shelter, to render possible 
a systematic attempt to exterminate the rats. The populace objected most 
strongly to the order, on the ground that this belt of jungle is the abode of 
evil spirits that would be certain, were their domain invaded, to retaliate by 
bringing misfortune on the island. Minikoi, as has been already said, though 
Laccadive as to political connection, and as much Laccadive as Maldive as 
to situation, has a Maldive population ; there is no evidence of superstition 
so gross among the Mappila population of the other Laccadives ; at all 
events, they do not appear to have any scruples about clearing away the Pan- 
danus belt. 

* Hume, " Stray Feathers," iv, 433. 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 73 

AE0IDE2E. 

163. Colocasia antiquorum Schott : Engler in DC, Monogr. 
Phanerog., ii, 491. 

yae. tgpica. G. antiquorum Schott, Meletem. i, 18. Arum Colocasia 

Linn., Sp. PL 965 ; Eoxb., Flor. Ind., iii, 494. The Kachu or 

Indian Taro. 

A mem' ; cultivated, Hume. Anderut ; cultivated, Alcock. Kalpeni ; both 

cultivated and wild, Alcock ! Kiltan ; wild, Fleming. Kadamum ; wild, 

Fleming. Akati ; wild, Fleming. Minikoi ; wild, Fleming. 

A native of India, cultivated in nearly all tropical and subtropical countries. 
There is little doubt that this has been intentionally introduced ; it receives, 
however, slight attention in any of the islands, and in nearly everyone of them 
it has established itself as a weed. 

Cyperace^e. 

164. Cyperus hyalinus Vahl, Enum., ii, 329 ; Clarke, Ind. 
Cyperus 46. 

Kadamum ; Fleming ! 

A very rare South Indian weed. 

165. Cyperus polystachyus Eottb., Descr. et Ic. 39, t. 11, f. 1 ; 
Eoxb., Flor. Ind., i, 193 ; Clarke, Ind. Cyperus 51. 

Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A cosmopolitan tropical and subtropical weed, especially in islands and on 
sea-shores. 

166. Cyperus compressus Linn., Sp. PI. 46 ; Eoxb., Flor. Ind., 
i, 194 ; Clarke, Ind. Cyperus 97. 

Kalpeni ; Alcock 1 

A cosmopolitan tropical weed. 

167. Cyperus pacfryrrhizus Nees ex Boeck. in Linnsea, xxxv, 
545 ; Clarke, Ind. Cyperus 111. 

Bitrapar ; Hume ! Fleming ! Kadamum ; Fleming ! Bangaro ; Hume ! 

A littoral species, confined to the coasts of India. Mr. Clarke, however, in 
a letter to the writer, in which he has kindly criticised the former Laccadive 
List, states that in Dr. Trimen's opinion the purely maritime G. pachyrrhizus 
cannot be specifically distinguished from C. conglomeratus (Eottb., Descr. et 
Ic, 21, t. 15, f. 7 ; Clarke, Ind. Cyperus, 112), a plant occurring in the deserts 
of North-East Africa and South- West Asia (Nubia, Arabia, Syria, Socotra, 
Beluchistan). 

168. Cyperus pennatus Lamk in Poir., Encyc. Meth., vii, 240 ; 
Clarke, Ind. Cyperus 194, 

10 



74 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Anderat ; Alcoch 1 Kalpeni ; Alcock ! Akati ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
A littoral and estuarine species, extending from the Mascarene Islands to 
India, Malaya and North Australia. 

169. Cyperus dubius Rottb., Descr. et Ic, 20, t. 4, f. 5 ; Roxb., 
Flor. Ind., i, 189 ; Clarke, Ind. Cyperus 197. 

Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A littoral species, extending from Indo-China and Malaya to India, Ceylon, 
the Mascarene Islands and the African Coast. 

170. Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb., Descr. et Ic, 13, t. 4, f. 3. 
Minikoi ; in the sward underneath the coco-nut trees, Fleming ! 
Cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

171. Fimbristylis diphylla Vahl., Enum., ii, 289. Scirpm 
miliaceus Roxb., Flor. Ind., i, 227. 

Kalpeni ; Alcock ! 

The solitary specimen is not a good one, and the identification is not absolute- 
ly certain. The plant is, however, not any of the other Cyperacm enumerated. 
Common on seashores and in wet places throughout the tropics. 

172. Panicum sanguinale Linn., Sp. PL, 57. 

vau. ciliare. P. nliare Retz., Obs., iv, 16 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., i., 293. 
Akati ; dwarfed specimens, Fleming I Minikoi ; very abundant, Fleming ! 
Cosmopolitan in the tropics ; the variety present here seems, however, confined 
to the Eastern Hemisphere. 

173. Oplismenus Burmanni Beauv., Agrost., 54. Panicum Bur- 
manni Retz., Obs., iii, 10 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., i, 298. 

Akati ; Fleming ! Kadamum ; Fleming ! Kiltan ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; 
Fleming ! Everywhere abundant, as is the next species. 
Cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical countries. 

174. Oplismenus compositus Roem. & Schult., Syst., ii, 484. 
Panicum compositum Linn., Sp. PI., 57. P. lanceolatum Roxb., Flor. Ind., i, 
294. 

Ameni ; Hume ! Akati ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
Widely distributed throughout the tropics of the old world. 

175. Setaria verticillata Beauv., Agrost., 51. Panicum verticil- 
latum Linn., Sp. PI. (ed. ii) 82 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind, i, 301. 

Ameni ; a crop, vetnac. " badag," RoUnson. Bangaro ; Hume ! Kadamum ; 
Fleming I Kiltan ; Fleming ! If cultivated at the time of Mr. Robinson's visit 
(1844), apparently not cultivated when Mr. Hume was at the Laccadives (1875) ; 
its presence in the urunhabited island of Bangaro indicates, moreover, that 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 75 

here, as elsewhere, the species is one that readily becomes established as a 
weed. 
Cosmopolitan, in the tropics. 

176. Thuarea sarmentosa Pers., Synops., i, 110. 
Bangaro ; Hume ! Kadamum ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A littoral species, extending from the shores of Polynesia to Malaya, the 
Andamans and Nicobars, Ceylon (Thwaites C. P. 2260), the Laccadives, and the 
Mascarene Islands. As with a number of other littoral species exhibiting the 
same distribution, tins has not yet been collected on the coast of the Indian 
mainland. 

177. Spinifex squarrosus Linn., Mantiss., 300. 

Bitrapar ; everywhere in huge patches inside the belt of Ipomcea Uloba, 
Hume ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A littoral species found on the "Western Indian Coast from Canara (Thomson) 
to Malabar (Rlieede) and on the east from Puri (Clarice) and Gopalpur (Brain) to 
Madras (Wight) and Ceylon (Thwaites). Besides extending to the Laccadives, it 
occurs in Java (Kurz), Siam (SchomburgJc), and China (Hance). But in the 
Calcutta Herbarium there are no specimens from Burma, the Malay Peninsula, 
the Andamans or the Nicobars. The headquarters of the genus is Australia, 
where several species occur ; and if this species has originally come from the 
south-east to India, it has apparently only reached the western, not the eastern, 
side of the Sea of Bengal, first perhaps reaching Ceylon, whence it has crept 
northward along both the coasts of the Indian Peninsula. Why it should not 
have become dispersed northward from Java, along the coasts of Sumatra, the 
Mcobars and Andamans to Burma, it is difficult to conceive. 

178. Oeyza sativa Linn., Sp. PL, 333 ; Eoxb., Flor. Ind., h, 200 ; 
Watt, Diet., v, 498. The Rice crop. 

Anderut ; a small quantity of rice is grown in the rainy season, not more 
than 15 or 20 days' consumption, Wood. 

Generally cultivated throughout the tropics ; probably originally a native of 
India, where it often occurs, as Roxburgh says he has himself seen it in the 
Circars, in a truly wild state, that is, not as an escape from cultivation. It 
occurs thus, for example, in the Sunderbuns along with another species (Oryza 
coardata Roxb., Flor. Ind., ii, 206), winch is perfectly distinct from O. sativa 
in any of its forms, is never found anywhere else than in the Sunderbuns, and 
of which no use whatever is made. 

The notice by Lieut. Wood is the only intimation of the Laccadive islanders 
cultivating the rice crop ; but though they do not apparently attempt to grow 
it now, there is no reason to suppose that Wood was misinformed or mistaken. 
For though Robinson does not mention rice as a crop in 1844-45 — it will be 



76 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

noted that he did not visit Anderat then— he gives a circumstantial account of 
the cultivation of certain millets and pulses in Ameni and Kadamum, but says 
that in Chitlac field-cultivation was then quite insignificant and that in Kiltan 
it had given way altogether before the planting of coco-nut trees. Writing 
thirty years later, Mr. Hume says* that " in former days a certain amount of 
" millets used to be grown in all the islands ; now, even in Ameni, little or 
" none appears to be cultivated, and the people are wholly dependent for their 
" supplies on the mainland, whence they bring, not only rice, but tobacco and 
" salt, which, curiously enough, never seems to have been manufactured on the 
" islands, the people being allowed to get duty-free salt from Goa." 

In Anderat, judging from Dr. Alcock's brief notice of the island, there 
appears to be even to this day more cereal cultivation than in most of the other 
islands ; still he does not speak of rice as being grown, and says that the staple 
crop is ragi (Eleusine Coracana). 

179. Saccbarum officinarum Linn., Sp. PI, 54 ; Eoxb., Flor. Ind., i, 
237. 

Minikoi ; cultivated, Fleming. 
Cultivated throughout the tropics. 

180. Xschaemum ciliare Retz., Obs., vi, 36. /. teneUam Eoxb., 
Flor. Ind., i, 323. 

Kalpeni ; Alcock ! Akati ; Fleming ! Bitrapar ; Fleming f Kadamum ; 
Fleming ! Kiltan ; Fleming ! Everywhere very plentiful. 
Confined to China, India and Indo-China. 

181. Xschaemum muficum Linn., Sp. PI. 1049. /. repms, Eoxb., 
Flor. Ind., i, 323. 

Kalpeni ; Alcock / Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

Extends from S. E. Asia to Australia and Western Polynesia ; is very common 
on the coast in the Andamans and Mcobars. 

182. ikndropogon contortus Linn., Sp. PI. 1045 ; Eoxb., Flor. 
Ind., i, 253. 

Kiltan ; Alcock I Kadamum ; very plentiful, Fleming ! 
A common grass of dry places, cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

183. Andropogon muricatus Eetz., Obs., iii, 43 ; Eoxb., Flor. Ind., i, 
265 ; Watt, Diet., i, 245. The Khus-khus grass. 

Kiltan ; a little clump found growing near the mosque, Fleming / 
Cosmopolitan in the tropics ; here probably introduced. Haeckel (DC, Monogr. 
Plianerog., vi., 542) identifies A. muricatus Eetz. with A. sguarrosus Linn, f., but 
omits to cite Eoxburgh's description of the Khus-khus grass or to say whether 

* " Stray Feathers," iv, HI. 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 77 

in his opinion A. sgmrrosm is, or is not, the Khus-khus. There can, of course, 
be no possibility of doubt as to the grass intended by Koxburgh, though there 
may be some as to the identity of Roxburgh's plant with that of Retzius. 

184. Sorghum vulgare Pers., Synops., i, 101. Andropogon Sorghum 
Roxb., Flor. Ind., i, 269. The Sorghum, vernac. " Jowa." 

Ameni ; cultivated, Rolinson. Kadamum ; cultivated, RoUnson. Minikoi ; 
grows well, but very little cultivated, Fleming. 
Cultivated throughout warm countries. 

185. Apluda aristata Linn., Amoen. Acad., iv, 303 ; Roxb., 
Flor. Ind., i, 324. 

Kadamum ; filling all the outskirts of the jungle, Hume ! Minikoi ; very 
abundant, Fleming ! 

In woods and hedges throughout South-Eastern Asia. 

186. Cynodon Dactylon Pers., Synops., i, 85. Pankum Dcwtylon 
Linn., Sp. PI. 58 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., i, 289. 

Kalpeni ; Alcock ! 

Cosmopolitan in the tropics. The plant from Bangaro, referred with doubt to 
this species by Mr. Hume {Stray Feathers, iv 452), is in reality Thuarea 
sarmentosa. 

187. Eleusine JEgyptiaca Pers., Synops., i, 82 ; Roxb., Flor. 
Ind., i, 344. 

Ameni ; Hume ! Kadamum ; Fleming ! 
A cosmopolitan tropical weed of cultivation. 

188. ELEUsmE Coracana Gaertn., Fruct., i, 8, t. 1, f. 11 ; Roxb., 
Flor. Ind., i, 343 ; "Watt, Diet., hi, 237. The Ragi crop; the Mania Millet. 

Ameni ; Rolinson. Anderat ; Alcock. Kadamum ; Robinson. Kalpeni ; 
Alcock ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A field crop in India, Egypt and Japan. 

189. Eleusine indica Gaertn., Fruct., i, 8 ; Roxb., Flor. Ind., i, 345. 
Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A cosmopolitan tropical species, occurring as a weed in waste places and on 
waysides. 

190. Eragrostis plumosa Steud., Gram., i, 266. E. tenella Trin. 
VAE. plumosa Trin., Act. Petrop, vi, i, 398. Poa plumosa Retz, Obs., iv, 20 ; 

Roxb., Flor. Ind., i, 327. P. tenella Linn. var. Spreng., Syst. Veg., 

i, 341. 

var. typica. 
Kalpeni 5 Alcock ! Akati ; Fleming ! Kadamum ; Fleming ! Kiltan ; Flem- 
ing ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

var. paniculis fastigiatis. 



78 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Akati ; Fleming ! Kadamum ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
A common grass in Indian fields and waste places. 

191. Lepturus repens B. Br., Prodr. Flor. Nov. Holl., i, 207. 
Bangaro ; Hume ! Bitrapar ; Fleming ! Minikoi ; Fleming ! 

A littoral species, extending from Polynesia and Australia to Ceylon, the 
Laccadives and the Mascarene Islands. 

CRVFTOGAIKEIA, 

LYCOPODIACE^. 

192. Fsilotum triquetrum Swartz, Syn. Fil., 117 ; Baker, Fern 
Alhes, 30. 

Minikoi ; Fleming ! 
Cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

FILICES. 

193. Nephrodfum molle Desv., Mem. Soc. Linn., vi, 258 ; Bedd., 
Fems of Brit. Ind., 277. Polypodium parasitimm Linn., Sp. PI. (ed. ii) 1551. 
P.proliferum Roxb., Flor. Ind. (ed. Clarke), 752. 

Anderat ; Alcock ! 
Cosmopohtan in the tropics. 

194. Nephrolepis cordifolia Presl., Tent. Pterid. 79 ; Bedd., 
Ferns of Brit. Ind., 282. Polypodium cordifolium Linn., Sp. PI. (ed. ii) 1549. 

Anderat ; Alcock ! 
Cosmopohtan in the tropics. 

CHAEACE^G. 

195. Chara sp., Alcock, Adm. Eep. Marine Survey, 1891-92, p. 10. 
Akati ; in fresh-water tanks, Alcock. 

Unfortunately, no specimens were collected. It is not at all improbable that 
Zanichellia palustris (Naiadacece) may be found associated with Chara hi this 
place ; it often is in similar localities. 

MUSCI. 

196. Calymperes Dozyanum Mitt, in Journ. Linn. Soc, iii, 
Suppl. 42. C. mollucense Dozy & Molk, Bryol. Jav., i, 47, t. 37, nee 
Schwaegr. 

Minikoi ; Alcock ! 

Extends from Samoa and the Admiralty Islands to the Philippines, Java, the 
Andamans (Great Coco Island, where it is very plentiful), Ceylon, India {teste 
Mitten I.e.) and Minikoi, where it is plentiful. It is the only moss reported 



BOTANY OF THE LACCAD1VES. 79 

from the island ; Dr. Alcock, writing from the "Investigator" remarks . on the 
presence of so much moss and fungus at Minikoi as compared with the other 
islands, where there are hardly any fungi and there is apparently no moss. On 
this point he adds : — " But the island is near the equatorial belt of condensation." 

LICHENES. 

(N. 0. LlCHENACEI.) 

197. Physcia lencomela Michx, Flor. Bor. Am., ii, 356 ; Nyland., 
Synops. Lich., i, 414. 

Minikoi ; on coco-nut trees, Alcock ! 

Cosmopohtan in tropical and temperate regions on tree trunks. 

198. Physcia obscura Fries, Lich. Eur., 84 •; Nyland., Synops. 
Lich., i, 427. 

Minikoi ; on coco-nut trees, Alcock ! 
Cosmopolitan on trees and rocks. 

FUNGI. 
(N. 0. Hymenomycetes.) 

199. Pleurotus cuneatus G. Massed, sp. nov. pileo camosulo, 
tenui, exacte laterali, flabelliformi postice in stipitem brevissimum producto, 
giabro, albo ; lamellis decurrentibus, divergentibus, subconfertis, angustis, albis, 
siccitate palhde ochraceis ; sporis ellipsoideis. 

Minikoi ; on coco-nut trees, Alcock ! 
Nearest to Pleurotus scabrdlus, Berk. 

200. Pleurotus tenuissimus Jungh., Enum. Fung. Jav. 
Minik oi ; on dead screw-pines, Alcock I 

Java. 

201. Schizophyllum commune Fries, Syst. Mycol., i, 330. 
Kiltan ; on rotten branches of Ricinus communis, Fleming / 
Cosmopohtan. 

202. Polyporus sanguineus Fries, Epicris. 404. 

Kadamum ; on decayed coco-nut stumps, Flemi?ig ! Minikoi ; on dead 
branches of screw-pine, Alcock ! 

Cosmopohtan in tropical and subtropical countries. 

203. Polyporus igniarius Fries, Hymen. Eur., 559. 
Minikoi ; Alcock ! 

Cosmopohtan, or nearly so. 

204. Trametes Muelleri Berk., Jour. Linn. Soc, x, 320. 
Minikoi ; Alcock ! 

Australia, Brazil. 



80 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

205. Hirneola polytricha Mont., Syllog. Gen. & Sp. PI. Crypt., 181. 
Minikoi ; " from a wooden house-post," Alcock ! 

Almost cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical countries. 

alg^e. 

206. Nostoc verrucosum Yauch., Conf., 225. 
Minikoi ; covering the ground in damp places, Alcock ! 
Cosmopolitan. 

There are also some Marine Algse, at least in Minikoi on the reefs of the 
weather-side of the island (Alcock, Mm. Rep. > Marine Survey, 1891-92); of 
these no specimens were collected. 

Chaeacteeistic features of the floea. 
The list given above includes 206 species, representing 156 genera and 61. 
natural orders ; 191 of the species are Phanerogams and only 15 are Crypto- 
gams, giving a proportion of flowering to flowerless plants of about thirteen to 
one ; the percentages are : — 
Phanerogams, 93* % ; 
Cryptogams, 7' °/ . 
Of the Phanerogams 150 are Dkots and 41 are Monocots, the proportion here 
being nearly four to one ; the percentages are : — 
Dicotyledons, 78'5 °/ ; 
Monocotyledons, 21*5 °/ . 
Only three vascular cryptogams have been found in the Archipelago, with 
only one moss, while at least one species of Chara occurs ; two-thirds of the 
Cryptogams obtained are Fungi or Lichens. It ought not to be concluded, 
because one of Fungi enumerated has as yet been reported only from Minikoi 
that it is truly endemic in that island ; in all probability it will yet be found to 
occur elsewhere. The Marine Algas mentioned above will in all probability be 
found when they are at length collected to belong to some of the commoner 
Indian Ocean forms. 
A synoptic view of the Mora is given in the table which follows : — 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 



81 









^ 






CQ 



co 



1 
03 



I 
5Q 



CO 



fa" 



c<5 




o .2 






I 



o 






11 



82 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII, 

Of the 60 natural orders, 28 are represented by only one species ; 10 by two 
species ; 7 by three species. The most extensively represented natural orders 
are Leguminous (21 sp.) and Gramimce (20 sp.) ; followed by EuphorUacece, 
(14 sp.) and Compositce (10 sp.) ; Malvacece (9 sp.), BuUacece and Cyperacece 
(each 8 sp.) ; Ccnvolvalacece and Fungi (Hymenomycetes) (each 7 sp.) ; Rutacm, 
Cucurbitacece and Solanacem (each 6 sp.) ; Acanthacece and Urticacem (each 
5 sp.) ; Verlemceae (4 sp.). 

The land-mark height of the islands of the group is usually about 60 feet ; 
none of them exceed this. Deducting, therefore, the 12 to 15 feet of coral forma- 
tion that composes the islands, we find that none of the trees in the group are 
more than 45 to 50 feet high. The tallest trees, and those that in all. the 
inhabited islands, except Kadamum, form at the same time the bulk of the 
vegetation, are the coco-nuts, which are cultivated ; the majority of the 
remaining arboreal forms are also cultivated species, most of them being fruit- 
trees like Anona- muricata, Artocarpus intisa, Mangifera indica, Tamarindus 
indica, or trees like Moringa pterygospmna, with an immediate, or, like Seslania 
grandiflora, with an indirect economic interest. There are only five arboreal 
species that are at all likely to be truly " indigenous " in the accepted sense of 
the term ; four of these — the Thespesia, the Calophyllum, the Pisonia and 
Terminalia Catappa — are probably sea-introduced, the fifth (Ficus nitida) is 
perhaps a bh'd-introduced species ; four, however, as it happens, are known to 
be planted by the inhabitants at least in some of the islands, though three of 
them are undoubtedly " wild" as well as planted. 

In the interior of the majority of the islands there is no true jungle, the whole 
cultivable area being occupied by coco-nut groves with small patches of garden- 
land (leaf) ; on this account there is, as might be expected, only a flora of 
tropical cultivated species, with the usual tropical weeds of cultivation and Indian 
garden escapes reported from the centre or the islands, and with some common 
Indian Ocean littoral species from the sea-fence that lines the shore. In the 
interior of the smaller uninhabited islands, such as Bitra and Bangaro, a dense 
jungle does, indeed, exist ; it is, however, composed of littoral species that have 
spread inward from the beach on both sides of the island till the two sea- fences 
have met and coalesced in the middle. In these islands the jungle is shrubby, 
hardly even subarboreal. The only island where there are considerable tracts of 
unoccupied ground, and where a true interior jungle exists, is Kadamum. Here 
also the jungle is of the nature of " scrub," and though there are present in it 
some quite characteristic inland forms, such as Pavetta, Pleurostylia and 
Flacourtia, which are not reported from the other islands, these do not exclusively 
compose the central jungle; characteristically " littoral" species, Premm, Morinda 
and the like, enter largely into its formation. 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 83 

Only 47 species are woody, 20 of these being trees, 25 shrubs, and 2 climbers. Of 
the 20 trees, 15 are cultivated species ; 4 of the remaining 5 are "littoral." Of the 
159 herbaceous species, 119 are herbs proper, 28 are climbers.and 12 are of the class 
of "tree-herbs" or " shrub-herbs" like Husa or Carica and Agave or Calotropis. 

From the nature of the group we are led to expect that none of the species are 
really indigenous ; further, that the majority of the species must have been intro- 
duced by man, and that next to human agency that of the sea has been most active. 
Detailed examination confirms these anticipations, for we find that as many as 
127 species (three-fifths of the whole flora) are species that have been introduced 
by man. Of these, 52, or a fourth of the whole flora, are purely cultivated 
plants ; 7 others that appear mostly in an apparently wild state are likewise cul- 
tivated ; 4 that are cultivated occur occasionally as escapes. These figures refer 
to plants grown for economic reasons, but there are 13 other species that are 
" garden escapes" in the more usual sense, being bright-flowered or sweet-smelling 
species originally grown deliberately. The remaining 64 species are mere weeds. 

Of the balance, the larger moiety (41 species or one-fifth of the whole flora) 
consists of " littoral" sea-introduced species ; the remainder includes 9 marsh 
or water species (a very small proportion of the flora) and 27 inland species. 

The people of Minikoi cultivate 40 species as against 24 cultivated in Ameni, 
18 in Anderut, 13 in Akati, 13 hi Kiltan and 11 in Kadamum. The figures 
for the other islands are not at all complete. Doubtless, for some of these they are 
imperfect, but there is no reason to doubt that the numbers given are approxi- 
mately true ; they place the islands in a series which accords very well with the 
general accounts that have been given by those who have visited the islands, of 
the relative wealth and comfort of the people. 

The cultivation of most of the species is the direct result of the intercourse 
of the people with the Indian mainland, perhaps the chief exception is their use 
of the South Sea Islanders' Taro (Tacca pinnatifida). Of the cultivated plants, 10 
are originally American, 5 originally African, 2 originally Chinese, the rest either 
Indian or Indo-Malayan ; the cultivation of nearly all the species is now, however, 
cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

The weeds, like the cultivated plants, are by no means evenly distributed 
throughout the Archipelago. Of the whole 64 species, as many as 20 are reported 
from only one island ; even if we allow for the possibility of a species havin 0, 
been here and there overlooked, the proportion is very high. Without goin°- 
into too great detail, it may be noted that 8 of these weeds — one-eighth of the 

weed-list — are reported only from Minikoi ; more remarkable still, 31 species 

very nearly one-half the list — occur in one or other of Laccadives proper, but not 
hi Minikoi. The meaning of this is not very clear ; it may be partly due to 
there being no large waste area in Minikoi, as there is for instance hi Kadamum • 
perhaps, too, the people hold less intercourse with India than do those of the other 



84 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

islands. That they do hold some may be surmised from the presence in 
Minikoi of one species, Antilema ovalifolium., which is found in India only, not 
appearing even in Ceylon or in any of the other Laccadive Islands. It is, of 
course, not impossible that this is a bhd-introcluced species, in which case its 
peculiarly limited area of distribution is difficult to explain. As regards Kadamum, 
the same remarks apply to the even more restricted Cyperus liyalinus ; perhaps, 
however, this species may not be in South India so rare as we at present think. 

So far as their general distribution goes, 26 (40 °/ ) of the weeds are cosmo- 
politan in the tropics — a few have not been reported from the Mascarene Islands, 
though they occur in Africa itself; other 10 are nearly cosmopolitan, being 
present in both hemispheres — of these, 4 are absent from Polynesia, 2 from 
Australia, 3 from Australia and Polynesia, and one, which is confined to 
South-Eastern Asia and America, from Africa also. Altogether, therefore, 36 
of these species, or 56 % of the weeds, occur in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

Of the species absent from the new world, there are 2 which extend from the 
Eastern Hemisphere to Polynesia, and 2 more that extend to Australia without 
reaching Polynesia. As many as 11 species, or 17 % of the weeds, are com- 
mon to Africa and South-Eastern Asia ; but 4 of these are African only in the 
sense that they occur as weeds, no doubt introduced from India, in Mauritius. 
Of the whole, 13 species, or 20 °/ of the weeds, are confined to Asia ; all 
of them occur in India, though it is noteworthy that no fewer than 9 of 
them appear to be unknown in Oeylon ; this being so, we are not surprised to 
find that 14 of them are unknown in Malay countries. 

Considering next the species of the " sylvestrian" class as opposed to those 
introduced by human agency, we expect that as the islands appeared above 
sea-level, they must first have afforded a footing for littoral species. Such 
plants could scarcely in point of time be preceded even by species of the 
wind-introduced class, while the conditions on the islands would be much 
more favourable for sea- introduced than for wind-introduced ones. Introduction 
by birds could only become active after species of the other classes had been 
established and had rendered the islands sufficiently attractive and conspicuous 
for birds to alight on them. We anticipate, therefore, that of the three kinds of 
species mentioned the littoral sea-introduced class should be comparatively 
numerous, the other classes relatively scarce. This expectation is fully borne 
out by the facts. 

The coast-flora includes 41 unequivocally sea-introduced plants, and forms 
a fifth, or 20 %, of the entire Flora. Of these 41 species, 12, or 29 °/ (nearly 
a third), are cosmopolitan on tropical seashores. Of the remainder, 1 1 species, or 
nearly 27 %, extend from Polynesia to these islands, no fewer than 9 of them 
extending further west to Africa, or the Mascarene Islands, or both. There are 
3 species that do not extend further east than to Australia and 13 that do not 



BOTANY OF THE LACCADIVES. 



85 



extend further than Malaya. On the other hand, 2 species (Launm pinnatifida 
and Ctjperus paclujrliizus) find on the Laccadives and the adjacent Indian Coasts 
their extreme eastmost extension ; the Gyp&rus is a plant characteristic of the 
western coasts of India and of Arabia, the Launea occurs on the coasts of 
Eastern Africa — across the Arabian Sea — as well. With these two exceptions 
however, all of the littoral species occur on Malay Coasts, and it is significant of 
the extent to which the sea-board flora is Malayan rather than Indian. When we 
observe that though 39, or over 97 %, of them are found in Malaya, no fewer 
than 8, or 20 %, of them are absent from the neighbouring Indian Coasts. 
The islands come, therefore, more within the influence of those ocean-currents 
that sweep up from the south-east from Malayan Seas than does the Indian 
Coast ; their shores, therefore, have some of the species characteristic of nearly 
every tropical coast from Fiji to the Seychelles that are wanting in India. 

Of inland as opposed to littoral species those that are wind-introduced, as being 
likely to appear earliest, are the first to be considered. These are Phanerogams 
with seeds or fruits fitted for wind-carriage— of which there are here but two 
unequivocal examples (Tylophora and Leptadmia)—m& small spored Cryptogams, 
of which there are 14. The two Phanerogams are species confined to South- 
Eastern Asia ; of the Cryptogams, on the other hand, 10 are cosmopolitan in the 
tropics ; one (Trametes MueUeri, which occurs likewise in Australia and in South 
America) is nearly so ; another (Cahjmperes Dozijanum) occurs throughout South- 
Eastern Asia and in Polynesia ; only two are confined to South-Eastern Asia, 
and of these one has, so far as is at present known, been found only in Minikoi. 

Of the species introduced by birds, whether by being carried in pellets of mud 
or otherwise attached to their feet or their feathers, or earned as undigested 
seeds in then crops, the flora affords very few examples. 

Of the former subgroup, consisting of marsh weeds with small seeds or fruits, 
there are but 9 unequivocal examples. They are, as a rale, widely distributed 
species ; here, for example, three occur in both hemispheres— two are found 
throughout the tropics of the old world ; one extends from India to Polynesia. 
Only one is confined to South-Eastern Asia, and of one— the Chora, whose 
specific identity is unknown — we cannot speak. 

Of the second subgroup, species with soft fruits but resistent seeds, there are 
only 8 clear examples. Their most notable feature as compared with the last is 
then confined distribution. None are cosmopolitan, only one extends eastwards 
as far as Polynesia, and this one (Fiats nitidd) does not even in that direction 
pass beyond New Caledonia ; at the same time only one {Datum fastwsa) ex- 
tends to America, and though its introduction by birds is clearly possible,* it is, no 
doubt, more usually introduced by man. While three species extend to Austra- 
ha and four to the Mascarene Islands or Africa , it is worthy of note that none of 
* Praia, Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1891), p. 171. 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 



them occur both in Africa and hi Australia. Indeed, one species, Pleurostylia 
Wiglitii, exhibits the peculiarity of being restricted to Ceylon, Southern India, 
the Island of Kadamum and Mauritius ; with this solitary exception, however, 
all the species of this kind occur in Malaya, as well as in India and Ceylon. 

Eeviewing in tabular form the facts indicated in the preceding paragraphs, 
we find the number and proportion of the species that have been certainly, or 
possibly, or probably influenced by the various distributive agencies to be as 

follows : — 

Table IV. — Modes of introduction of Laceadive Plants. 





Certainly. 


Possibly. 


Probably. 


Introduced by 


No. of Sp. 


Per cent. 


No. of Sp. 


Per cent. 


No. of Sp. 


Per cent. 




115 
35 
1G 
15 


56 % 

12% 
8% 
7% 


139 
45 
18 
21 


68 % 

22 % 

9°o 

10 % 


129 
41 
17 
19 


63% 




20% 




8% 




9% 







At the same time, omitting from consideration the cultivated species and 
garden escapes, the majority of which are exotics, as well as the undetermined 
Ghara the general distribution of the Laceadive Flora may be tabulated as 

follows : — 

Table V. — Synopsis of Distribution of Laceadive Species. 



Cultivated species, garden escapes, undetermined species 



Cosmopolitan in the tropics 



Almost so : present in both Hemispheres 

Absent from Polynesia only 4 

Absent from Australia only 2 

Absent from Australia and Polynesia 4 

Absent from Africa, Australia, Polynesia 2 



l°c 

2°c 
1°/, 



Confined to Old World 

In Africa, Asia, Australia , Polynesia 13 

In Africa, Asia, Australia 5 

In Africa and Asia 19 



66 
51 
12 



77 



In Asia, Australia, Polynesia ■ 4 

In Asia, Australia 2 

In Asia, Polynesia 2 



Confined to S.E. Asia 32 



6-3 
2-2 
9-3 



15-5 



Total 



206 



31-6% 

25-1% 
6 % 



37-3% 



lOtf % 



87 



NOTES ON SPOUT IN SOMALI LAND. 

By C. G. Dodgson, I. C. S. 

(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society 
on 21st June 1893.) 

I spent 10 weeks in Somali Land during the past cold season ; at this time of 
year there is very little water in the country, almost all the nullahs being dry, and 
water being obtainable only by digging deep down into the sandy beds of the 
streams, and occasionally found hi pools which are drying up. The Sorualis are 
nearly all to be found north of the range of hills which runs east and west 
parallel to the coast line and at a distance of about 30 or 40 miles from it. The 
high lying plateau to the. south of these hills is almost devoid of human 
habitation during the dry season ; the result is, that the lions, dependent as they 
are, to a great extent, on the peoples' sheep and camels for food, are generally 
fairly close to the Somalis' " karias," or temporary settlements. The antelope, on 
the other hand, are mostly further south far away from water, which they can do 
without, and undisturbed by camels and cattle grazing and by the sight of man, 

The maritime plain extends for about 30 miles inland up to the foot of the 
high range of hills which runs east and west ; there is, at all events in the dry 
season, very little game to be seen between Berbera and the hills. I was told 
that south of Bulhar, which lies to the west of Berbera, things are better in this 
respect ; as far as my experience goes, the best country is to the south of the 
range of hills on the plateau, which is, roughly speaking, about 4,000 feet above 
the level of the sea. The ground here is good for tracking, consisting, due 
south of Berbera, of loose red soil, free from stones ; as one, however, marches 
further west, the plateau becomes more undulating. The lower lands, which 
contain the densest vegetation, are excellent for tracking over ; the higher lands, 
which are mostly covered with a scanty growth of small thorny bushes, are freely 
strewn with stones and pebbles, which in some parts are so numerous as to render 
it absolutely impossible to follow an animal for a yard by his footprints, 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 



The following is a list of the game animals to be found north of the " Haud," 
or waterless tract of country which runs east and west across the high plateau :— 



English name. 



Latin name. 



Somali name. 



6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



Sand Antelope 

Waller's Gazelle 

Oryx .. 

Soemmering's Gazelle.. 

Gazelle -j 

Larger Kudu 

Lesser Kudu 

Klipspringer 

Warthog 

Panther 

Lion ■ 

Elephant 

Wild Ass 

Spotted Hyeena 

Striped Hyaena 

Hartbeest 



Neotragus saltianis 

Gazella walleri 

Oryx beisa 

Gazella soemmeringii 

G. spekii or naso and \ 
G. pelzelni. J 

Strepsiceros kudu 

Strepsiceros imberbis ... 
Nanotragus oreotragus ... 
Phacocoerus fethiopicus ... 

Felispardus 

Felis leo 

Elephas africanus 

Equus somalicus 

Hyaena crocuta 

Hyasna striata . « 

Bubahs swaynei 



Sagaro. 
Gerenouk. 
Be'id. 
Awal. 

Dhero. 

Godir. 

Anderio or Arreh. 

Alakucl. 

Dophur. 

Sheybelle. 

Libah. 

Marode. 

Duber. 

Waraba. 

Lidda. 

Syg. 



Besides the above-mentioned animals, there are also to be found ostriches, 
hares, 2 species of foxes, jackals, porcupines, and lynx. Of the 16 animals 
in the above list, I succeeded in shooting specimens of each of the first eleven 
kinds, besides seeing specimens of JSTos. 12, 13 and 14. 

I will now briefly describe such animals as I became acquainted with. I do 
not propose going into detailed descriptions of colour of skin or she pe of horns. 
Such descriptions have already appeared in this Society's Journal, No. 4, Vol. VI, 
in the paper read by Mr. J. D. Inverarity in September, 1891, and I could add 
but little, if anything, to them. 

The commonest and most widely distributed of all the antelope is undoubtedly 
the tiny sand antelope ; he is to be seen close to Berbera among the small 
scattered bushes which grow on the maritime plain, and among the ravines at 
the foot of the high range of hills which I have already spoken of as running 
parallel to the coast-line. He is also found on the plateau to the south of this 
range and also in the hilly wild country in the far west. It seems to him to be quite 
immaterial whether he lives in long grass, under the shade of bushes, or hidden 
away among the aloe plants which are common in many parts of Somali Land. 
This antelope is only about 12 inches in height, and though he affords pretty 
shooting with a rook rifle, can best be seemed with a shot gun and No. 4 shot ; 
the pace with which he manages to dart in and out of the bushes is extraordi- 
nary, and makes him anything but an easy object to hit. There appears to be 
no difference in colour between the males and females, the general colour being 



NOTES ON SPORT IN SOMALI LAND. 



89 



dark grey. The males are distinguishable from the females by having short 
upright horns and a tuft of dark chestnut hair on the forehead. They are Gener- 
ally found in couples, and, like almost all the other antelope of Somali Land 
appear to be quite independent of water. The Somalis seldom eat it, saying that 
they do not like the taste ; but to me it tasted very much like that of other 
antelope. Somahs in talking to a European about tins antelope call it the Dik- 
Dik, believing this word to be English ; it is not a Somali word, the word 
used by the natives of the country being Sagaro. A peculiarity of the horns 
of tins antelope is, that when looked at from in front, the flat part or side is 
seen better than if looked at from the side ; the horns, if looked at from behind, 
present a rounded appearance. 

Next to the sand antelope, the commonest antelope is Waller's gazelle. I saw 
these antelope in every kind of country, both near to and far from water ; they 
are extremely shy and when once alarmed seldom give one a chance of getting 
near them again. The males are somewhat darker in colour and larger in body 
than the females, and are easily to be distinguished from them by the fact that 
the latter have no horns. The most striking peculiarity about this antelope is 
the length of its neck ; the distance from between the horns to the top of the 
shoulder-blades of a full grown buck which I measured was, to the best of my 
recollection, about 24 inches. The other measurements which I took of this 
particular animal were — 

From nose to insertion of tail ... ... ... ... 4 ft. 5 in. 

Height at shoulder ... ... ... ... ... 3 ft. 4 in. 

From point of elbow to heel ... ... ... ... 2 ft. 2 in. 

These figures show that the animal is long and slightly built ; his long legs 
and long neck are most useful to him in helping him to reach high up to the 
branches of trees. On several occasions I saw these antelope standing on their 
hind legs, with then forefeet resting among the branches of a tree and them- 
selves busy nibbling at the leaves, in exactly the same way that goats do ; 
doubtless, nature has provided the long neck to assist them in this habit. The 
largest herd of Waller's gazelle which I ever saw consisted of 1 1 animals ; as a 
rule, a herd consists of about 6 or 7 animals. Between the horns on the top 
of the head there is a triangular patch of brown hair, darker on the bucks than 
on the does ; with age it turns greyish. The following are the measurements 
of the 4 largest pairs of horns in my possession : — 



Round upper 

curve from base 

to tip. 



Straight line 
from base to tip. 



Tip to tip. 



Circumference 
at base. 



Inches. 
151 

12$ 

12* 



Inches. 
121 

HI 
10f 

101 



Inches. 

5 

4 



Inches. 
5£ 



The oryx is probably the next most generally distributed of the antelopes ; 
he is extremely shy, and I never saw one anywhere near human habitations. 



12 



90 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 



Until I had seen a considerable number, I was always unable to distinguish 
between the sexes, the horns of the does being quite as long as those of the 
bucks, and I consequently, shot some females. If one can, however, get to within 
100 yards of a herd, which, by the bye, it is extremely difficult to do, 
the heavier head and shoulders of the male enable one to pick him out 
from among the females. The general appearance of this antelope is at first 
sight somewhat disappointing ; his extremely heavy shoulders and high withers, 
his broad muzzle, his manner of carrying his head low, the muzzle pointed 
almost straight downwards when galloping, and his heavy lumbering action, take 
away considerably from bis game-like appearance. I exhibit a photograph which 
gives a very fair idea of his appearance. Oryx are to be found in large herds ; 
on several occasions I saw herds of between 20 or 30, and on one occasion 
counted no less than 52 animals in one herd. This large herd was grazing in a 
vast open plain. As far as the eye could reach, there was not a sign of a shrub or 
bush of any kind — nothing but a sea of yellow grass. The oryx were extremely 
wild, and there being absolutely no cover, it was impossible to get anywhere within 
shot of them. I was greatly struck with the precision of the movements of this 
large herd. Among bushes a herd of oryx, when disturbed, gallops away in a 
dense throng, without any order or attempt to keep in fine. On this open 
plain, however, the herd grazed along, keeping an excellent line, the animals 
all walking side by side ; when disturbed, they galloped away, keeping 
the same correct line. They wheeled to the right and left, with almost military 
precision, and also, when turning to the right or left, travelled along in single file, 
one behind the other, in perfect order. As a general rule, the horns of the females 
are apt to be somewhat longer than those of the males, but less thick ; this will 
be seen from the following measurements, which are those of some of the horns 
in my possession : — 



Length from base to tip. 



Circumference 
round base. 



Circumference 

12 inches above 

the base. 







84 (right) and 31£ (left). 



311 

31* 

27i 

331 

32| 
30 



6 

6* 



4| 



4* 

31 



8| 



The two oldest males which I shot are those shown above as Nos. 1 and 4. 
The horns of No. 4, though heavy and massive, are much blunted and worn 



NOTES ON SPORT IN SOMALI LAND. 91 

away at the points ; in the case of male No. 1, there is a considerable difference 
between the length of the two horns. I found some difference in nearly every 
pan of horns I seemed. Somalis, I am told, ride down and spear oryx in the 
rainy reason ; then grass-fed ponies have, I believe, no difficulty in overtaking 
these antelopes. One day one of the Somalis with me pursued on a pony a herd 
of oryx, one of which I had wounded and although the ground was stony and 
the pony not a particularly good one, he soon managed to get up to and 
ride alongside of the herd. The oryx are said to turn to bay at times 
when thus i pursued, and I quite believe it, for on one occasion when 2 Somalis 
with me ran up to cut the throat of an oryx which I had fired at and 
knocked down, tho animal managed to spring to his feet and dash forwards 
for a few yards at the two men — a proceeding which made them beat an 
uncommonly hasty retreat. I had to put another bullet into this antelope 
before the men could " halal" him. I have recorded no measurements of the 
height of oryx, but I consider him to be between 3 ft. 9 in. and 4 ft. at the 
withers. 

Like Waller's gazelle and the oryx, Soemmering's gazelle is also a desert 
antelope, living far from water, and picking up in the dry season an apparently 
precarious livelihood on stunted tufts of dried-up grass. I saw these antelopes 
both in bush-covered country and on the vast open plain, which I have mentioned 
above as the place where I saw the large herd of oryx. Soemmering's 
gazelle generally go in herds, but I at times saw solitary bucks. The herds 
contain, as a rule, about 20 members : but on two or three occasions I saw much 
larger numbers, a herd of probably not less than 70 animals being the largest 
which I came across. This antelope is much easier to approach than any 
other antelope in Somali Land, and, even when disturbed, will generally not 
run far, but will allow one, time after time, to get within shot. Then behaviour 
always reminded me strongly of Indian black buck. A herd will let you 
approach to within, say, 200 yards, but will then begin to show signs of uneasi- 
ness, gradually moving off, without, however, at once breaking into a gallop ; 
if still followed, they will probably start away at a trot, but after going 200 
or 300 yards, will again subside into a walk and go on grazing as if nothing 
had occurred to alarm them. On one occasion it was not until I had fired 3 
shots at a herd bagging 2 bucks that they made up their mind to go off 
altogether. When galloping, they cover the ground at a tremendous pace, 
but I never saw them indulge in the high bounds into the ah which Indian 
black buck are so fond of. The females have slightly annulated horns, of just 
the same length as those of the males, but somewhat thinner ; this fact 
makes it sometimes very difficult to distinguish between the sexes, if the antelope 
are standing at, say, 150 yards among bushes. The following are the 
measurements of some of the best horns in my possession ; I give the 



92 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

length, &c, of the does', as well as of the bucks' horns, for the sake of com- 
parison : — 







Straight line from 


Round curve from 


Tip to tip. 


Circumference 






base to tip. 


base to tip. 


round the base. 


00 


fl 


13 


16* 


3f 


3 


% 


12 


14| 


15§ 


6£ 


H 


h 














(1 


I5i 


17| 


3 


5f 


w 

r2 


a 


14$ 


17* 


*i 


5* 


03 ' 


) 3 


14 


16| 


4 


6* 


u 


131 


17 


6 


H 



Of the above horns, the best pah (male No. 1) was picked up by me in the 
jungle ; the rest I shot myself. The distance between the tips varies consider- 
ably in different animals. In the case of one small buck which I shot, whose 
horns were about 4 inches long, the tips actually overlapped each other. Not 
only do the dimensions vary in different animals, but there is also a great 
difference in shape. Out of seven pairs of bucks' horns in my possession, the 
tips of 4 point forwards and of 3 point backwards ; the does' horns which I 
have also point backwards. 

There is some doubt as to whether Gazella spelvii (or nasd) and Gazella 
pelzelni are different species or not. There certainly appeared to me to be some 
difference between the gazelle of the plain near Berbera and those of the high 
plateau to the south ; all the gazelle which I saw on the plateau struck me as 
having a dark stripe of brown, and sometimes almost black, hair along the side. 
I do not remember ever seeing this stripe on the gazelle of the plain near 
Berbera. Both the gazelle of the plain and those of the plateau have loose skin 
on the nose, but it is much more marked among the latter than among the 
former. The first gazelle which I shot in Somali Land was about 15 miles from 
Berbera. I looked for the loose pouch of skin on the nose said to be characteris- 
tic of G. naso, and found that the skin was no doubt loose and could be pulled 
up, but this characteristic was so very- slightly defined that I should not have 
noticed it had I not looked for it. In the case of the next gazelle which I 
shot, this time on the plateau, I at once caught sight of the pouch or flabby 
loose skin which lies wrinkled up on the top of the nose ; it was most marked. 
I shot altogether 8 gazelles — 4 on the plateau and 4 on the Berbera plain, and in 
every case I noticed the above-mentioned differences ; besides the absence of the 
dark stripe on its side, the skin of the gazelle of the maritime plain is, to my 
mind, of distinctly fighter colour and more yellow than is the gazelle of the 
plateau, the latter being much browner. Whether these differences are' suffici- 
ent to justify a division of the animals into 2 different species is a question to be 
decided by more learned naturalists than myself ; as far as my experience 



NOTES ON SPORT IN SOMALI LAND. 



93 



goes, there is no difference whatever between the horns of the 2 species. The 
Somali gazelle closely resembles the Indian chinkara (G. Unnettii) in behaviour 
and general character ; it would be difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish 
between the horns of the African and Indian species. 

The larger kudu is not a desert antelope. He lives on steep hillsides, chiefly 
among well- wooded ravines and in good shade. In character he always reminded 
me of sambar, living in much the same style of country, and having the same 
capacity of dashing at full speed through, what at first sight might appear, an 
impenetrable thicket. He is seldom found very far from water, although he 
does not drink daily. I believe that in South Africa these antelope can be 
ridden down and killed off horse-back. This would be impossible in Somali Land 
owing to the nature of the ground. The does have no homs and are of a pale 
brown colour, the bucks being dark blue, very much like Indian nilgai in 
colour. Both sexes have a ridge of hair along the spine and transverse white 
stripes running down the sides. The stripes on the female are more numerous 
than those on the male, but I cannot say exactly how many the females have. 
The number of stripes on the males differs with different animals. I shot 2 
males, one of which, a very old animal, had 7 stripes on each side, the other 
having 6 stripes on one side and 5 on the other. The Somalis say that the number 
of stripes diminishes with increasing years. This I do not believe, The old male 
which I shot had lost large patches of hair all over his body and head, evidently 
from old age ; but the remains of the 7 stripes on each side can easily be counted. 
If any one of these had entirely disappeared, it would have been because all the 
han had gone, leaving the skin exposed to view, not because the hair had 
changed colour. The number of white spots on the cheeks also varies in differ- 
ent animals, some having 2, some 3 spots. The Somalis say that young kudu 
are born in April and May. This is very likely correct, as I saw, at the end of 
November, fawns which might have been 6 or 7 months old. The following are 
the dimensions of the horns of the 2 larger kudu which I shot : — 



Straight line from 
base to tip. 



Along the curve 
from base to tip. 



Tip to tip. 



Circumference 
round base. 



S6| 

36 



494 



32 

21| 



in 



No. 1 was an older animal than No. 2 ; he measured 4 ft. 8 in. at the shoulder, 
and 6 ft. 7 in. from the nose to the insertion of the tail. 

The lesser kudu, like the larger kudu, is, I believe, seldom found far from 
water, but, unlike him, does not five on hill-sides. He prefers dense milk bush 
jungle and rough broken ground at the foot of the hills. He is not an easy animal 
to shoot, owing to the thick cover in which he fives, enabling him at the first 
sign of danger to put a bush or other shelter between himself and the sportsman. 



94 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

His beautiful marking makes him one of the most lovely of antelopes. The 
females have no horns, and, as in the case of the larger kudu, are brown, whereas 
the males are dark slate-colour. I shot 2 bucks, one having 9 white stripes on one 
side and 10 on the other, the other having 13 on one side and 14 on the other. 
These 2 antelope measured, respectively, 3 ft. 7 in. and 3 ft. 1\ in. in height at 
the shoulder. Lesser kudu seem extremely fond of aloes, a species of milk bush, 
and a creeper with thick fleshy leaves. They are frequently seen in small herds. 
The largest herd I saw consisted of 2 bucks and 5 does. The photograph which 
I exhibit is that of a lesser kudu, wounded, but alive ; it gives an idea of the 
nature of the bushes among which he lives. 

The klipspringer lives solely among the hills, and is generally found among 
high boulders and rocks. His tiny little hoofs, which are very high, enable him 
to secure a footing on what look like perfectly inaccessible rocky slopes, and the 
manner in which he bounds from one boulder to another is astonishing. When 
disturbed, he utters a loud hissing sound, which is at times apt to betray his 
presence, for his brown colour blends wonderfully well with the rocks among 
which he lives. The females have no horns, those of the males being short, 
upright, and between 3 and 4 inches in length. The Somalis affect to despise the 
flesh of this antelope ; to my taste, it is quite worth eating. Klipspringers are 
seldom found alone. I always saw 2 or 3 together, and on one occasion saw 5 
in a herd. The hair is most peculiar, being stiff and about an inch long, and 
rather suggestive of a porcupine's bristles on a small scale. 

Of the warthog I can say very little, as I did not succeed in getting a boar. 
I saw warthog on two occasions, and was at once struck by the almost total 
absence of neck, the formidable-looking tusks, and the position of the tail, which 
appears to be always carried pointed straight up in the air. The colour of these 
animals seemed to me to vary with the locality in which they were. Out on a 
vast grass-covered plain, with little or no cover on it, these pigs looked quite 
yellow, thus matching the dried-up grass ; in bush-covered land, with an under- 
growth of aloes, their colour was grey, like that of ordinary Indian pig. I shot 
a sow, whose tusks looked quite as big as those of most boars in India. Very 
little of the tusk is embedded in the gum, nearly the whole of it protruding. 

The panther of Somali Land is exactly the same as the Indian animal, except 
that the skin is somewhat paler in colour. They appear to do a great deal of 
damage among the sheep and goats of the Somalis, but, I believe, very seldom 
kill ponies or donkeys. On two occasions a panther came close to my zeriba, but 
he took no notice of the donkey which was tied outside. This particular panther, 
which I afterwards shot, measured 4 ft. 1 in. from the nose to the insertion of 
the tail, which was 2 ft. 8 in. long. An Indian panther, with a body 4 ft. 1 in. 
in length, would have made short work of the donkey. I cannot help thinking 
that the Somali panther is less powerful than his Indian brother. I shot three, 



NOTES ON SPORT IN SOMALI LAND. 95 

measuring, respectively, 4 ft. 1 in., 3 ft. 11£ in., and 3 ft. 11 in., from nose to 
the msertion of the tail (I leave out all mention of the measurement of the tails, 
because the length of an animal's tail has nothing whatever to do with his size 
and strength). None of these were particularly smaU animals, but the fact that 
they confine their attention to small animals, like sheep and goats, seems to show 
that ponies and donkeys are too big for them. 

The Hon is, undoubtedly, the animal most in request among sportsmen in 
Somali Land. Large numbers have been killed, and, before much longer, it will 
be necessary to go very far inland for them. I did not see one until I had 
travelled nearly 200 miles in one direction and another, and was about 100 miles 
in a straight line from Berbera. The lions depend very largely for food upon the 
sheep, donkeys and camels belonging to the natives of the . country ; they are, 
consequently, generally to be found somewhere in the neighbourhood of the 
Somali " karias " or temporary settlements. They can be shot either by day, by 
means of tracking and beating, or by night, the sportsman lying hidden in a 
small thom enclosure, with a live donkey or, better still, an animal that has been 
recently killed by a lion, close by outside, and with a hole in the enclosure to 
fire through. I never had a liking for night shooting, and though I tried it three 
or four times in Somali Land, soon gave it up. All the sport I had with lions was 
in the daytime. The country is mostly excellent for tracking, and, provided one 
can find fresh tracks fairly early in the morning, there is every chance of, at all 
events, seeing the animal before the evening. The lions sometimes Me up during 
the daytime in the cool shade of patches of long grass or of dense thickets of 
bushes. When a Hon is marked down in some such place as this, he can be 
driven out by beaters or, if necessary, by means of fire. In the country in which 
I was there were very few places to which one could point as being more likely 
to hold a lion than others : the ground was covered with small bushes scattered 
here and there, and a Hon might lie up anywhere. The result was that, when 
tracked up to, the lions, which were practically oat in the open, constantly sprang 
up before me and galloped off. They, however, never went far, and by dint of 
constant tracking, it was generally possible to come up to them again and again 
until by stalking and running forward a shot could be obtained. Such shots 
are, however, apt to be fairly long. I found men mounted on ponies to be of 
great assistance in this style of country. If the Hon takes alarm and makes off, 
the horsemen follow him and try to keep him in sight. By shouting they save 
the trackers and sportsmen a great deal of trouble, as the latter merely have then 
to follow the sound ; and if the country is at all open, the horsemen can generally 
head the lion and either drive him back to the gun, or, what I found generally 
to happen, the Hon, finding that he cannot escape, lies down and lets you come 
up and have a close shot at him. As compared with a tiger, I consider the lion 
in no way physically inferior ; on the contrary, the lion's hind-quarters appeared 



96 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

to me to be more in proportion to the rest of his body than is the case with the 
tiger. The difference between the pugs of a lion and those of a lioness is much 
more marked than in the case of tigers ; that of the female is long and narrow, 
that of the male is broader and more square. In the case of the tiger the same 
rule applies, but it is, as far as my experience goes, much easier to be mistaken 
as to the sex of the animals whose tracks one is looking at in India than in 
Somali Land. AJ1 the lions I shot had a tuft of hair on the elbow. The mane 
is disappointing, not being nearly so full as is seen on lions kept in zoological 
gardens. A mane with hah* 10 niches long, I should consider a very fine one. 
At the end of the tail there is a tuft of black hair. If this were shaved off, a 
small prickle of horny substance would be seen attached to the skin. This prickle 
is less than £ of an inch in length and is not sharp. The colour of lions varies 
considerably ; most appear to be of a dark straw colour ; but some are occasion- 
ally found very much darker, being in fact of a distinctly brownish- grey hue ; 
the manes too vary in colour, some being pure yellow, others having a consider- 
able quantity of brown or even black hair intermingled with the yellow ; the 
brown and black hairs he along the top of the shoulder-blades, and also stretch 
downwards in front of the shoulder at right angles to this ridge. 

I was fortunate enough to see a lioness kill an antelope in broad day-light. I had 
tracked a honess one afternoon till about 5 p.m., when the tracks went up on 
to high-lying stony ground, such as I have already described, on which it was 
impossible to follow them for a yard. I, however, walked on in the direction in 
which they led, more with the idea of shooting anything that I might see than 
with any thought of finding the honess ; after going about half a mile over the 
stones, I saw a herd of Soemmering's gazelle, which I succeeded in getting 
close to, firing two shots at them ; the 2nd shot hit a buck low down on the 
shoulder, knocking him over but not killing him ; the whole herd bolted, the 
wounded animal straggling to Ms feet and limping slowly after the rest ; at this 
moment a lioness, evidently the one I had been tracking, rushed out from behind 
a small leafless bush about 30 yards from where I was and passing close by me 
made for the wounded antelope, overtaking it. She rushed out from behind the 
bush without uttering a sound and covered the ground at a great pace; although 
she was not more than about 130 yards from me when she came up with the 
antelope, it was not easy to see how she really killed it ; she seemed to rash right 
over it and I saw her grip it with her jaws by the back of the neck, both 
animals then sliding along the ground for some yards in a cloud of dust. I 
next saw her shake the antelope violently, much as a terrier would do with a 
rat and then he down, apparently sucking the blood which poured from the 
neck. Had I had the patience to wait a httle longer I should no doubt have seen 
her either drag away the dead body or eat it on the spot, but I stopped all further 
proceedings by firing and knocking her over. I afterwards examined the dead 



NOTES ON SPORT IN SOMALI LAND. 97 

body of the antelope ; the neck was not broken and the lioness had not used her 
paws at all, the skin being free from claw marks ; life seemed to have been simply 
shaken and crashed ont of the antelope, and I do not wonder at it from the way 
in which the lioness swung the body from side to side. It is curious that the 
lioness apparently took no notice either of me or of the first shot which I fired ; 
she must have been close by at the time and have heard the report, for the 
2 shots were fired from almost exactly the same place and the interval of time 
between them was certainly not more than a minute. 

I obtained two lion cubs from some Somalis who had found them in the 
grass in the absence of their mother ; the men who found them said that their 
eyes were not open when they first came across them ; I got them 3 days later, 
then eyes being then open ; they were probably not more than a fortnight old 
when they came into my possession ; they were at that time each about 20 
inches long including the tail ; the hair of each cub was long and fluffy, the 
whole body was covered with black spots which were especially dense about the 
head and along the top of the back ; the last 2£ or 3 inches of the tail from the 
end were marked by 2 or 3 black transversal stripes like a tiger's, and there 
were also 2 or 3 similar black bars across the back of the hind legs above the 
hocks ; the cubs had no teeth whatever when I first got possession of them ; but 
after a week the front teeth began to appear ; I parted with the cubs about 
10 days later, i. e., when they were about 4 or 5 weeks old ; the front teeth 
were then well forward, but there were as yet no signs of any but the small front 
teeth ; the cubs grew about 3 inches in length during the 16 days they were 
with me, besides increasing considerably in bulk and strength ; I fed them solely 
on goat's milk. 

Of animals which I did not shoot, but saw, the largest was undoubtedly 
the elephant. Not many years ago, elephants were fairly common in 
the hills South of Berbera, but owing to having been constantly pursued 
of late years by sportsmen, they have retreated far to the west ; those 
I saw were about 160 miles south-west of Berbera ; when I got close to 
them, they turned out to be a cow and 3 young ones ; I accordingly left them 
alone. I never came across a bull, not having sufficient time at my disposal to 
stop long enough in the elephant country ; I saw the track of what I was told 
was a bull, in firm, damp sand ; the impression of the front feet was 18 inches 
long by 14 inches wide, and of the hind feet 17 inches long by 11 or 12 inches 
in width. The elephants appear to travel immense distances every night both to 
and from, water ; those I saw must have walked about 10 or 12 miles from the 
water where they drank and from which I followed them, before I came up with 
them ; it was then early in the afternoon and they showed no signs of stopping. 
Considering the weight of an elephant, it is surprising how very trifling an im- 
pression his feet leave on the ground ; on hard stony ground, there is practically 
13 



98 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

no imprint, the grass knocked away by his feet being practically the only indi- 
cation of his having passed by ; on firm sandy soil the impression is clear but 
not deep. The elephants appear to feed largely on a particular kind of creeper 
which is very common in Somali Land, and also on aloes, the broken pieces of 
which lay strewn all along the path of those I followed. The country in which 
I found these animals was hilly ; the vegetation consisted of the usual low 
thorny bushes and also of a high species of cactus to which I regret I am unable 
to give a name ; these cactus plants grow to a height of about 40 feet, the 
branches shooting out from the trunk about 6 feet from the ground ; they are 
sometimes found in clumps covering several acres of ground ; their arching 
branches afford dense shade, the gloom of which appears most popular with 
the elephants, as I always found many signs of these animals having been 
in such places ; the photograph, which I exhibit, gives some idea of what these 
cactus groves are like. Somali " Midgans " (a low caste tribe of hunters) Mil 
elephants with poisoned arrows. 

Although I never shot a spotted hyaena, I saw three and came on their tracks 
almost every day ; they are most voracious animals and will eat almost anything ; 
they do a considerable amount of damage among the Somali sheep and goats. 
Somalis repeatedly assured me that 4 or 5 spotted hyenas would not hesitate to 
make a joint attack on a lion and drive him off his prey, and that lions were 
occasionally killed in such encounters ; this, if true, gives a high impression of 
the hyamas' strength and courage. 

I twice saw wild donkeys but did not succeed in getting within 400 yards of 
them on either occasion. Their colour struck me as being much lighter than 
that of tame donkeys and in height they seemed to be higher ; their action 
when trotting gave them a very game-like appearance. 

I one day saw an ostrich, but he was about a thousand yards away and I 
could only make him out with the help of a telescope. The moment he saw me 
he made off without giving me a chance. I saw 2 porcupines, exactly the same as 
the common Indian species ; a lynx which I saw was a young one, which a 
Somali had caught ; he seemed to me to be just the same as the common species 
in this country (Xelis caracal) ; the animal appears to be rare in Somali Land, 
for the Somalis with me had no name for it. I noticed two kinds of foxes, one 
with a black back and tail, the other quite brown; a jackal which I shot was very 
handsomely marked with a broad black mark about 4 inches wide runnmg down 
the back from head to tail, the sides being yellowish-brown and the tail black. 
I noticed two kinds of squirrels, one quite brown, which appears to live entirely 
on the ground, bolting into holes when disturbed and apparently never taking to 
trees ; the other having a fringe of white hairs on either side of its tail ; a species 
of field-rat with a long pointed snout about 2" or 2%" long was also common. 
Hares, which are common, seem to be the same as in India. 




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99 
THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 

BY 

Surgeon-Major K. R. Kirtiker, I.M.S ; F.L.S. 
PART V, 
(With Plate G.) 
(Continued from Vol VII., page 493.) 

CUCUMIS TRIGONUS.— [Roxb.]. 

(Natural Order — Cucurbitace,e.) 

Marathi— KARIT. (%rfc.) 

The plant grows wild in the Konkan ; it is an annual, succulent, 
scabrous creeper, trailing along the ground or over hedges for several 
yards at a stretch. 

Root. — Perennial ; trailing a good distance above ground some- 
timesj throwing out rootlets into the soil ; ^reddish outside, green 
inside ; juicy ; bitter. 

Stem. — Succulent, quadrangular ; tendrils short ? wavy, simple 
lateral and formed of abortive stipules. Rarely bifurcated at apex. 

Leaves. — Alternate ; deeply palmately-lobed, cordate at base ; 
lobes 5, rounded, repandly and sharply toothed ; margin crenulate ; 
colour deep green. " Lobes of leaves," says Wight, " very broadly ovate 
and almost touching each other at their broadest part, sinus rounded." 
Roxburgh, however, states that the lobes are quite distinct, sinus 
widening upward. These appear to me to be mere differences in 
development due to local influences. Petioles | to \ inch. The 
size of leaves C. B. Clarke puts down as 1 — 2 inches in diameter 
(Hooker's Flora Br. Ind., Vol. II, p. 619), but I have seen the leaves 
quite double that size if not more. Leaves and petioles " scabrid, not 
softly hairy, " says Clarke, but the plant is both scabrous and covered 
with soft hair throughout. The hair markedly white. 

Flowers. — Monoecious, axillary, unisexual, peduncled. 

Male flowers. — Crowded in axils of leaves, opening in succession, 
1 — 1^ inch in diameter. 

Female flowers. — Solitary short-peduncled, 1 — 1J inch in diameter. 



100 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Calyx of male and female flowers 5-toothed ; tubular -campanu- 
late ; segments subulate, scarcely of the length of the tube ; calyx of 
female flowers short. 

Corolla of male and female flowers 5 -parted ; petals entire, 
scarcely united together or with the calyx ; those of the female flowers 
being sessile besides. Nerves prominent from base to apex. 
Stamens.— 5, triadelphous.' 

Filaments.' — Inserted below the mouth of the calyx-tube. 
Anthers. — Exserted from the tube, free ; one, 1-celled ; two, 
2-celled ; cells conduplicate ; connective produced in a crest. 

Pistil — 

Style. — Short. 

Stigmas. — 3, very thick, obtuse ; 2-lobed, velvety. 
Ovary. — Inferior, adhering to the calyx-tube ; of 3 carpels, 
densely hairy ; hair short, white, soft-silky. Placentas, 3 parietal. 

Fruit. — A pepo ; fleshy internally, pale cream-coloured ; coriaceous 
externally ; indehiscent ; oval, rounded at both ends or sometimes 
flattened ; obtusely 3-angled, the depressions at the angles correspond- 
ing to the union of the carpellary margins ; about 1|" long, 1|" broad ; 
often almost twice as large in Thana. The outer surface of the fruit 
is not smooth as stated by Eoxburgh, but tuberculate ; tubercles of 
the size of a small pin's head; brown when old; irregularly scattered all 
over the fruit, but principally over the mid-portion of it. Each tubercle 
is capped with a fine white soft hair. These tubercles are liable to be 
detached by the gentlest touch as the fruit gets old ; hence they are often 
not observed when the older specimens of fruit are examined. But yet 
their position can be distinctly noted on the epicarp by a depression 
surrounded with raised circular yellow markings. The readiness with 
which these tubercles get detached may possibly account for 
Roxburgh's saying that the fruit is smooth. The epicarp is leathery, 
y 1 ^ inch thick ; striated ; strise 10, irregular, varying from light to 
deep yellow colour. The fruit keeps for several months without shrink- 
ing on account of its tough coriaceous exocarp or rind. 

Seed. — Sharp, ovate, compressed, not marginated, acute at hilum, 
mostly smooth, enveloped in a juicy mucilaginous arillus of white colour. 



THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 101 

Number varying from 150 — 250. Even a small fruit, one inch, in 
diameter all round, was found by me to contain as many as 120 seeds. 

Testa. — Coriaceous. 

Albumen. — None. 

Embryo.— Straight. 

Radicle. — Next to hilum. 

Cotyledons. — Foliaceous, palmate-nerved. 

REMARKS. 

The synonyms of this plant have been variously given by 
various Botanists. What principle they have followed it is difficult 
to understand. In describing the Tribe Cucurbitem of the Natural 
Order Cucurbitece — a tribe to which Wight and Arnott have consigned 
the species we are now describing, viz.) Cucumis trigonus, they very 
rightly observe (vide their Prodromus Flora Ind., Yol. I., p. 341), 
that the difficulties attendant upon the description of the species from 
dried specimens are insurmountable. They admit, however, and very 
rightly too, that they consider it " more prudent to follow Roxburgh 
as closely as possible, as his opportunities of examining both seeds and 
stamens must have been most ample," as they really were, for his 
descriptions appear as a general rule drawn up from fresh specimens — 
a circumstance which must have given him greater facilities for 
noticing the minuter details of the species he describes. The following 
are the various synonyms of C. trigonus : — ■ 

C. madraspatanus Roxb. (Hooker's Fl. Br. Ind., Vol. II., p. 619). 
(Wight and Arnott's Prod. Flor. Ind., Vol. I, p. 342). 

C. turbinatus, Roxb. (Hooker op. cit.) 

C. melo, var. agrestis^ Naud. (Hook. op. cit.) 

C. pubescens., Willd. (Hook. op. cit.) 

C. pseudo-colocynth, Royle. (Hook. op. cit.) 

C. eriocarpus, Boiss. et Noe (Naudin Ann. des. Sc. Nat., 4 Series, 
Vol. XI, pp. 1-87) ; (Hook. op. cit.) 

Bryonia cullosa. Herb Rottler (Hook. op. cit.) 

C. pyriformis, Roxb. (Naudin op. cit.) 

C. villosus, Boiss. et Noe\ (Naudin op. cit.) 



102 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

"Why the plant is considered synonymous with C. madraspatamts 
it is difficult to understand, especially as Roxburgh describes the latter 
as a distinct plant, having the fruit no bigger than a partridge's egg ; 
whereas the size of the fruit of C. trigonus, Roxburgh puts down as 
that of a pullet's egg. Moreover the fruit of C. madraspatanus is 
oval, downy, maculated, without any tendency to be three-sided. 
The fruit of C. trigonus, besides, is bitter and not edible, whereas that 
of C. madraspatanus is said by Roxburgh to be much used in food by 
the natives and much esteemed. The synonym C. pseudo-colocynth 
appears to be used by Dalzell and Gibson on the authority of Royle. 
The synonym C. pubescens (Willd.), as given by Clarke in Hooker's 
Flora of British India, is somewhat puzzling. Dalzell and Gibson 
describe it in their Bombay Flora (p. 103) as a distinct species from 
C. trigonus and add that it is cultivated in Sindh under the name of 
" Chiber." It is 1 — 1\ inch long. This is " confusion worse con- 
founded." The fruit known as Chibud or Chiber, as Englishmen 
would ordinarily pronounce it, is strictly speaking the genuine Cucu- 
mis melo and is a much larger fruit than either Cucumis pubescens or 
Cucumis trigonus. It is besides edible uncooked. It is seldom if 
ever cooked. Again Dalzell and Gibson make C. madraspatanus and 
C. turbinatus synonymous with C. pubescens, although Roxburgh 
describes C. turbinatus as a distinct species with a turbinate fruit, 
pyriform in shape, absolutely three-sided, with much larger flowers 
than C. trigonus. Note again another source of confusion. Dr. Lyon 
calls C. trigonus^ Indrdyan Bislumbhi, on the authority of the Phar- 
macopoeia of India, edited under the supervision of able Indian 
Botanists. But Indrdyan is Citrullus colocynthis. In this I am 
borne out by Dr. Dymock ; and Indrdyan is a much more powerfully 
drastic purgative, with a larger and much rounder fruit, of the size of 
an ordinary orange or wood-apple. It may be noted, however, that 
C. trigonus is occasionally used as a substitute for Colocynth to produce 
purgation. To pass on to another writer; — Naudin most emphatically 
says that C. trigonus is certainly the species which MM. Boissier and 
Noe" have described under the name of C. eriocarpus. Naudin adds 
further that it will be necessary also to unite to this species the one 
described by Baron Sir Ferdinand von Mueller under the name of 
Cucurbita micrantha, an Australian plant which is probably a species 



THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 103 

of Ciicumis and which appears to be analogous to the plant under 
description (J. Mitra). 

A still further confusion arises in the naming of the fruit known in 
the Konkan as Takmak. Dr. Dymock calls it C. triaonus var. 
pubescens (vide Dr. Dymock's Materia Medica of Western India 
2nd Edition, p. 339). Dr. Dymock says Takmak is less bitter than 
C. trigonus. As a matter of fact Takmak is not bitter at all. If any 
thing, it is sweetish ; if not that, it is almost insipid. It is not there- 
fore easy to find out why Takmak is considered to be a variety of 
C. trigonus. The two plants appear to me to be quite distinct. Takmak 
is edible and perfectly harmless. It is cooked as a vegetable. It can 
be eaten even uncooked, though never much valued in any condition. 
Wight and Arnott's description of C. pubescens shows that the fruit of 
it is no bigger than about 1 or 1| inch long ; whereas the fruit of 
Takmak is often as large as a medium-sized pomelo or water-melon 
6 inches long and 9 inches sideways ; and it is glabrous. The fruit of 
C. pubescens, on the other hand, as described by Willdenow, and 
Wight and Arnott is oval and pubescent. It is doubtful therefore whether 
Takmak could be called C. pubescens, or a variety of C. trigonus. 

Kurz separates C. trigonus with solitary peduncles from C. pubes- 
cens with clustered peduncles and makes the latter a variety of Cucu- 
mis melo, Linn, (vide Journal Asiatic Soc, 1877, Part II, page 
103). I think Kurz is right in doing so. In every way Takmak is 
more allied to C. melo than to C. trigonus. The only objection I 
have to calling Takmak C. pubescens is that the size of C. pubescens 
as described, namely, that of a partridge's egg, is considerably smaller 
than that of the smallest sized Takmak. On the whole, it appears 
necessary to write a fresh description of Takmak and rename it once" 
for all. The present name it has been given as a pubescent variety of 
C. trigonus is morphologically inaccurate and unsatisfactory. The 
plants marked by Indian Botanists as C. pubescens are said to have 
been reduced to C. trigonus by Naudin in the Kew Herbarium. 
It is here, I believe, that the initial source of inaccuracy lay. For 
although that illustrious French Botanist can claim the credit of having 
furnished us with an exhaustive monograph on the Cucurbitaceous 
order, he has added to the confusion of synonyms in no small 
degree. 



104 JODMNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. JUL 

From the above remarks it will be amply apparent that there is a 
considerable difficulty in confirming and finally establishing the syno- 
nyms of C. trigonus. It seems to be absolutely necessary to remove 
all this confusion by a fresh and exhaustive attempt at identifying the 
plants and renaming them after a careful examination locally of every 
species belonging to the Cucurbitaceous order. One thing must be 
remembered particularly, with a view to obtain a thoroughly accurate 
description. The Cucurbitaceous plants are extremely delicate, espe- 
cially as regards their hairy appendages. They must therefere be 
examined in situ— in the places where they grow ; not certainly from 
dried specimens, nor even from fresh specimens taken to a distance 
and examined leisurely, perhaps long after the delicate hairs have 
withered or fallen off, and thus destroyed the minuter distinguishing 
marks so necessary for accurate identification. 

As regards the root of C. trigonus Clarke (in Hooker's Flora of 
British India loc. cit.) remarks that from the perennial character of the 
root of C. trigonus alone can it be distinguished from C. melo accord- 
ing to Naudin, but, says Clarke, " the examples seen and collected in 
India are almost invariably less than one year old" (iV. B. — The italics 
are mine.— K. E. K.) As a matter of fact, it is not so. I have seen 
the plants growing wild in the jungles and hedges of Thana 
and I have observed the same root throwing out fresh sprouts every 
rainy season for years together. The plant dries up after the mon- 
soons and the fruit may be gathered even in the hot weather follow- 
ing. The plant is so persistent that the fruit can be seen hanging on 
the dry creeper even when every other part of the creeper withers 
and dries up. The fact of the fruit remaining hanging fresh as ever 
■even in the succeeding hot weather, is, I admit, no indication whatever 
of the living condition of the root underground. But wait till the 
next rainy season, and you will find a fresh plant from the old root, 
from where the creeper of the former rainy season sprouted. The root 
does not dry up, decay or die, even although the surrounding soil is 
parched and cracked in the hot weather, with hardly any moisture 
to nourish it. The perennial nature of the root, therefore, must be 
considered undeniable, even under such adverse circumstances. 

With regard to the flowering of C. trigonus Hheede observes (Hor- 
tus Ind. Mai., Vol. VIII, page 21) that the plant grows in jungles 



THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 105 

around Cochen, flowering and fruiting throughout the year. I may 
observe that in the Konkan, C. trigonus flowers and fruits only in the 
rains. It begins to dry up as soon as the cold weather sets in, and is 
shrivelled and leafless before the hot weather is on. The fruit, as I 
have already said, remains hanging unshrivelled and unshrunken even 
in the succeeding hot weather. 

THE POISONOUS PROPERTIES. 

Being a congener of Colocynth, one would naturally expect that 
the juice of the bitter fruit of C. trigonus would be a purgative of 
the irritant type, and so it is more or less. Dr. Lyon, however, states 
in his Medical Jurisprudence (p. 199) that the plant possesses another 
poisonous property. He says that in 1883 a case was reported to the 
Bombay Chemical Analyser's office in which it was stated" that this 
plant had been administered for the purpose of procuring abortion. 

In the Pharmacographia of India (Vol. II., p. 67) Dymock, Hooper,, 
and Wardell note that they digested the dried fruit with 84 per cent, of 
alcohol and concentrated the resulting tincture until most of the 
alcohol had been expelled ; they then agitated the mixture with water 
and petroleum ether. This solution, still containing some alcohol, 
was heated on the water bath to get rid of the alcohol ; the remnant 
then mixed with water and agitated with acetic ether containing 
some acetic acid. This yielded a reddish brown extract, very bitter 
and partly soluble in boiling water. The insoluble residue was brittle 
when cold and very bitter, and had the properties of a resin, which 
would appear to correspond with the resin of Colocynth. The scientific 
world owes a deep debt of gratitude to this trio of distinguished 
pharmacologists for thus advancing our knowledge regarding the 
active principles of Kdrit. 

I need hardly enter here into a detailed description of the 
poisonous properties of Colocynth. They are well known to every 
student of the British Pharmacopoeia. Suffice it to say that Colocynth 
and its congeners are irritant drastic purgatives. These properties 
were well known to the ancients, both Eastern and Western. I may 
note, however, what has been observed by Dr. Schmeidbergof Strasberg 
(vide Elements of Pharmacology, Dixon. 1887, p. 109) with regard to 
the relative therapeutic action of the crystalloids and colloids in Colo- 

14 



106 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

cynth, and presumably in the allied species like Kdrit, that crystalline 
soluble Colocynthin, when pure, does not, under all conditions, cause 
diarrhoea ; hence it is apparent that the crystalline element needs the 
presence of colloidal substances such as occur in Colocynth, for it to be 
with certainty carried into the intestine to produce any irritant or 
drastic effects. 

It will be perhaps easy to account for the abortifacient effects of 
Kdrit if we remember how powerful irritants of the intestinal canal 
and of the rectum especially affect the pelvic organs. Increased 
peristalsis produced by intestinal irritants known as " aperients" 
means increased hypergemia of the mucous membrane of the intestines. 
This hypergemia extends to the neighbouring pelvic organs when 
powerful irritants attack the lowermost part of the intestine. " Thus in 
gravid uterus," says Schmeidberg, "contractions may be caused ending 
in abortion and premature labour." It has ever been held a golden 
rule in pregnancy not to give acrid or powerful purgatives at any time 
during pregnancy. The abortifacient effect of Kdrit may be pre- 
sumed, in the cases recorded, to be probably of a secondary nature, 
although it is not so stated in the Bombay Chemical Analyser's report, 
there being no details of the case forthcoming in that report. 

Description of Plate G. 

1. Terminal branch of the plant with leaves, fruits, male and female 
flowers, in the axils of leaves. 

2. Section transversely through the middle oi the fruit. 



107 

BOMBAY GRASSES. 

By Dr. J. C. Lisboa, F.L.S. 

PART VI. 

{Continued from Vol. VII., p. 390.) 
HORDED. 

Triticdm, Linn. 

T. vulgare, Linn. 

Ver. — Gohun, Mar. and Hind. 

Several varieties of this cereal are cultivated in this and in other presidencies. 
These varieties are chiefly distinguished by the colour (white or red), hardness or 
softness, translucency or opacity, the size of the grain, and by -their being bearded 
or unbearded. Generally speaking, wheat is grown in those parts of India 
wliich are situated to the north of the river Tapti in Guzerat, Khandesh and 
Deccan ; but rarely is it cultivated anywhere south of the Deccan. It is said 
that the wheat cultivated on the high table-land of the Deccan and in Maha- 
bleshwar has in a given bulk about |- more weight than that raised on the plains. 
Below the Ghats wheat does not grow, as the climate does not suit it. 

For the benefit of those who have no access to the Atlas prepared by 
Mr. E. C. Ozanne, Director, land Records and Agriculture, Bombay Presidency, 
I copy here the following extract : — 

" Wheat. — A cognate species, Triticum speltum or spelt, is commercially and 
agriculturally a variety of wheat. Bombay shows samples of almost every 
variety in considerable areas, except the soft whites, winch command high prices 
in the English market. The hard wheats are prized on the Continent for 
macaroni and some confections. Till the English miller can make free use of 
hard wheats, there is little prospect of increased exports of Bombay wheats to 
England, though Bombay and Karachi will continue to export the soft wheats 
of Sind and the Punjab and North- West Provinces. Experiment has clearly 
proved that it is futile to attempt to grow soft wheats where the climate favours 
the hard varieties, and as futile to substitute red for white or vice versa, for the 
colour is due to soil and not to the action of the cultivator. As wheat is either 
grown alone or with rows of safflower or strips and borderings of linseed, the 
complaint of admixture of mustard and other impurities of this kind cannot 
apply to Bombay. Safflower ripens after wheat, and linseed is easily separated 
in the winnowing. The admixture of earth from the threshing floor can be 
appreciably diminished if the higher price for clean wheat will pay the 
cultivator to exercise more care ; but it cannot be eliminated till the practice of 
pulling the crop is superseded by cutting it with a sickle or by machine. 



108 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLSTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

The admixture of earth made by middlemen and merchants for the purposes 
of trade will last till the speculative dealings of the Bombay wheat traders 
are superseded by sales based, not on sample for forward delivery, but on 
the quality and condition of the wheat as it reaches the home markets. 
Even steam wheat threshing, which is being introduced, cannot under present 
conditions produce a perfectly clean sample, for particles of earth of the 
size and specific gravity of the wheat grain must remain. Still the percentage 
of such impurities is greatly reduced, say, to under one per cent., while the 
refraction allowed is 3 or 4 per cent. Steam threshing cheapens the preparation 
for the market, ■sets free the plough cattle from a harmful process, and gives 
the chance to the grower of a larger share of the profits, which now unneces- 
sarily goes into the pockets of middlemen." 

In Bombay, as has been said, the wheats which are grown are not largely in 
demand in England, and there is no prospect of a largely increased area. The 
growth of wheat is not as greatly influenced by the price as some suppose. 
"Wheat is a late sown crop, and its area depends on the area of suitable land left 
available after cotton or the early cereals have been provided for. Where cotton 
is an early crop, its area is made as large as the season will allow, and in other 
places land fit for wheat is always sown with other crops when the early rainfall 
gives prospect of their success. There are not extensive areas of land now 
uncultivated fit for wheat cultivation, nor will the extension of railways in this 
Presidency have as large an effect in encouraging the growth of wheat, aided by 
brisk export demand, as some writers allege. There is hope that the out-turn of 
present areas will be increased, perhaps very greatly increased, by better culti- 
vation and more liberal use of manure. But the manure must come from 
outside in the shape of artificial manure, and the improvement in cultivation 
must be first studied and then taught by experiment, without which no large 
increase in yield can be expected. 

The usual division into hard and soft white and hard and soft red applies to 
the Bombay wheats. The spelt variety is classed as a hard- red. It is import- 
ant to specify clearly the areas in which each variety is successful. 

Hard white is the dry crop wheat (hdnsia, &c.) of all Guzerat, except certain 
parts of Ahmedabad ; and of the Deccan (pivla). It shares with hard red the 
wheat tracts of Khandesh, while in that district hard white (Jbansi) is also 
largely grown under canal, channel, and well irrigation. In the Deccan a very 
fine variety of hard white (jbaJcshi) is grown in the elevated plateau of Parner 
Taluka as a dry crop, and it is well known all over the Deccan and Bombay 
Kamatak as the best irrigated variety, though its growth is circumscribed by 
its great liability to rust; and in these provinces the result is, that spelt, which is 



BOMBAY GRASSES. m 

practically rust-proof, is by far the most common of the irrigated wheats. The 
dry-crop hard white has everywhere an occasional and sometimes a normal 
tendency to become bellied (potha) or soft. In the finest wheat tracts of 
Nasik and Ahmednagar the pivla wheat usually keeps its hardness and colour. 
But with heavy ram in December the percentage of soft grains is very lar"-e 
and this tendency cannot by cultivation, care, or otherwise, be lessened. In 
moister tracts, bordering on such localities as those named or elsewhere, the nor- 
mal condition of the hard white is a semi-softness, and the most characteristic 
semi-soft white is the ddud hhdni. These names refer greatly to the consist- 
ency and colour of the varieties, though their origin is presumed by some to be 
the result of importation, which theory has little support. 

Hard red wheat is the dry-crop wheat of the Bombay Karnatak, where dry 
white wheat is unknown. The irrigated spelt common, as above shown, in the 
Deccan and Kama'tak is classed as a hard red. It has at times been in extra- 
ordinary demand on the Continent. It is a large cropper and a safe crop, but 
these advantages are somewhat counterbalanced by the adherent glume which 
necessitates pounding to separate it from the grain, as careful and severe as in 
the case of rice. The hard red wheats of the Karnatak are the best of the 
kind. Hard red is the largest grown dry variety in Khandesh and a large 
crop in the south talukas of Ahmedabad in what is called the Bhal country (see 
Ahmedabad Sirmmary). Hard red is grown under irrigation in some parts of 
Guzerat, practically the same as those winch grow the soft red vajia to be 
described, though perhaps the area of _ such hard red is larger than that of the 
soft red and perhaps more extensive, penetrating further on all sides beyond the 
limits of soft red. This variety is not liked by millers, who assert that its 
strength is diminished by irrigation. 

Soft red is only largely grown in Ahmedabad and with irrigation. It is tho 
commonest irrigated wheat of that district and of parts of Broach and Kaira, 
which are close to the southern talukas of Ahmedabad. It is called vajia, i.e., 
garden wheat ; but it has been seen that the vajia is also an irrigated hard red. 

Soft white is only grown in the Maval taluka of Poona. It may be occa- 
sionally seen in parts of the Panch Mahals. Its area in Bombay is thus 
exceedingly small, and it is not susceptible of increase. Soft white from the 
Central Provinces and from Australia have been successfully grown on experi- 
mental areas in Khandesh; but though the out-turn after the second year is 
very excellent, the change in consistency is enough to cause the merchant to 
class it as a mixed hard and soft. 

Wheat straw is a poor fodder, but it is in wheat tracts the chief food of the 
cattle. As all the wheats of the Bombay Presidency out of Sind with which 



110 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

province these crop notes do not deal are bearded wheats, and as the crop is 
trodden out by cattle, the fodder must be broken very fine indeed to prevent the 
awns sticking in the gullets of the cattle. The bruising is well done by the 
steam thresher, which largely separates the innutritious awns from the chaff. 
Spelt straw is almost inedible by cattle. 

Wheat is a rotation crop generally, but the red dry wheat of the Bhal country 
of Ahraedabad is always, and the pivla of Nasik and Ahmednagar, is some- 
times, grown continuously. 

Wheat in this country is exceedingly liable to damage from weevil, especial- 
ly if storage in Bombay is attempted. It is preserved with great skill in grain 
pits, and it may be noticed that in Guzerat the preservation is improved by 
throwing a handful of quicksilver into a large pit. Samples in airtight bottles 
with quicksilver in very minute quantities can be kept sound for years. The 
high specific gravity of the mercury makes separation very easy and complete. 

As to the composition of wheat, the following extract is taken from Church's 
" Food Grains of India," p. 93 :— 

" The composition of wheat grain shows some variations, but they are 
almost entirely limited to the relative proportions of starch and of nitrogenous 
matters, although the mineral matters or ash, and indeed all the minor consti- 
tuents of the grain, are, of course, not quite fixed in amount. Still if a wet season 
increases the percentage of ash, if a thin-skinned, well- developed sample contains 
less fibre, and if a plump dark-coloured specimen has a larger proportion of 
oil or fat, all such variations are quite unimportant in comparison with those 
exhibited by the starch and albuminoids. The starch, always constituting as it 
does something like two-thirds of the weight of the grain, does not show the 
difference in so marked a manner as the albuminoids. If the latter amount to 
18 to 20 per cent, instead of 13, the former constituent will not be reduced 
(from 68) to less than 63 or 61 per cent. — a reduction which, in comparison 
with the total amount present, is much less conspicuous than a rise from 13 to 
20 m the nitrogenus compounds." 

Besides the general dryness of the grain of Indian wheat, which as imported 
in bulk in this country and analyzed properly contains at least 2 per cent, less 
moisture than average English wheat, the albuminoids are decidedly higher. I 
have never yet met with an Indian wheat containing less than 10 per cent, of 
albuminoids ; but a large number of samples of first rate English, Canadian and 
Australian samples give numbers between 8 and 9. The average percentage of 
albuminoids in the Indian examples yet analyzed is about 13*5, but some 
specimens have been as low as 10*3 and some as high as 167. 



BOMBAY GRASSES. 1U 

Much of the Indian wheat, whether white or red, has that translucent aspect 
which generally indicates a high percentage of albuminoids. 

In 1867 (" Practice with Science," i, pp. 101—111, 345—848) I pointed out 
some of the chief relationships between the aspect, density, weight per bushel, 
productiveness, and chemical composition of wheat grain, showing more parti- 
cularly that the exclusion of small proportion of the lightest of the grains in a 
seed corn tells very favourably upon the yield, and also that there is a very 
intimate connection between the translucency or horny character of a grain and 
a high percentage of albuminoids, and, again, between the softness and opacity 
of a grain and a high percentage of starch. Such differences in the composition 
of wheat grain show themselves, not merely in different varieties of wheat, but 
even in the same variety of wheat when it has been grown under different 
conditions of climate or season. Even in the grains from a single ear similar 
differences may be seen— analysis showing sometimes 3 or 4 per cent, more 
albmninoids in some of such grains than in others. Often a single ear will be 
partly homy and partly opaque and soft ; in that case its composition will 
correspond with its intermediate aspect. By examining the cut surface of a 
grain which has been cut transversely with a sharp knife, a fair notion of its 
richness or poverty in albuminoids may indeed be easily gained. 

Average composition of Indian wheat — 

In 100 parts. In 1 lb. 

Water 125 2 oz. grs. 

Albuminoids 13"5 2 „ 70 

Starch 68"4 10 „ 413 „ 

Oil 1-2 „ 84 „ 

Fibre 27 „ 189 „ 

Ash 1-7 „ 119 „ 

The nutrient ratio is here 1 to 5*2 and nutrient value 84 - 6. It should be 
added that the starch above-named contains a small quantity (about 2 per cent ) 
of the sugar or sugars found in many cereals, but this may be regarded as not 
appreciably lowering the nutrient value of the 68'4 parts set down as " starch." 

The ash of wheat, though not large in amount,, is of great importance as a 
source of mineral nutrient when this grain is used as human food, about 30 
per cent, of it being potash and 45 per cent, phosphoric acid. 

There is no record of this useful cereal having been found in a wild state. 
It has been cultivated everywhere time out of mind. There are authors 
however, who think that it is the result of the cultivation of a species o/ 
Mjylops, which is now admitted to be a section of Tritiami. It is stated by 
Bentham and Hooker (Genera- Plantarum, 1204) that JSgylops is represented 



112 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

by a few species, " quaram 203 facile formas hibridas gignunt cum Triticis 
cultis et a nonnullis pro typis primordiabilis Triticormn habentur." 

Some people in Poona confound with wheat grass a species of A ndropogon 
common in the Deccan named Andropogon triticeus, E. Br. (Heforopogon 
insignis, Thw.). In external form of inflorescence they slightly resemble each 
other. 

Oeopetium, Trin. 

0. fhommum, Trin., Tund. 98 ; Kunth Suppl. T. 38, fig. V ; Dalz. and 
Gibs., Bomb., Flor. 300; Ratfbcdlia Thomcei, Willd. Sp. I. 466 ; Eoxb. Cor. 
PI. 133. 

Culms many together, erect, one inch high. Ligula small, membranous. 
Leaves numerous, bifarious, subulate. Spike one inch long, terminal, solitary, 
cylindrical, subulate. Spikelets one-flowered, hermaphrodite, sessile, imbricate 
and immersed alternately like those of Rotthcdiia and Opliinrus in the excava- 
tions of the rachis. Two outer glumes empty, the first or the lowest linear, 
membranous ; the second boat-shaped, aoute ; the third or the flowering glume 
membranous, hyaline, shorter than the empty glumes. 

This curious diminutive grass is confined to India, and said to grow on old 
walls. My specimens are from Sind, where it is stated to be not uncommon. 
It grows also in open ground in the plains of the Punjab ; also in Eajputana, in 
Agra and Etawa. 

Nothing is known about its uses. It is too small to be of any value as fodder. 
Hobdeim, Linn. Gen. 

E. vulgar e, Linn. Beau. Agr. T. 21, Fig. I. 

H. IiexasticJion, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. I., 358. 

Ver. — Sattu, Jaiv, Yatv, Jave, Godhi (Mar. and Hindi, Bombay), Jab, 
Bengal (Watt.), Juba (Eoxb.), Cliak, Jawa, J/wtalc, Soa, Yangina Wo, Barley. 

It is cultivated in various parts of the Presidency in Gnzerat, Ahmedabad, 
Kaira, and in the Deccan ; in the latter country chiefly as an offering to 
gods, and in the north of Guzerat is used as food. It makes much better broth 
than that made with pearl barley. The authors of the "Bombay Flora" state 
that the brewing of beer from malted barley has been tried in Mahableshwar, 
Poona, and Karachi, but uniformly without success, the mean temperature being 
too high during fermentation. Mr. Meakin prepares beer in Dapory, but it is 
not ascertained whether the barley used was malted in this country. 

There are two varieties cultivated in India, one the two-rowed {H. disticlwn), 
and the other the six-rowed (H. Imasticluni). The latter is much cultivated in 
Northern India and in most of the temperate parts of Hindustan during the 
cold season, either alone or mixed with wheat, gram, Unseed, mustard, &c. 



BOMBAY GRASSES. 113 

The following information is kindly furnished from the Office of the Director, 
Land Records and Agriculture, Bombay Presidency : — 

" In the Bombay Presidency barley is not a principal cereal. In 1889-90 the 

total area under barley cultivation was only 35,800 

Ahmedabad 19^27 acres » or &bouh 0*3 per cent, of the total area. 

Kaira 6,558 The details are shown in the margin.. In the 

Panch Mahals 1,364 Presidency proper the principal barley cultivation 

Ahmednagar 135 . . f, . . , '.f . , J 

p oona m j 174 is seen in Ahmedabad and Kaira, where, owing to 

Shoiapore 1,364 the fact that it is not subject to the wheat blight, it 

?. atara " I'li 5 is a favourite rain crop in the Gorat or light brown 

Hyderabad 5,935 tracts. It is generally an after-crop in garden rich 

Shikarpur 3,003 lands, or in soils too sandy and open for wheat. 

U.S.Frontier 194 T , . n . . , -, -, i mi • • 

Thar and Parkar 475 It rs always irrigated and manured. The gram is 

less appreciated than wheat, and the straw, which is 
considered more nourishing than wheat straw, is chopped and given to cattle 
with the husk. It is less important in the Deccan, where it is used chiefly in 
the preparation of a ready-cooked food called Sdtuche pith. The grain is 
parched, then ground and mixed with a small proportion of gram and wheat 
flour, and flavoured with spices. The grain is also used in certain religious 
ceremonies. The two-rowed naked barley (H. gymnodistichori) from the. 
North- West Provinces and Oudh is being experimentally cultivated on the 
Bhadgaon Farm with fan success." 

As to the composition, I copy here the following from Church's " Food 
Grains of India": — 

" Barley is sown and cultivated in the same way as wheat, but needs fewer 
ploughings. It is often grown with wheat or pulse. 
Composition of barley (husked)— 

In 100 parts. In 1 lb. 

Water 12'5 2 oz. grs. 

Albuminoids 11*5 1 „ 368 „ 

Starch 70'0 11 „ 87 „ 

Fat. 1-3 „ 91 „ 

Fibre 2*6 „ 182 „ 

Ash 2-1 „ 147 „ 

The nutrient ratio is here 1 to 6*3, and the nutrient value 84*5. 
The above analysis of a roughly-cleaned or husked sample of Indian barley 
shows that it contains a higher percentage of albuminoids than average 
European barleys. This face is confirmed by the examination of other Indian 
samples. At the same time it must be recollected that it is inferior to Indian 
wheat in this particular, just as the hundreds of analyses which have now been 

15 



114 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. . 

made of European barley show that it likewise gives a lower average percentage 
of albuminoids than European wheat. When barley is completely cleaned or 
pearled, it loses a very large proportion of its albinninoids, so that European 
pearl barley (barley yields but 38 per cent, of pearl barley) does not usually 
show more than six or seven per cent, of albuminoids. The " pearl dust" and 
" fine dust " separated in its preparation, and amounting together to 40 
per cent, of the original grain, are, however, much richer, containing 12 or 14 
per cent, of albmninoids. Indian pearl barley would, however, in all pro- 
bability contain as much as ten per cent. 

Barley, as it is prepared for human food in India, is generally considered to 
be rather difficult of digestion. It is grown and eaten throughout the whole of 
the Patna Division. With wheat it forms an important staple diet in the 
Benares and surrounding divisions. The grain is usually cleaned by pounding 
in wooden mortars and winnowings. The grain is treated in one or other of 
the following ways : — 

(1) Ground into coarse meal and made into chwpatii, either alone or 

with wheat meal. In Tirhut a mixture is used of barley one part 
and Indian corn three parts. 

(2) Parched and ground into coarse flour called Suttu ; this is stirred up 

with sufficient water to make a thick paste, to this a little salt is 

added, and the preparation is eaten with garlic, onions or chillies. 

This mixture, generally admixed with flour of gram or other seeds 

or grains, forms the chief food of the larger part of the peasantry 

of Shahabad. 

Barley alone, or even in admixtures, is generally thought to be rather difficult 

of digestion, at least in the form in which the grain is prepared for food in 

India. Barley mixed with horse gram forms an excellent food for horses, and 

is known as " odour." 

From an observation made in a preceding paragraph, it will have been 
remarked how very closely the pearl barley prepared in Europe approaches rice 
in its nutrient ratio. The Indian cleaned barley is, as we have seen, much 
richer in albuminoids. This arises from two causes, one of which is the 
higher percentage of nitrogen naturally present in the average whole barley 
grain as grown in India ; the other is the imperfect way in which the Indian 
barley is cleaned previous to use as food. Some room there is evidently for 
improvements in the mode of carrying out the cleaning or pearling operation. 
A recently invented Dutch process might be used. It produces a pearled grain 
of larger size than that obtained by the usual operation. The pearled gram 
attains a higher percentage ; its shape is not spherical, but much resembles 



BOMBAY GRASSES. H 5 

that of the whole grain, and it is richer than the ordinary sort in oil, mineral 
matters and albuminoids. 

BAMBUSE2E. 

This tribe is represented in this Presidency by five or six species. I have 
received flowering specimens of only three. Of the remaining my knowledge is 
derived from books. 

Bambusa, Schreber. 

B. arundinacea, Retz., Roxb. Cor. PI. t. 79 ; Fl. Ind. II. 191 ; Dalz. and 
Gibs., Bomb. EL, 299 ; Bed. Fl. Sylv. t. 321. 

Ver.— -Vansa, Bam, Mandgaij (Bombay), Man Vmduru (Telugu). 

Stem tall, up to 30 to 80 ft. high, green, shining densely cespitose in clumps 
of 30 to 100, hollow- jointed, with numerous spinescent branches. Cavity small, 
walls thick. Thorns double or triple, at the root of the branches ; when triple, 
the middle one the largest ; all strong, sharp and sometimes curved (rarely absent). 
Leaves sheathing, 2 to 8 in. long, i to 1 inch broad, short petioled lanceolate, 
broader at the base, rounded at the apex, generally glabrous, the upper surface 
and margins backwardly hispid, sometimes scattered short hairs on the under 
surface. Sheaths coriaceous, 1*2 in. long, somewhat downy, with scattered 
hairs on each side of the mouth. Spathe deciduous, 1 to 1 J feet long, glaucous 
inside, and terminating in a long point. Flowers appear at long intervals, 
probably at the age of 30 years. During inflorescence, the stem with a few 
scattered leaves ; the whole covered with numerous half-verticelled spikes ; each 
verticel composed of several sessile, glabrous, 6 to 12 flowered spikelets ; fertile 
flowers 3 to 10 in each spikelet. Empty glumes 2 to 4 ; flowering glumes 
3 to 10, the upper generally sterile or staminiferous, all thickened and mucronate, 
glabrous, sometimes shorter than the palea, not ciliate at the edges. Palea often 
longer ; edges fimbriate. Scales two, hyaline, fimbriate. Stamens 6, free at the 
base ; anthers with an obtuse glabrous point. Ovary glabrous ; style slightly 
enlarged at the base, soon deeply divided in 2 to 3 long plumose branches. 
Caryopsis linear oblong, \ inch long, enclosed in the flowering glume and palea. 

This bamboo occurs in Belgamn, Khandeish, Dangs, at Sironcha on the 
Godavery, Malabar and Canara ; abundant throughout the Madras Presidency, 
up to the elevation of 3,000 ft; at the base of the Satpura range ; Jubbulporei 
Bengal, and cultivated in the sub-Himalayan tract in the Punjab and elsewhere. 
The culm which attains a height of 60 to 80 ft./ or higher along the coast, 
and a diameter of 6 to 8 in., is by far the most important of several species. It 
supplies poles and rafters for building purposes, scaffolding, ladders, fencing, 
treflis-work, fishing rods, window and door blinds, and in the manufacture of 
chairs, sofas, baskets and winnowing fans, &c. The rhizome and young shoots 
are made into preserves, pickles, and cooked with spices is made into relishing 
dishes. Mr. Lettridge says that this and other species are capable of being 
employed in the manufacture of paper. Long immersion of bamboos in water, 



116 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

or, better still, in salt water, for 3 to 4 clays, or in a solution of sulphate of iron 
or lime water renders them more durable. Salt water is said to make them proof 
against attacks of insects (Bostrichi and their larvas). 

This bamboo and several other species flower in about SO to 32 years ; the culti- 
vated, I believe, at shorter periods. When such an occurrence takes place, the 
whole tract, extending over many miles, is in full flower. It sometimes happens, 
however, that a few bamboos of a cluster flower in each year, when the flowering 
goes on every succeeding year with the other bamboos of the cluster. Both in 
this species and in others the flowering is followed by the death of the stems, 
so that, after seasons of general flowering, a whole district presents for some time 
the spectacle of a large forest of dried up clumps (Bedd.). The product of the 
flowering of the bamboos is a fruit called by the Indians rice or seed, which is 
consumed by the poorer classes in lieu of common rice or other grain, 
A very palatable bread is said to be made of the flour of the bamboo seed, 
although its colour is somewhat dark. Diarrhoea and dysentery and even 
fever are caused by the use of this diet. Indians believe that fever is severer 
in those years in which the general flowering takes place. In the scarcity 
of 1812 in Orissa, of 1864 in Kanara, and of 1866 in Malda, this rice formed 
the principal article of food of the poor population of those districts ; hence, 
perhaps, the belief entertained by some Government officials that the bamboo 
only flowers in seasons of general scarcity. General Munro says that the rice of 
B. arundinacea furnished in 1864 food for 50,000 persons in Kanara. In the 
hollow of this and of some other bamboos there is a silicious substance named 
Taiashir. This is at first in a rather liquid state, but in time becomes solid. 
It is employed by the hakeems in the treatment of paralytical affections and as 
a stimulant and aphrodisiac. The ashes of all bamboos are rich in silica. 
Composition of bamboo grain (husked) — 

In 100 parts. In lb. 

Water ll'O 

Albuminoids H'8 

Starch 73'7 

Oil 0'6 

Fibre 1'7 

Ash 12 

The nutrient ratio is here 1 to 6 - 4, and the nutrient value 87. The food value 
of bamboo grain, after the removal of the husk, is high ; its defects are due 
to the low proportion of oil and of mineral matter. Of course, it cannot be 
looked upon as a staple cereal, but as an occasional substitute for a deficient 
rice or millet crop it has several times proved most serviceable. The grain 
of other kinds of bamboo is, in all probability, similar in composition to 
that of B. arundinacea. 

The bamboo described under the name of B. spinosa by Eoxb. Fl. 
Ind. II ; Munro. Monograph 104 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 231, appears to be a 



1 oz. 


382 qrs 


1 „ 


388 „ 


1 „ 


346 „ 


„ 


42 „ 


„ 


119 „ 


„ 


84 „ 



BOMBAY GRASSES. 117 

variety of the last species, and differs from it in more solid culm, the triple 
thorns, the central larger and often compound, and almost always present 
throughout the whole plant, very strong and sharp ; leaves generally smaller, 
often hairy on the lower surface ; a paler-coloured and more striated flower, panicle 
smaller and more coriaceous spikelets and with fewer flowers. It is not men- 
tioned in Dalz. and Gibs. Bombay Flora, nor in Graham's Catalogue of Bombay 
Plants. 

B. vulgaris, Wendl., Munro, Monogr. Bomb. 106 ; Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. 
Fl. 299 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. Manual 233 ; Brand. Forest Fl. 568 ; B. thouarsii, 
Kunt. I. 356 ; B. arundinacea, Aiton. 

Ver. — Kullulc, or Bambu (Bomb.) ; Una gass (Ceylon). 

Culm 20 to 50 ft. high, unarmed, green, yellow or mottled green and yellow ; 
joints 4 to 6 in. diameter ; walls of the hollow stem thin. Branches green, striated 
or sulcated. Sheaths hirsute above with dark hairs. Leaves thin, linear- 
lanceolate, acute, 6 to 10 in. long, £ to 1£ in. broad. Flowering branches often 
leaf bearing. Spikelets sessile, oblong-lanceolate, laterally subcompressed, \ to 1 in. 
long, glabrous, 4 to 12 flowered, distichous, appearing as bifid, fasciculate or on 
long paniculate spikes. Empty glumes 2 ; flowering glumes ovate-lanceolate, 
narrow at the base, mucronate and ciliate at the apex ; fimbriate keels of palea 
appear at the top of the flowering glume. Lodicules transparent, thin. Anthers 
with short hairs at the apex. Style long, filiform, hirsute, divided at the end 
into 2 or 3 stigmas. 

This species grows in Ceylon, where it is known as Una, Indian Archipelago, 
tropical America, and the West Indies (Brandis, For. Fl.). Cultivated in the 
Western Deccan, Poona, Satara, Kholapore, Silhet, Cachar, Chittagong, and in 
the Eastern Punjab. Those who go to Mahableshwar through the Satara Eoad 
must have seen it planted along its margins. 

For remarks on the uses of this species see notes appended to the description 
of B. arundinacia. 

B. arundo, Klein. Nees, Linn. IX, 471 ; Stend. Synop. PI. Gramin I. 
329 ; Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 299. 

Culm thorny ; mouths of the sheaths naked ; leaves (floral) orate-lanceolate, 
6 to 7 in. long, 4 to 5 lines broad, rounded at the base, shortly-petioled, smooth ; 
spike terminal, ample, leafy, the branches spreading, simple or compound ; 
spikelets an inch long, erect, approximated in threes, upper ones alternate, 6 to 8 
flowered ; culm 8 to 9 ft. high. Native name " Chiwaree." On the Ghats. Of 
this walking sticks are sold at Mahableshwar." 

I have not seen this flower. 

Oxytenantliera Stochsii, Munro, Monog. 130. 

Mr. Beddome has copied from Munro the following description, see p. 233: — 

" Culms slender ; internodes 4 to 7 in. long, glabrous ; the nodes with few 
branchlets ; leaves linear, lanceolate ; inneronato acute at the apex ; cordate 



118 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

rotundate at the base, or attenuated into aflat petiole, 3 to 4 in. long by 4 to 6 lines 
broad, hirsute or glabrous above,]hirsute beneath ; primary veins 4 to 5 on each side, 
inconspicuous ; sheath striated, often pubescent when young, glabrous in age ; 
mouth fimbriate, inflorescence as in No. 1 ; verticels sometimes 1£ inches in 
diameter, very dense, almost echinate ; spikelets about 6 lines long ; sterile, very 
acute, glabrous, 4 to 5 flowered, the 2 lower florets unipaleaceous, shining on the 
back, mucronate at the apex ; the 2 next bipaleaceous and fertile, the upper one 
very short or obsolete, the lower palea membranaceous ; striate nervose subulate, 
with a long spine at the apex ; margin glabrous ; the upper palea in the fourth 
flower convex obtuse, in the third bicarinate obtuse, the keels fimbriate. 
Stamens 6 monadelphous shortly mucronate or nearly obtuse or apiculate with 
1 to 2 greenish hairs. Style 2 to 3 cleft at the apex ; ovary (young) hirsute at 
the apex." — Munro. Monogr., p. 130. 

Konkan Ghats. I have not seen this ; its leaves are said to be exactly like 
those of Dendrocalamus strictus ; it is distinguished from the last by the short 
points to the anthers and its striated membranous lower palea. 

I have received an imperfect flowering branch of a bamboo cultivated in 
Cumpta. It approaches in part to 0. monostygma of Beddome. 

Dendrocalamus strictus. Nees, Munro. Monogt. Bom. 147 ; Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. t. 325 ; Brand. For. Fl. 569 ; Bambusa stricta, Koxb. Fl. Ind., II, 
193 ; Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 299. 

Ver. — Bas, Bans (North India), Bas, TJdha (Dalz and Gibs.). 

Culms straight, up to 30 to 40 ft. high, nearly solid, or with a very narrow 
cavity, variously bent ; branches often leafless, numerous, rigid or flexuose, 
horizontal or spreading in all directions. Sheaths at the base of the branches 
striated, coriaceous, very smooth and shining inside, 8 to 10 in. long, terminat- 
ing into a long apex. Leaves shortly-petioled, lanceolate distichous, hairy 
above and below, rounded at the base, variable in size, generally 3 to 9 in., £ to 1 
inch broad. Spikelets spinescent, 3 to 9 lines long, in dense globular heads. 
1 to | inch in diameter, arranged in long interrupted spikes. Empty glumes 2 to 6, 
flowering glumes 2 to 3, acute or with a spinescent point. Palea of lower flower 
sometimes 2 -keeled. Keels ciliate of upper flower convex, glabrous. Stamens 
6. Ovary stipitate hairy. Style long hirsute. Stigma plumose, entire. 
Caryopsis ovoid 3 to 4 fines long, ovate, narrowed into the hairy style. 

Indigenous and cultivated everywhere in this Presidency, common also in 
Madras, up to 3,500 ft. in Bengal, Burma and Punjab. Absent from Sind. 
In Ceylon it is found only in a cultivated form. 

The three most important species are B. arundinacea, B. vulgaris, and Den- 
drocalamus strictus. The latter attains, as already stated, 20-40 ft., sometimes 
in good soil 100 ft. All this growth is attained within a year. The stem dies 
after flowering and ripening its seed. I have seen it in flower dining the 
months of December and January. Its stem is solid and elastic, and is used for 



BOMBAY GRASSES. 119 

making spear handles, baskets, roofing, and for all the purposes for which 
B. arundinacea is used. 

CONCLUSION.— In these Papers I have described all the species of grasses 
received from Guzerat, Deccan, Thana, Bassein, Dharwar and North Kanara. 
No specimens were sent from Sawuntwary, Kutnagheny, Malvan, and from 
Sind. A few which have been enumerated in my papers as belonging to the 
latter place were supplied to me by Mr. Woodrow, Professor of Botany and 
Agriculture of the Poona College of Science. I have reasons to believe that 
the lists from Guzerat and from other localities explored by me are far from 
being complete. I have received lately specimens of — 

Oplismemisundalitifolius, Poem etSchult. Syst.11,482; Trin.Sp. Gram. fe. 196 

Polytoca, Sp. Nova, from the Konkan, hitherto undescribed. 

Pmnisetwn chmdwoides, Pich in Pers. Syst.; Nees in Linnei VII 277- 
Kunth. Enumi, 162. 

Trichcelena tenerifie, Libth. Fl. Grasc. t. 53 (Saccharum) ; Trin. Sp. Gram. 
t. 317. From Sind, given by Mr. Woodrow, 

Latipes semgalmsis, Kunth Gram. t. 42 ; Lapago liflora, Boxb. Fl. 
Ind. I, 281 ; Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 295. From Sind (by Mr. Woodrow)! 
In Mr. Graham's Catalogue of the Bombay Plants, Domus is given as a locality 
where this grass is found to grow. 

Even in their present state, my papers must be considered as a useful con- 
tribution to the Bombay Agristology, and will, I hope, be acceptable as a guide 
to those who may wish to enter into this field of study, which is not as yet 
exhausted. 

Persons who have never considered the subject are not aware of the diffi- 
culties one has to encounter in an undertaking of this kind. I had to work 
as stated elsewhere, under great disadvantages ; but I went on with patience and 
cheerfulness, because the work I had undertaken was a labour of love. 

I reiterate here my heartfelt thanks to the Government of Bombay for their 
Pesolution recommending the Forest Officers to supply me with grasses of their 
respective districts to assist me in my studies, and also to the officers themselves 
for having willingly complied with the recommendation of Government. My 
thanks are also due to Mr. Campbell, Collector of Customs, for having first 
drawn my attention to, and urging me as it were to undertake, this study of 
Bombay Grasses, the description of which was incomplete and imperfect. 

Before I finish this, I must mention that at the end of the description of the 
species I have given, as far as possible, their uses as fodder grasses. 



120 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

e THE LOCUSTS OF BENGAL, MADEAS, ASSAM, AND BOMBAY. 

By E. C. Cotes. 
{With one plate.") 

A report has recently been issued on the subject of Acridium peregrinum, 
which is par excellence the locust of North-Western India.f In gathering to- 
gether the materials upon which this report was based, information was 
obtained concerning other locusts which have from time to time proved 
destructive in Bengal, Madras, Assam, and Bombay. The present report, 
therefore, is intended to record what has been ascertained about these other 
locusts. To complete the subject, a short resume has been added of what is 
known of the chief locusts that are found in other parts of the world. 

The principal sources of information have been the reports and specimens 
furnished by the Revenue and Agricultural Department of the Government of 
India, and by the Agricultural Sections of the various Local Governments in 
India, but reference has also been made to the more important papers published 
in the United States, Algeria, and Europe, on the subject of locusts. 

A short preliminary sketch of a portion of this paper was submitted in 
November, 1889, since which date a good deal of fresh information has 
accumulated. 

The writer takes this opportunity to acknowledge the help which has been 
most kindly afforded by Dr. Henri de Saussure in identifying species. 

Locusts in Bengal. 

In Bengal, it is chiefly in the comparatively dry country to the west that 
locusts appear, though occasionally flights traverse the whole of Bengal and 
even penetrate into Assam. These flights are composed of insects belonging 
to different species, and there are at least three distinct sources from which 
they come. In the first place, flights of Acridium peregrinum occasionally 
penetrate from the North- West frontier into Bengal. This was the case both 
in 1863 and 1890. An account of what is known of these flights is given in 
the report on Acridium peregrinum. Secondly, flights occasionally penetrate 
into Bengal from the highlands of Southern India, and in these cases they 
probably belong to some of the various species which occasionally prove 
destructive to crops in the Madras and Bombay Presidencies and in the 
Central Provinces 1 . This was probably the case with the flights of 1877 and 
1878, notices of which are given below. Thirdly, flights are believed occa- 

* Reprinted from Indian Museum Notes with the permission of the Trustees. 

f See Journal, Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. VI, page 242. 

1 The chief of these species are said to be Acridium succinctum, Pachytylus cinerascens 
Acridium mruginosum, Acridium melanocorne, Tryxalis turrita, Hieroglyphus furcifer, 
Caloptenus erubescens,; Caloptenus eruginosus, Cyrtacanthacris ranacea, Oxya furcifer a, Eu- 
prepocnemis bramina, Oxya velox, and Chrotogoms sp. 



mal, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. VII; . 



•> v 




V>«x> 




ACRIDIUM SUCCINCTUM LINN. 



LOCUSTS OF BENGAL, MADRAS, ASSAIL, & BOMBAY. 121 

sionally to arise locally 2 . This is probably what happened in 1881, when a 
flight invaded the Manbhum District from hills in Hazaribagh. No informa- 
tion has yet been obtained on the subject of the identity of these local 
species ; they may, perhaps, in some cases have belonged to the species 
Acridium succinctum. 

Whatever the origin of the flights, the injury done by them in Bengal has 
never been very extensive, and no special measures have been adopted against 
them. According to a report, dated 14th July, 1883, by Mr. W. H. Grimley, 
low-class Mahomedans and Hindoos are said to store the locust, both for food 
and also in order to extract an oil believed to be useful in the treatment of 
gout and rheumatism, but upon the whole the pest is of no very great im- 
portance. 

The following is an abstract of the records of the invasions of locusts 
other than Acridium peregrinum in Bengal : — 

la 1862 locusts visited Monghyr and did considerable damage to the crops 
(Report, dated 26th June, 1890, by the Commissioner of Bhagulpore and the 
Santhal Parganas). We have no clue to the identity of this locust, except that 
in this, as in the following instances, the year was not one in which Acridium 
peregrinum was prevalent in its regular breeding grounds in North-Western 
India ; so it is pretty certain that the species was not Acridium peregrinum. 
In 1865 locusts passed over Manbhum, without, however, doing serious 
damage to the harvest (Hunter's Gazetteer); they also appeared in this year in 
Durbhunga (Mr. W. H. Grimley's Report, dated 14th July, 1883). 

In 1873 they are said to have passed over part of the Burdwan District 
(Commissioner of Burdwan's Report, dated 28th April, 1890). In 1877 they 
visited Monghyr and did considerable damage to the crops (Commissioner of 
Bhagulpore and the Santhal Parganas' Report, dated 26th June, 1890); a 
flight was also observed in this year in the neighbourhood of Patna (Mr. Scott's 
Note), and a specimen obtained from it on 1st July, 1877, by Mr Scott has 
recently been identified by Dr. Henri de Saussure as closely allied to the 
species Acridium succinctum. In 1878 locusts, which had probably strayed 
from the flights then prevalent in the Madras Presidency, appeared in the 
Patkour subdivision of the Santhal Parganas from the south, but did not 
alight (Commissioner of Bhagulpore and the Santhal Parganas' Report, dated 
23th June, 1890). They also appoared in small numbers in Orissa, but did no 
appreciable damage (Babu C. N. Ghose's Report, dated 20th February, 1890), 
and passed over Chumparan (Mr. W. H. Grimley's Report, dated 14th July, 
1383). In 1881 a flight of local origin appeared in Manbhum and did some 

2 With regard to the origin of locusts in the Durbhunga District, the Commissioner of 
Patna reported (10th July, 1890) that the swarms were said to come from the Darjeeling 
Hills, though some authorities were of opinion that they breed in the large tract of grass 
jungles that fringe the river Ganges. The suppoped inability of these local species to cross 
any large body of water is noticed in this report. 
16 



122 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOB Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

slight injury. The following is an extract from a report, dated 14th July, 1883, 
by Mr. W. H, Grimley on the subject : — 

" The subdivisional officer of Gobindpore, in the district of Manbhum, reports that, 
in June, 1881, a swarm of locusts visited the subdivision, extending over an area about 
ten by five miles, and about a quarter of a mile high. They are said to have emerged 
partly from the Lagoo Pahar, and partly from the Paresnath hill, in the Hazaribagh 
District. Considerable numbers alighted on the young dlian seedlings, Indian-corn and 
gondlee, which has just sprouted, and destroyed them. Much damage is said to have 
been caused by the insects, but they did not stay for more than four or five hours." 
The insects were " about four inches long with heads and wings of a red colour. A 
large number were destroyed by the people, and some were eaten up by the kites and 
crows, also by low-caste aborigines. They are said to possess the flavour of shrimps or 
lobsters." 

Locusts in Madras. 

Both in 1889 and 1890 flights of Acridium psregrinum from North- Western 
India penetrated into the Madras . Presidency, and did slight damage over 
considerable areas ; generally speaking, however, the locusts, which occasionally 
prove destructive to crops in Madras, are of more local origin. There does 
not appear to be any one species .which is invariably complained of, but in 
years of drought numerous species, which are ordinarily present in small 
numbers, multiply so as to injure the crops, some of them, however, being 
much more destructive than others. An account of what has been ascertained 
about the flights of Acridium peragrinum, which penetrated into the Madras 
Presidency in 1889 and 1890, has been given in the report on that species. 
The following is a summary of what is known of the other species of locusts 
that have proved injurious in the Madras Presidency : — 

In 1866, a: year of scarcity, locusts appeared in one of the villages of 
the Ohingleput District, in the Madras Presidency, and did some damage 
(Mr. W. R. Eobertson's Eeport, dated 23rd April, 1883). No information 
has been obtained as to the identity of this insect. 

In 1878, the last year of the great South Indian famine, locusts invaded the 
whole of the Madras Presidency, not generally doing a great amount of injury, 
though in some cases the injury was sufficient seriously to increase the distress 
caused by the famine. The young locusts began to appear in January, and 
were found in great numbers in different districts from that date on till 
September and October, the earlier swarms being found in the west and south 
of the Presidency, and the latter ones in the north and east. The winged 
locusts were first observed in the end of March and beginning of April in the 
south-west (Wynaad and Nilgiris), and they afterwards spread over the 
Presidency to the east and north, not finally disappearing in the north- cast 
until about November and December. They were supposed, at the time, 
to have originated locally in hills and waste lands in different parts of the 
Presidency. The evidence, however, seems rather to point to the locusts 



LOVUSTS OF BENGAL, MADRAS, ASSAM, & BOMBAY. 123 

having started, in the early part of the year, from the Wynaad and Nilgiri 
Hills, in the south-west, and thence to have worked their way, with the 
prevailing wind, over the Presidency to the north and east, occasionally stop- 
ping to feed or to deposit their eggs in the ground ; for it is otherwise difficult 
to account for the fact of their appearing so much earlier in the south-west 
than in the north-east. Little is known of the life-history of the insects, but 
it may be noticed that locusts were observed pairing in the Salem District in 
the latter part of June, and also that the young locusts, which were found in 
the early part of May in the Udamalpet taluq, were supposed to be the off- 
spring of the large flights of winged locusts which had appeared in the pre- 
ceding February in the same taluq. The connection between the autumn 
broods of young locusts and those which appeared in the early part of the 
year has not been made out satisfactorily. 

Of the measures adopted against these locusts, the most successful seem to 
have been : — the destruction of the swarms of young wingless locusts by 
driving them into lines of burning straw ; the preventing of the flights of winged 
locusts from settling in the fields by lighting fires, beating drums, and waving 
branches and cloths in the air, as soon as a flight appeared ; and the driving 
of the winged locusts out of the fields, when they had already alighted, by 
beating through the crops. It is said that in cases where winged flights were 
driven persistently through a number of villages, without being allowed to 
settle, the locusts perished without doing injury. The above account of the 
Madras locust invasion of 1878 is chiefly taken from the official reports pre- 
served in the Proceedings of the Revenue and Agricultural Department of the 
G overnment of India. With regard to the identity of the insects concerned 
in the Madras locust invasion of 1878, nothing seems to have been ascertained 
at the time of the invasion, though the insects were spoken of in one of the 
reports as belonging to the species Locusta migratoria. This, however, may 
possibly have been due to the fact that the locust of Central Europe is often 
referred to in old entomology books under this antiquated name ; much 
importance, therefore, cannot be attached to the indentification, and the only 
clue which we possess lies in the specimens preserved in the collections of the 
Central Museum, Madras. From this museum a set of specimens, which are 
supposed to represent the Madras locust of 1878, have been kindly furnished 
by Mr. Edgar Thurston, They have been identified by Dr. Henri de Saussure 
and prove to comprise no less than six very distinct species, which are as 
follows : (1) Acridmm ceruginosum, Burm., represented by five or six 
specimens which vary a good deal in the arrangement of the wing markings, 
(2) Acridium melanocorne, Serv., var., (3) Tnjxalis turrita, Linn., (4) Meco- 
poda sp., (5) Euprepocnemis sp., represented in each case by one or at most 
two specimens, (6) a specimen, in a very poor state of preservation, which 
belongs either to the species Pachytylus migratorius or to Pachytylus 
cinerascens. 



124 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

In July, 1890, locusts were noticed in the Ganjam collectorate, the following 
being the Collector's report to the Revenue Board, Madras, on the subject : — 

" I have the honour to inform you that on the 24th instant I visited Purushottapur in 
order to see whether anything could be done to destroy the locusts reported to be doing 
so much mischief there. 

" I had two large 'bag nets' made of bamboo matting, 15 feet long, and hoped that 
I might have been able to do something with them ; but am sorry to say that all 
attempts ended in failure. I also attempted to drive the insects into trenches, but 
without success. The reason for the failure is, that the insects, which are of four or 
five different kinds, succeed in evading the net or the drive, the large ones by flying 
away when approached, the smaller ones by dropping to the ground and clinging 
there so that nothing would remove them which would not at the same time root out 
altogether the crop. The number of large brown insects which seem to be really 
locusts is comparatively small, the great bulk are small brown and green grass-hoppers, 
which are in myriads. A great deal of damage has undoubtedly been done. The pest 
extends over about 10 square miles, chiefly in the Pubbakhandam mutah of the Berham- 
pore taluk. Of one hundred and four villages (including'Agraharams and Mokhasas) 
in the mutah, fifty-five are more or less affected and ten have suffered seriously. 

" All the villages most affected are near the Dalibhillo Tampara, the embankment of 
which breached in the floods of last year and has not yet been repaired, in consequence 
of which a large expanse of ground, usually under water, has been lying dry. The 
ryots report that the insects first made their appearance in the vicinity of the Tam- 
para, and 1 think it probable that they were brought out in unusual quantities owing 
to the unusual extent of dry ground there. Steps are being taken now to repair the 
embankment, and I trust that next year the Tampara will not afford so convenient a 
breeding ground, and that the insects will either not re-appear or do so in diminished 
numbers." 

Specimens were forwarded to the Indian Museum and were found to con- 
sist of (1) ten adults and eight larva? of Bachytylus cinerascens 1 , (2) four 

1 These specimens were identified by Dr. Henri de Saussure ; the species is so closely allied 
to Pachytylus migratorius, which is the common migratory locust of Central Europe, that it 
is very doubtful as to whether the two forms are separable. Koppen indeed {vide Zool 
Record, 1872, page 398) considers that P. cinerascens is only a variety of P. migratorius, and 
the specimens of the two forms in the Indian Museum (as determined by Henri de Saus- 
sure) seem to point to this being the case. According to the synopsis given on page 119 of 
Dr. Saussure 's Prodromus (Edipodiorum, in P. cinerascens the male is smaller than the female, 
the punctation on the pronotum is somewhat coarse, the notch in the carina is well marked, 
and the teeth oU the posterior femora are large ; while in P. migratorius the male is much 
the same size as the female, and the punctation on the pronotum, the notch on the carina, and 
the teeth on the posterior femora are less marked. To these characteristics Mons. Frey 
Gessner adds that the carina on the thorax of P. cinerascens is elevated into a well-marked 
ridge, while that of P. migratorius is much less distinct. These characteristics, however, seem 
in the absence of any well-marked geographical boundary between the areas in which the 
two forms occur, to be of scarcely sufficient importance to justify their separation into two 
species, this being especially the case, as Dr. Saussure writes, that the females of the two 
forms are often almost indistinguishable. 



LOCUSTS OF BENGAL, MADRAS, ASSAM, & BOMBAY. 125 

specimens of Tryxalis turrita, Linn., (3) one specimen of Oxya velox, Burm. 

(4) one specimen of a species which is probably Epacromia dorsalis, Thumb. 

(5) one larvae of a grass-hopper probably belonging to the genus (Eclalus. Of 
these the immature specimens are probably the " small brown and »reen 
grass-hoppers," alluded to by the Collector as present in myriads/while the 
full-grown specimens of Pachytylus cinerascens are likely to have been the 
"locusts" mentioned as present in comparatively small numbers. Now 
Pachytylus cinerascens is one of the chief migratory locusts of Europe, where 
it sometimes does a great deal of damage. The insect is essentially an 
inhabitant of the temperate zone, and this would make it appear probable 
that its permanent breeding-ground lies somewhere in the Nilgiri or other 
hills, whence it might easily be carried upon the south-west monsoon across 
the Presidency. The presence of nearly full-grown larvae shows that the 
original flight must have remained in the district sufficiently long to have 
laid their eggs, and for the eggs to have hatched, and for the larvae to have 
passed through most of the early stages, a process which probably occupied 
some months. In the Palaearctic zone P. cinerascens is said to lay its eggs in 
the autumn, the young hatching out in the following summer, but we are as 
yet entirely in the dark as to the habits which the insect acquires when it 
passes out of a temperate climate into a tropical one. 

Locusts in Assam. 

Assam is not generally troubled by locusts, though in the cold weather of 
1890-91 a stray flight of Acridium peregrinum from North-Western India 
penetrated into it. In 1879 also both the autumn and winter crops in Now- 
gongwere reported by the Director of Agriculture to have been largely 
destroyed by locusts, which were said to have come from the tall grass jungle 
at the base of the Khasi and Mikir Hills, where they breed permanently. 
Nothing is known of the identity of this locust, though it may possibly have 
been the insect Phymateus miliaria; which was sent to the Indian Museum in 
September, 1890, by General Collett, with the information that it was common 
in the neighbourhood of Shillong. The following is taken from a report 
dated 15th February, 1883, by the Director of Agricultural in Assam :— 

" I spent three weeks marching in the Nowgong District, and visited most of the 
district, except the hill tracts. The Kakotiphoring, or Paper grass-hopper, as the 
locust is called, is very well known. It is said to attain a length of six to seven inches. 
It breeds in the tall reed and grass jungle, especially in the jungle at the foot of the 
hills along the south of the district (the Khasia and Mikir Hills). The* time of the 
appearance of the insect is in the early spring, and it continues to feed till July. 

"Local visitations of locusts are common enough. I found it generally stated that 
they took place every two or three years. But one general invasion was well remem- 
bered everywhere ; the date was 1879 : it began early and ended late, so as to include 
both mustard and rice in the area of devastation. The mustard ripens in January. 

« The direction in which the locust swarms moved was somewhat different in 



12G JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HIS TOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

different places. Near the Khasia and Mikir Hills they seemed to come from the 
south, i.e., from the submontane jungle. In the Chapari Mahals, between the Kalang 
and Brahmaputra, the direction of their course was eastwards. They seem to have 
moved with great regularity from west to east along this tract, a distance of some 50 
miles. The ryots, moved perhaps by rumours of the Afghan War, which had penetrat- 
ed thus far, told one another that they came from Cabul. Their numbers were such 
that the reeds and grass of the jungle were bowed down by their weight when they 
alighted, and they made a clean sweep of all the fields in their way. The Mikirs and 
Lalungs eat locusts after parching them in the fire. Locusts can commonly be had 
in the month of Bohag (April -May). The only remedy adopted against locusts is one 
which the people appear to have invented for themselves. They sprinkle the 
threatened crops with water in which salt has been dissolved, and in which onions 
have been steeped. This remedy is said to have been effectual in 1879, after 
some time probably the locust would have moved on in any case." 

Locusts in the Bombay Presidency, excluding: Sind. 

In the autumn of 1890 flights of Acridium pzregrinum from North- Western 
India penerated into the Bombay Deccan and Kon- 
kan, and did slight damage over considerable areas. 
An account of these flights has been given in the report on Acridium peregri- 
num, and we are now chiefly concerned with the locusts which invaded the 
Presidency in 1882-83, though it should also be noticed that, according to 
Hunter's Gazetteer, locusts appeared in 1878 in Kolaba and damaged the cold 
weather crops of 1878-79, nothing further, however, being recorded about 
them. 

In 1882-83 locusts proved destructive throughout the whole of the Bombay 
Deccan and Konkan, and though the identity of the insects concerned was not 
altogether definitely ascertained, the history of the invasion was very com- 
pletely recorded in numerous official reports. The sections, therefore, on the 
history of the invasion and on the remedies adopted have been taken, much 
of them verbatim, from the reports of the Bombay Government by Mr. J. 
Nugent, as recorded in the Becords of the Bevenue and Agricultural Depart- 
ment of the G overnment of India. The section on the life-history of the 
insect is from a report by Mr. Hatch, as reprinted in the Indian Forester, 
Volume X. 

In May and June, 1882, locusts were noticed in the south-west of the Presi- 
dency (Dharwar and Kanara Collectorates), but they 

The history of the inva- attracted little attention, as such swarms are annual 
sion. 

visitors of the Kanarese forests, and neither in 

Kanara nor in Dharwar did they cause any material injury. With the setting 
in of the south-west monsoon, however, they spread in flights over the Presi- 
dency, to the north and north-east (Satara, Poona, Nasik, Ahmednagar, and 
Khandesh), and early in the rains proceeded to lay their eggs and die. These 
eggs hatched in the end of July, or beginning of August, and the young locusts 



LOCUSTS OF BENGAL, MADRAS, ASSAM, & BOMBAY. 127 

did a large amount of damage, over a wide area, through the months of 
August and September. In the early part of October, with the setting in of 
the north-east monsoon, the young locust, which had by this time acquired 
wings, took flight and travelled with the prevailing wind in a south-westerly 
direction, doing some injury in the Poona Collectorate as they passed. They 
then struck the Western Ghats and spread slowly over the Konkan in Novem- 
ber, and thence travelled into the Native State of Sawantwari and the Kanara 
district. During the remainder of the cold season and the hot weather (De- 
cember, 1882, to the end of May, 1883) the flights clung to the line of the Ghats 
occasionally venturing inland into Belgaum, Dharwar, the Kolhapur State, and 
Satara, and devouring the spring crops in the coast districts, but ordinarily 
returning to the vicinity of the hill ranges. With the commencement of the 
south-west monsoon, however, in the latter part of May, 1883, the flights began 
to move in a north-easterly direction, as they had done the preceding year, 
but in larger numbers. 

At the commencement of the rains they began to alight in vast numbers 
over an immense tract of country comprising the six Deccan collectorates of 
Sholapur, Poona, Khandesh, Ahmednagar, Satara, and Nasik, and also in the 
three coast collectorates of Ratnagiri, Kolaba, and Thana. They deposited 
their eggs and died, and early in August the young locusts hatched out in 
countless numbers, but were apparently more backward and possessed of less 
strength and stamina than were those of the preceding year. The unusually 
heavy rainfall killed vast numbers of these in different parts of the country, 
and elsewhere the insects seemed stunted and feeble, and grew but slowly. 
They were destroyed in vast numbers by the vigorous measures initiated by the 
officials, and were also said to be diseased and attacked by mites and nematode 
parasites. As late as November, the mass of the young locusts appeared unable 
to fly and made no general movement to the south-west, as they had done the 
year before. The invasion was, in fact, at an- end, and though (according 
to Hunter's Gazetteer) swarms appeared in Sawantwari in 1883-84 no further 
injury of a serious nature seems to have occurred. 

The injury occasioned to the rain crops by the locusts was very considerable 
over a great portion of the Deccan and Konkan both in 1882 and 1883. But 
though some relief works were started, especially in the coast district, it was 
found, at the end of the invasion, that the abundance of the cold weather 
crops had compensated to so great an extent for the injury occasioned to the 
rain crop, that no wide-spread injury had been occasioned. 

The life-history of the Mr " Hatch describes the life-history of the locast, 
locust - as observed in the Konkan, as follows 1 : — 

" In the Konkan locusts coupled in great numbers between the 15th May and the 
15th June, 1883, and died off naturally immediately after the eggs had been deposited. 
The eggs are deposited mostly in fiat and gently sloping land of soft friable soil, rocky 

1 From his report, as reprinted iu the Indian Forester, Vol. X, p. 425, 



1 28 JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

and sandy soil being avoided, and land which has been ploughed up, and the lee side 
of banks, where the soil has accumulated, are mostly selected. The eggs are piled in 
a small cylindrical hole, parallel to its sides, and are attached to one another by 
some cohesive siccable substance. Filling the mouth of the hole is a plug, consisting 
of a soft fibrous substance, and below it the eggs, arranged as described, averaging 70 
in each hole. The holes are from 1*5 to 2 inches in depth, and in a good locality four 
might be found in a span. They are not easily visible, but when one is found, others 
are generally near it. Brushing off the loose dust and digging here and there faci- 
litates search. 

" The eggs themselves arc of a dirty ochre colour, in length '2 to "3, and in diameter 
•05 to "08 of an inch, rounded in section, with a slight curve, and tapering very 
slightly towards the rounded ends. . . When fresh, the contents of the eggs are of 
a dirty orange colour, liquid but slightly viscous, with a somewhat acrid taste. The 
envelope apparently consists of two layers, the outer one coloured and tough, and the 
inner one white and fragile. When broken, the eggs give off an odour like a broken 
root. As the eggs approach maturity, they assume a distinctly greenish hue, and the 
young locust bursts the shell down the middle on issuing into life. I experimented 
on some eggs by placing them in damp and very damp soil, but the water did not 
affect the hatching. 

" The young locusts appeared in myriads in my district (Chiplun taluVa) between 
1st and 20th August, so that the period the eggs required to hatch was a little more 
than two months, say seventy days. 

" The young locusts vary somewhat in colour, most being a dullish light green, some 
light green, but hardly verdant, and a few almost white and only tinged with green. 
A few minutes after hatching they are strong enough to jump .... The 
antennas are darksome and short, whilst on the thigh-cases small black spots, and on 
the upper side of the abdomen a faint black line, are just visible. .... 

" The young locusts generally cast their slough for the first time about 15 days 
after birth, and in their new skin the black line and spots become darker and the green 
colour of a deeper hue. They now leave the grass land and seek the shelter of the 
crops, and are in length - 8 of an inch. 

" After another interval of 15 days they again cast their slough and enter on the 
third stage. In this the black line becomes very intense, as also do the spots, which 
lengthen and form the so-called ' Koranic verses' — they do show a certain similitude to 
some letters of the Arabic alphabet. They are now 1-2 of an inch in length. 

" They enter the 4th stage by casting their slough after another 15 days, arcl 
assume, including the antennce, a yellow colour, which, towards the end of the stage, 
becomes pinkish-grey. The black line and the ' Koranic verses ' are now very intense 
in colour, and the insect attains the length of 1-G of an inch. 

" A great transformation is witnessed on entry into the 5th stage after 15 more 
days. The female is now two inches long, whilst the male is somewhat less. The 
colour of the head, prothorax, and abdomen is a grey or drab, speckled on the prothorax, 
and darker along the upper side of the abdomen. The ringed antennas are deep 
yellow, the eyes chestnut and striated, whilst for the first time appears an oblong 
mark under each eye, indigo-green in colour, and bordered on each side by yellow. 
The Arabic letters have now disappeared, whilst the spots on the thigh-cases are 



LOCUSTS OF BENGAL, MADRAS, ASSAM, & BOMBAY. 129 

obsolescent. The young wings, too, now first appear. At first very small, they grow 
during the period of this stage — 20 days. The contents of the wing-sprouts are at 
first liquid, and the young wings may be seen forming within the semi-transparency. 
When they are fully formed, the insect is of a dark brownish-grey colour, whilst on 
the prothorax and elsewhere may be distinguished the colouring of the nest stage. 

" In its 6th and perfect stage the insect presents a brilliant appearance. The female 
is now 3 inches, and the male 2£ inches, in whole length, from head to tips of wings 
which overlap the abdomen by "5 of an inch, and are rounded. On casting the slough 
the wings dry and unfold, and the body of the insect, at first soft and moist, gradually 
hardens in the sun. The antennas are *8 inch in length, and of a bright yellow colour ; 
the head is a brownish-yellow, and the eyes, finely striated, are of a deep chestnut. 
The prothorax is alternately banded with a bright yellow and a rich brown, parallel- 
wise to the body, and the legs are of an ochreish hue. Along the upper rim of the 
femur runs a deep brown stripe, and the knee-caps are of the same colour. The tibia, 
tarsus, and foot are a bright ochre, and the first is armed with 8 black-tipped spurs on 
the outside and 11 on the inside, while there are a pair of spurs on each side of the 
ankle-joint and on each side of the foot. The outer wings, or wing cases, have the 
colours on the prothorax extended to them, and on the back they form a flat 
surface, tapering to the extremity, They are strongly veined and finely reticulated, 
and towards the extremities are irregularly brown marked. The inner wings, which 
are expansive, are hardly coloured. The abdomen is a light brown, darker along the 
ridge, and in the female there are four spiky processes at its extremity, the upper pair 
curling up and the lower pair downwards. In the male the lower pair is replaced by 
one spiky process, larger and stronger. 

" The locust now packs with its kindred, and they form the swarms which ravage 
the country. After a month or so they assume a red tinge, which gradually deepens 
and continues until their death, which takes place after the sexual function has been 
performed in May or June. The proportion of males to females appeared to me about 
lin6. 

" The whole life of the insect, including the egg-period, is exactly one year." 

Various methods were employed in the Bombay Presidency in 1882-83 to 

destroy the locusts, which were to a large extent kept 
Remedies. . & l 

under by the energetic measures taken against them. 

The Cyprus screen system 1 was found utterly inapplicable and had to be 

abandoned. The search for eggs also was not found successful as a means of 

1 The Cyprus screen system consists in erecting a long line of screens, each two to three 
feet high, in front of an advancing swarm of young wingless locusts, pits being dug at inter- 
vals, close to the screens and at right angles to them, on the side towards the advancing 
swarm, the object being that the young locusts, on arriving at the screens, may turn to the 
right and left, and thus pour into the pits, where they can be destroyed. The chief advan- 
tage of the screen system is, that it enables a series of pits, dug at intervals, to take the place 
of the continuous trench that would otherwise be necessary to catch the whole of a swarm. 
The material hitherto chiefly used for the screens has been cloth bound along the top with a 
strip of slippery oil-cloth, about four inches wide, to prevent the locusts climbing over, but 
smooth mat screens are likely to be cheaper for use in many parts of India. The pits are 
usually furnished with overhanging zinc edges to prevent the locusts escaping. 
17 



130 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

destroying the pest. A plan was tried of marching lines of beaters, armed 
with bundles of twigs, through the fields, beating the ground so as to crush 
the young locust. This was to some extent successful in short grass, but could 
not be made use of with growing crops. The plan of dragging country blankets 
rapidly over a field where locusts were to be found, and squeezing up the cloth 
every few yards to kill the insects which had been caught, was found useful 
in bushy tracts, but required, for its successful working, a good deal of activity 
and intelligence. The most successful method consisted in dragging over the 
fields a capacious bag, five or six feet deep by eight or ten feet long and much 
like a huge bolster case, but open at the side, instead of at the end. This was 
held by two men, one at each end, and was run along over the grass or young 
crops, to catch the locusts, which tumbled in, and, being unable to escape 
could, from time to time, be killed by twisting up the bag. This was found 
to be a simple and easy means of destroying the locusts, and the people took 
to it readily all over the locust-affected area. Little or no injury was done to 
the crops by the men working it, and millions of insects were killed. 

With regard to the numbers destroyed during the locust invasion, the 
Collector of Nasik reported the destruction in his collectorate alone of some 
forty-five tons of locusts, which he estimated must have represented about a 
thousand millions of individual locusts. Similarly in the Satara collectorate one 
hundred and eighty tons were reported to have been destroyed by the local 
officials. The numbers destroyed in these two collectorates were no doubt 
greater than in most of the collectorates which suffered from the locusts, but 
the figures give some idea of the extent of the invasion. 

With regard to the identity of the locust of 1882-83, Dr. Macdonald in his 

report in the Indian Forester, Vol. X, advanced the 
The identity of the locust. 

supposition that the insect was Acridium peregrinum, 

and this name was adopted in most of the official reports which subsequently 
appeared. There seems, however, to be conclusive proof that the insect 
belonged to some other species. In the reports, both of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Swinhoe and of Lieutenant-Colonel Bradford, the locust of Rajputana, which 
is undoubtedly Acridium peregrinum, is spoken of as distinct from the Bombay 
locust of 1882-83. Acridium peregrinum has been shown to be essentially the 
inhabitant of sandy deserts, while the Bombay locust of 1882-83 originated in 
the tropical forests of the Western Ghats. The habits also of the Bombay 
locust of 1882-83 differed materially from those of Acridium peregrinum, in that 
the young wingless larvae of Acridium peregrinum can be readily driven into 
traps, while those of the Bombay species entirely declined to be destroyed 
in this manner. Again, specimens said to be " locust" were sent from the 
Bombay Presidency in 1883 to the well-known entomologist Mr. F. Moore, 
who identified them as belonging to no less than five species, namely -.—Acri- 
dium succinctum, Caloptenus erubescens, Caloptenus caliginosus, Cyrtacanthacres 
ranacea, and Oxya furcifera; Acridium peregrinum being unrepresented— a 



LOCUSTS OF BENGAL, MADRAS, ASSAIL, & BOMBAY. 131 

circumstance which is not likely to have occurred if this had been the species 
which was at that time swarming over the Presidency. Again at a meeting 
of the Entomological Society of London, held on the 4th of April, 1883 
Mr. W. F. Kirby, of the British Museum, exhibited specimens of a locust which 
he identified as Acridium succinctum, and which he had received from Mr. T. 
Davidson, who stated that it was the species which had lately been destructive 
in the Deccan and other parts of India. In the absence, therefore, of actual 
specimens, which do not seem to have been preserved, it may be concluded 
as most probable that while numerous species of Acrididce may have been 
present in great numbers in the Bombay Presidency in 1882-83, the insect 
chiefly responsible for the injury to the crops was Acridium succinctum, which, 
therefore, would be the one spoken of by most of the observers who, from 
their reports, seem to have noticed but one kind of insect. 

Locusts in other parts of the world. 

Many species of Orthoptera occasionally increase vastly in numbers, so as to 

cause serious injury to agricultural crops : and there 
General. 

are, m different parts of the world, certain species, 

which are known distinctively as Locusts, and which possess this habit to a 

remarkable degree, often migrating in swarms which devour the crops over 

wide areas of country. Migratory locusts usually breed permanently in tracts 

where the vegetation is sparse. In years when they increase excessively, they 

descend in flights from their permanent breeding-grounds, upon cultivated 

districts, where they destroy the crops, lay their eggs, and maintain themselves 

for a limited period, but are unable to establish themselves permanently, 

usually disappearing in the year following the invasion, to be succeeded, after 

an interval of years, by fresh swarms from the permanent breeding-ground. 

Generally speaking, the life circle of a locust extends through one year, in 
which period it passes through its various stages of egg, young wingless larva, 
active pupa, and winged adult which lays the eggs that are to produce the next 
generation, the only recorded exception being Acridium peregrinum, which is 
believed to pass through two generations in the year in India. 

The eggs are laid in little agglutinated masses in holes which the female 
bores with her ovipositor in the ground. In temperate climates the eggs are 
usually laid by the end of the summer, and the parent locust dies before the 
winter commences, the eggs remaining in the ground during the winter months, 
and hatching out in the following spring. In sub-tropical countries, where 
there is but little winter, the winged locusts live on through the cold season, 
and do not die off until the following spring, when they deposit their eggs. 
In this case the eggs hatch after lying in the ground for about a month. In both 
temperate and sub-tropical regions alike, the young wingless locusts on emerg- 
ing from the eggs in the spring or early summer feed voraciously and grow 
rapidly for one or two months, during which period they moult at intervals 
finally developing wings and becoming adult. The adult locusts fly about io 



132 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL LILSTORY SOCIETY, Vol.VIII. 

swarms, which settle from time to time and devour the crops. The damage 
done by locusts is thus occasioned, first, by the young wingless insects, and 
afterwards by the winged adults into which the young transform after a couple 
of months of steady feeding. 

The following are the chief species of locusts found in different parts of the 
world other than India : — 

Pachytylus migratorius , the chief migratory locust of Europe, occurs espe- 
cially in Eastern Europe and Southern Russia, also in Central Asia, Siberia, 
North China, Japan, the Fiji Islands, New Zealand, North Australia, Mauritius, 
Madeira, and possibly in South Africa, very little, however, being known about 
its distribution in the Southern Hemisphere (McLachlan : article Locust, Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica). It may be looked upon as the chief locust of the tem- 
perate zone, excluding America. An elaborate account of this species in South 
Russia is given by Koppen (Horae Soc. Ent. Ross., iii, pp. 89 — 246 ; reviewed in 
Zool. Record, 1867, p. 457). From eggs laid in the autumn the larvae hatch in 
the spring (April and May), and moult four times before they become adult 
larvae, band themselves together, and move in search of nutriment, feeding 
chiefly on Graminm and doing a vast amount of damage. The imagos emerge 
about July, copulate soon afterwards, and oviposition extends from August to 
October. Each female copulates and oviposits about three times, at intervals 
of about a month ; each time laying from 50 to 90 eggs, in a hole bored by 
her horny ovipositor in the soil. This hole is about 1 1 inches deep and is lined 
with frothy matter, which hardens into a case for the eggs. The eggs have 
been found to withstand as low a temperature as 26° F. below zero. The dry 
steppes constitute the chief haunts of the locust, which avoid damp places. 
The females generally oviposit in solid virgin soil, and seldom visit ploughed 
land for this purpose. Koppen is of opinion that the countries in which the 
swarms are seen are also, generally speaking, the countries of their origin. 

Pachytylus cinerascens, Fabr., and (Edipoda tatarica, Motsch., which have 
been described by different authors as distinct from P. migratorius, are consid- 
ered by Koppen to be but varieties of one and the same species (florae Soc. 
Ent. Ross., iii, 1867). P. cinerascens is the form which has usually appeared in 
England and Belgium, in the latter of which countries Koppen notices that it 
probably breeds (Zool. Record, 1872, p. 398). It also occurs.in India. 

Pachytylus pardalinus has been described as destructive in South Africa 
(Trans. Soc. Afr. Phil. Soc, i, p. 193, 1880). 

Pachytylus stridulus, (Edipoda vastator, Stauronotus vastator, and Pesotettix 
alpina have been noticed amongst other locusts as occasionally destructive in 
Southern Russia, especially when associated with the common migratory species 
Pachytylus migratorius and Caloptinus italicus of that region (Koppen, Horae 
Soc. Ent. Ross., iii, 1867). 

Caloptenus spretus, the Rocky Mountain locust (see Reports of United States 
Entomologists— Riley, Pachard and Thomas— Washington, 1877—79), caused 



LOCUSTS OF BENGAL, MADRAS, ASSAM, & BOMBAY. 133 

injury, between the years 1874 and 1877, estimated at 200 million dollars. It 
breeds permanently only in a broad and comparatively barren region in the 
north-west of America, whence the invading winged swarms swoop down upon 
the fertile plains of the south and south-east, not appearing in the Mississipi 
valley until the latter part of July or the beginning of August, when wheat, 
barley and oats have generally reached perfection and been harvested. This, 
it is reported, renders it possible to prevent serious injury by relying chiefly on 
these crops when there is reason to fear incursions. On arrival the locusts 
devour everything green to be found, until they deposit their eggs and die 
in the autumn. From these eggs are produced in the spring, vast hordes of 
young which devour everything green they can find, travelling along the 
ground (not having yet acquired wings) from the fields they have exhausted 
to fresh ground. They may be destroyed in vast numbers by systematic 
rolling, collecting by hand, drawing bags over the field, &c, and their advance 
may be prevented by digging ditches in front of them with a streak of tar at the 
bottom, and also by driving them into heaps of straw to be then burnt, the trees 
being protected by bands formed of poisonous or impenetrable substances. 
When the larvas are full-fed and acquire wings, they rise up, by this time fol- 
lowed by hosts of insect parasites (Tachince, Ichneumoniclce, &c), and, weakened 
by disease, make their way more or less directly towards their permanent 
breeding-grounds ; they perish by millions on the road, so that but few ever 
reach their home in the high and barren north-west, where alone they are 
able to propagate permanently. They leave (it is reported) a great part of the 
country sufficiently early to allow of corn of rapid growth being produced 
after their departure, and succeeding swarms avoid the parasite-stricken dis- 
tricts which their immediate predecessors have deserted. Hogs, poultry, and 
all kinds of birds, besides various insects, destroy vast numbers of the locusts ■ 
and as they can only exist permanently in the comparatively barren north- 
west, it is supposed that when this breeding-ground is irrigated and settled 
the locusts will gradually be exterminated. 

Caloptenus italicus occurs on the European side of the Mediterranean (Italy 
Austria, &c.) ; it is also found in North Africa and South Russia (Verz. Zool. 
Bot. Ges.Wien., xviii, p. 930 ; Bull. Ent. Ital., xiii, p. 210). It has been report- 
ed as destructive. 

Stauronotus cruciatus has proved injurious in Italy and Sicily (Bull. Ent. 
Ital., xiii, p. 210). It also periodically invades Cyprus and the Troad (Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, pp. xiv& xxxviii ; also, Brown : — Report on the Locust 
Campaign of 1885-86 in Cyprus). 

In Cyprus the locust is indigenous to the island. The young hatch out 
about the middle of March, and take about six weeks to become adult, when 
they acquire wings, take flight, and soon afterwards copulate and oviposit. 
The eggs are laid in uncultivated rocky ground, ploughed land and light soil 
being avoided. Each egg-pod contains about 33 eggs. Some damage is done 



134 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

by the winged swarms, which, however, generally disappear by about the 
middle of June, the eggs remaining in the ground until about the following 
March, when they hatch. 

Serious loss is often occasioned by the locusts, and of late years a regular 
warfare has been waged against them by the Government of the island. The 
following was found to be the most satisfactory method of destroying them : 
Cloth-screens, about three feet high and bound at the top with a strip of oilcloth 
to prevent the locusts from climbing over, were erected in front of the advance 
of the young locusts, pits being dug at intervals close fco the screens and at right 
angles to them on the side towards the locust swarm, the edges of the pit 
being protected by frames made of cloth and wood, with zinc edge arranged to 
prevent the young locust from escaping from the pits. A swarm, on arriving 
at the screen, was found invariably to turn right and left along it, apparently 
endeavouring to go round it ; the young locusts thus poured in vast numbers 
into the pits dug to receive them, and, being unable to escape, were destroyed 
wholesale. In the case of the locust invasion of 1886, Brown reports (vide 
official report presented to both Houses of Parliament by Her Majesty, 
February, 1887) :— 

" There were very few places where the locusts were sufficiently dense to justify the 
use of screens and traps, and they were in most cases destroyed by covering the 
ground they occupied by a thin layer of dry brushwood or rubbish and setting fire to 
it. By this means large areas were burned. Where the locusts were so sparsely 
scattered, or the scarcity of brushwood rendered this method inapplicable, they were 
destroyed by beating (an improved beater or locust-flap of leather, weighted with 
lead, having been introduced by me this season). The weak point of these methods, 
as compared with the screen and trap system, is that, although the locust may be 
greatly reduced, it is practically impossible absolutely to exterminate them, whereas 
our experience of 1883 and 1884 abundantly proved that when carefully worked it is 
possible, by the continuous screen system then first introduced, to completely clear 
large tracts of land where the locust swarms were most dense." 

Stauronotus moroccanus.— This insect, which is found in most of the countries 
bordering on the Mediterranean, and which has also been reported from Bad- 
ghis in Afghanistan, has of late (1887— 89) proved very destructive to grain 
crops in Eastern Algeria, where its increase has been favoured by drought. 
Unlike Acridium peregrinum , which periodically invades Algeria from the south, 
it breeds permanently on the sparsely vegetated hill ranges in Algeria itself 
(Batna, M'lila, M'sila, Bordj, Rendir, &c.,) and thence descends in countless 
numbers into the cultivated plains towards the shores of the Mediterranean. 
The invading flights appear in the summer, and the females proceed, on arrival, 
to deposit their eggs in holes about an inch deep, which they bore with their 
ovipositors in the ground. About thirty or forty eggs are deposited in a mass 
of mucilage in each hole. These eggs remain in the ground throughout the 
autumn and winter, and hatch in the following spring (eggs laid in the end of 
June and beginning of July, 1888, hatched in April, 1889). After hatching out, 



LOCUSTS OF BENGAL, MADRAS, ASSAM, & BOMBAY. 135 

the young locusts band themselves together and march through the country 
devouring the crops. The loss occasioned in 1888 was estimated in the Con- 
sular report at about a million sterling. In 1888 measures were taken upon a 
large scale by the French Government for the destruction of the eggs, about 
600,000 francs being said to have been expended in buying eggs, at the rate of 
1 fr. 52 c. for two decalitres, from the Arabs. These measures, however, 
proved insufficient, and were considered unsatisfactory, M. Kiinckel d'Hercu- 
lais indeed showing that whereas a man can rarely collect as much as 2-60 litres 
of egg- cases, containing some 72,000 eggs, in a day, he can destroy about a 
million young locusts by collecting them after they have emerged from the 
eggs. In 1889, therefore, the Government introduced the Cyprus screen 
system upon a considerable scale for the destruction of the young locust. 
About 300 kilometres of screen were procured, and 100,000 people were em- 
ployed in destroying the young locusts. These measures seem to have been 
attended with considerable success, though definite information has not been 
received as to what extent the country was cleared of the pest 1 . 

Acridium peregrinum, — This is the chief locust of Northern Africa, Arabia, 
Persia, Baluchistan, and North- Western India. It has been fully dealt with 
in the report already issued. 

Acridium paranense has been described as the migratory locust of the Argen- 
tine Republic, though some writers are of opinion that it may perhaps be the 
same as Acridium peregrinum (vide McLachlan : Encyclop. Brit., article Locust), 

1 The above account is chiefly drawn from (1) Reports I and II by Mons. J. Kiinckel 
d'Herculais, dated May and August, 1888 ; (2) Diplomatic and Consular Report on Agri- 
culture in Algeria, No. 469 ; (3) Papers which have appeared in the Illustrated London News, 
Le MobacJier published in Algiers, and Insect Life published in Washington. 



136 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

REVIEW. 

* Beast and Man in India. 

The first thing to consider is, whether this review ought to be written 
for the Bombay Natural History Society's Journal, or for that of the 
chum Society, — the Anthropological. It is true, indeed, that Natural 
History includes Anthropology ; but this is not a popular view of the 
subject, and, therefore, hardly applicable to a " popular sketch." By 
the way, how did Mr. John Lockwood Kipling know that his sketch 
would be " popular," as it certainly is, before he published it ? He had 
a right to expect in Bombay and the Punjab a success dj'estime and 
his surname has been a good deal before the world of late ; and, 
perhaps, that may have encouraged him, and the event and editions 
have justified him. To return to the writer's own choice, Mr. Kipling 
and most of his public think that " Natural History " deals rather 
with " Beasts " than with Men. And he has, with conscious or 
unconscious sarcasm, put his Beast first. So here goes. 

We will take in hand his discourse of beasts, and leave that on men 
mostly on one side, especially so much of the book as is composed of 
newspaper articles and ballads by another hand. Like Dante and 
Virgil " We won't discuss these, but glance at them and pass on." 

The introductory chapter is mostly full of explanations of Indian 
character foreign to our somewhat limited view of the subject. But 
two somewhat curious limitations in our author's are revealed at p. 13, 
where he says that " in a few generations we may hope for an Indian 
student of Natural History. At present this splendid field is left 
entirely to European observers, who mostly look at nature along the 
barrel of a gun. Which is a false perspective." The full stop at 
" gun," we may remark, is false punctuation ; but, perhaps, the 
printer's. 

But in what world does Mr. Kipling live ? Any month in Bombay 
we could show him a room full of Indian students of Natural History, 
and as to the Europeans who " look at nature along the barrel of a gun," 
many of them have taken that view of the tiger and the panther. 
Whether their perspective was true or false, let the re-peopled villages 

* " Beast and Man in India, a popular sketch of Indian Animals in their relations 
with the people". By John 'Lockwood Kipling, C.I.E. London, Macmillan & Co. 



REVIEW. 137 

of Khandeish (for instance) tell. Whether a sportsman can be a 
naturalist or not, our own columns bear abundant witness here. And 
as a matter of fact, there never was a sporting society less animated by 
a mere love of slaughter, or more by a taste for observation and inquiry, 
than that of Western India at this present moment. You will scarcely 
find even a Griffin in the mofuss.il who would not be somewhat 
ashamed to own to " shooting for the bag." As a practice, pigeon- 
shooting, indeed, belongs to another order of things. It is not " look- 
ing at nature " in any sense, but simply looking at a target, — unfortu- 
nately alive, — which represents a fraction of a prize, — unfortunately a 
money-prize. But it seems to be fast falling off in public favour. 
Indeed, there is little wonder in that the trapped birds generally 
supplied to Indian Gymkhanas are poor fliers compared to the birds 
bred for the trap in Europe. Bazaar-bred birds turn the shooting into 
a farcical lottery for those who can make up their minds to shoot at 
them. To others, of course, it is a tragedy. But those who do not 
shoot trapped pigeons (including the present writer) are bound, in fair- 
ness, to acknowledge that that exercise requires great skill in the use of 
arms, and involves, when properly managed, no more cruelty than any 
other method of killing birds. 

Mr. Kipling's first bird is "the parrakeet (Palceornis cupabius)." 
But he only recognises one species out of three that he can hardly have 
failed to see — the Alexandrine, plum-headed, and rose-ringed, which 
are in every bazaar. The rose-ringed paroquet is our common Bombay 
species, the most beautiful and stupid of the three. The plum-headed 
is common enough on the Ghats and in deep jungles near them. It 
is easily recognized on the wing by its light-tipped tail. The Alex- 
andrine is apparently rarer in our province ; at least the present 
writer has not seen it in the forest ; but its colouration is not such as 
to identify it on the wing except from above. Wild parrots are not 
often looked upon de haut en bas nor often shot for identification. 
Dr. Jerdon established one habitat of this bird by such a chance as 
killing a falcon which happened to have just caught the paroquet. 

Only these three paroquets are common in our bazaars as " forest 
produce " of this Presidency, though other parrots, in great variety, 
but small in number, are imported, and seem to be outside our present 
purview. 
18 



138 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Mr. Kipling passes from the parrot to the weaver birds (Ploceus), 
whose plumage he oddly describes as " of quaker-like simplicity." 
When did quafcers wear yellow caps or yellow ribbons in their caps ? 

From these, through a list of " song birds" so wide as to include 
the hill-minah {Eulabes religiosa), he passes on to the fighting birds 
and to the more important crow. About the first he has nothing- 
new to say, but has hit a new idea in Indian crow-life by allowing 
" two hill-crows" to steal and hide ice. " To the last," he says 
" the disappearance of the ice was a wonder." And no wonder. 

As regards kites, he says that Milvus govinda is commonly " spoken 
of by Europeans as the Brahminy kite." But in our province this 
misname is more commonly given to a Neophron — Pharaoh's chicken. 
The true Brahminy kite which Mr. Kipling correctly describes by that 
name, and as " an eagle in miniature" (he might have said a sea- 
eagle in miniature if he had been a naturalist) is Haliastur Indus. 
Our author's dealings are with such creatures as are in close relation 
with man. He does not, therefore, mention that really noble variety 
or species of kite indicated by Hume's name Milvus major. 

Under head lt Cranes and Herons" (birds really very far apart) he 
gives us a fact worth record, namely that the Adjutant Stork, 
which is neither a crane nor a heron, has of late years ceased to 
frequent Calcutta — probably better cleaned up than of yore by its 
Municipality. 

After some remarks about cocks and hens, rather anthropological 
than ornithological, he passes on to the old legend of the Brahminy 
duck or Buddy Sheldrake, which we beg to give at more length for 
his and others' edification. A certain Brahmin's wife eloped, and the 
gods, at the outraged husband's prayer, smote the lovers with the 
curse of cowardice. They lost each other at a ford, and to this day 
one cries to the other, " Come over to me, Chakwi," and is answered, 
" No, come over to me, Chakwa." This, at least, is the tale of the 
Tapti, on which they are common, and although by no means borne out 
by observation, is not less so than Mr. Kipling's more insipid version 
of the legend. 

Our author passes on to the peacock, which he describes, in 
Gujarat and elsewhere, " as common as rooks in England." Peacocks 



REVIEW. 139 

abound in parts of Gujarat, but a rookery of peafowl remains to be 
seen. Of pigeons he has little to say, and nothing so good, as a native 
official said to the present writer in Rajputana many a year ago, 
" You mustn't shoot pigeons here. It's not that they are sacred, but 
the Eajputs have a fellow-feeling for the bird, because it is ' bholo ' 
—just like themselves." 

To do our Rajput members justice, their affection for a bird which 
habitually makes friends with man has a nobler root than the sarcastic 
Brahmin would allow them, and is exactly the same as the English 
love for house martins and the Dutchman's attachment to his almost 
sacred stork. It is below the dignity of a warlike and generous race 
to wage or allow war on a bird that will nest under our eaves and in 
our wells, and often wheels round, after a first shot, to expose itself to 
a second, rather than lose sight of its nest. The " blue rock," more- 
over, is not much to swear by on the table. 

Sir Walter Scott in " St. Roman's Well " notices the reasonable 
objection of Musalmans to the slaughter of doves in connection wiih 
that of Hussein (or, as he says, Ali). But the Prophet's own bird was 
probably not a dove but a "blue rock" of the northern species ; 
differing but slightly from ours. The legend of its flying out from the 
cave wherein he lay in hiding is as probably true as any story of the 
sort, and not in the least improbable. The present writer has seen the 
like. 

In this very pleasant way Mr. Kipling discourses of various fowls, 
including, in his very unconventional ornithology, flying foxes. He 
had a tame flying fox which escaped, and was beaten home again by 
crows " who had never seen such a creature before," because, says he, 
" crows go to bed early;" and it would seem that, wherever this hap- 
pened, the flying foxes are equally regular in their habits. In Western 
India these moral ways have suffered much infraction ; and there is no 
crow in the Konkan who has not seen many flying foxes on the wing. 

One really good bit of bird folklore is rather spoiled by a misnomer 
that can hardly be more than a slip of the pen. It is not the 
sandpiper (as Mr. Kipling says, but surely does not think) who sleeps 
supine with heels in air to avert the fall of Heaven. The " Did ye 
do it ? " (Lobivanellus goensis) is credited with this remarkable pre- 
caution against the crack of Doom. 



140 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

.Reason why. — The " Did ye do it " is of all shore fowls the 
fussiest, and most given to informing every one of the ill-intentions 
of every one else. May his father be roasted ; he has saved many 
a duck from the shot gun, and many a crocodile from the rifle. 
The sandpipers, on the other hand, are as modest in demeanour 
as in plumage, much given to minding their own affairs, and so 
little suspicious as to be too often converted into snipes upon the 
unlearned shikari's gamestick. We have seen them in dozens at 
the Tanna Railway Station on a Sunday evening, and sorrowed for 
them. 

Mr. Kipling's birds are followed by his monkeys, whereof he has 
many good yarns. One is, that some Hindu evolutionists suppose the 
English to be descended of Hanuman, or, as we call him in Western 
India, Maruti (the monkey-god). All the ingenuity of the West can 
invent no theory that is without parallel in Asiatic parable or paradox. 
It is true that all Europe once believed that Englishmen had tails, and 
Colonel Yule quotes authority to show that the King of Cyprus mor- 
tally offended Richard Cceur de Lion by an offensive allusion to the 
hero's tail, which was then lashed to the effect of lashing the 
impertinent princeling out of his island, and Richard made a Christ- 
mas-box of it to a friend in right-royal fashion. The mythology of 
the " missing link" would make a big book, and cannot be allowed more 
of our limited space. The chapter has one or two delightful illustra- 
tions that should be borrowed (with permission) by the man who writes 
that big book. Mr. Kipling passes on to asses, but we have lately dealt 
at length in these columns with the Equidce over the signature, alas ! 
of a vanished hand. Nor need we linger here over his two chapters of 
li oves and boves," except to notice the last paragraph of the cow Sura, 
which relates how M. de Buffon got his name for Bos indicus, " Zebu" 
from a travelling showman. Mr. Kipling thinks " this fragment of a 
French showman's bonnement" to be indelibly branded on the poor 
i{ bile ; but the truth is, that the word is fast passing out of anything 
like zoology, and will probably soon disappear even from " popular 
science." 

It is very characteristic of our author that he excludes buffaloes from 
the company of respectable Bovidce to chum them upon pigs, of which 
latter he justly remarks that " there is nothing to be ashamed of in the 



REVIEW. 141 

character and conduct of wild pigs," unless, indeed, it be an occasional 
lapse into carrion diet. 

All these beasts get in between the asses and the horses and mules, 
which have over forty pages, full mostly of matter outside our 
subject. After them come the elephants, of whom we get some good 
stories. One is Colonel Lewin's, who found the elephants' ball-room 
in some Indo-Chinese forest (but it was not a ball night). And a 
very good characteristic one is that of a ship-load of elephants (in India 
we sometimes do things on a largish scale), who found that by merely 
keeping time they could turn a large steamer into a suitable rocking- 
chair. They very nearly managed to produce the very oddest 
shipwreck on record. How would " Lloyd's " hold that an ordinary 
insurance policy covered perils of playful elephants ? 

After Mr, Kipling's elephants come his camels, and he makes just 
remark upon the wide range of variety of these poor brutes, and 
notes the rudimentary second hump of the dromedary recorded by 
Sio-nor Lombardini. One odd little illustration of his own observation 
does not seem to have come in his way. If there is anything odious 
and even dangerous to most hill or plain camels, it is slime. But 
camels can be and are bred in marshes, and these grow up " bog- 
trotters." The present writer has seen such a camel carrying two men 
at least five miles an hour across the Little Ran of Kachh, where 
footmen painfully toiled along at little better than two, not without 
an occasional fall. 

The strangest thing about the camel is, that an animal so very 
undomesticable hardly exists except in servitude, borne with exceed- 
ing ill-grace. It may be guessed that the clumsiness and stupidity 
of the original wild camel led to the extermination by the great carni- 
vora of such camels as had not the aid of man in the struggle for 
existence. As far as diet and clothing go the creature would seem 
capable enough of survival. 

" The camel," say the men of Gujarat who understand him in his 
quiddity, " put a hump upon his back," with a view to avoiding his 
share of the mutual obligation. " But then the man made his saddle." 
The application is to the sulky hopeless opposition met at every 
clumsy turn by superior resource, which marks the struggle of civili- 
sation with barbarism, and ends by the reduction of the savage into 



142 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

some form of utility and respect for the bonds of society ; for, in 
India, it does not end in his extinction. The imperceptible series of 
degrees between tbe civilised man and the wild human animal 
prevent such annihilations of the latter, as have been seen in the 
great colonies, most speedy where the gulf between the two societies 
was greatest. 

Mr. Kipling's chapter on " Dogs, foxes, and jackals " is short, and 
wolves, he says, are out of his line, and passes on to cats. Then he 
has a chapter on animal calls ; but these are calls to, and not of, 
animals, and the next is on " Animal training " with a similar meaning. 
He doesn't think much of the art as practised in India, and goes on to 
reptiles. 

And here, for the first time, we have to complain of what is dis- 
tinctly a " false perspective," as he would say himself. The chapter is 
headed with what he calls an " Anglo-Indian Nursery Rhyme," which 
runs as follows : — 

" And death is in the garden 

Awaiting till we pass, 

For the krait is in the drain-pipe, 

The cobra in the grass." 

Now there may be gardens in India where these things are ; but 
even in such a garden of horrors, the snakes do not lie in wait for 
the passing of children to bite them. As the child passed, the iC krait " 
would shrink further into his drain-pipe, and the cobra glide away 
through his grass. And when was any Anglo-Indian nursery ever the 
worse of either, that these morbid terrors should be admitted into it, 
by any sensible mistress, to poison her children's enjoyment of their 
few times and places of outdoor play ? If there is any place where the 
Gruesome ought not to come, it is a nursery. 

Nor is there much more in this chapter to call for remark from the 
naturalist's point of view. The next is upon "ADimals in Indian Art," 
and is extremely valuable, as the work of a past master in his matter, 
and then come on " Beast fight," to which, when brought about 
by human backers, we object as a sight or a subject. A good fair 
natural duel in the wilderness is, indeed, a fine sight for the man 
lucky enough to watch it, and capable of taking no unfair advan- 
tage of the combatants. 



REVIEW. 143 

The present writer once stalked a black buck, to whom, just as 
the stalk was drawing to a close, came another on battle bent. It 
was a very pretty fencing match 3 and the spectator, lying flat with 
uncocked rifle along the friendly bank of a rice field, could hear the 
panting of the combatants and see their eyes flash. He had the 
pleasure of seeing the matter end by the retreat of one champion, 
sore, pummelled and exhausted, but not mangled. The victor seemed 
to have had enough, and did not care to pursue, but walked off to 
where the ladies had been when the fight began. They, however, 
had long ago resented the intrusion of " strangers in the gallery," by 
walking off, so the buck sniffed at the ground where they had 
stood, and presently seemed to " get their line " and trotted off 
with little further attempt to puzzle it out. To the end he never saw 
that he had a human neighbour. 

There was a pleasure in watching that fight, but a battle of elephants 
in a ring is as vulgar as a " dog-worry." If there is any exception 
to be made at all, it should be in favour of cock-fighting. The 
natural man, however disciplined, has a secret joy in a cock-fight, 
though he knows it is wrong. With the beast-fights, and with one 
illustration of a doctrine of his own, we part with so pleasant a writer as 
Mr. Kipling. He delights in remark upon the " topsy-turveydom " 
of things oriental, as all great Western travellers in the East have 
done since Herodotus compared the ways of Greeks and Egyptians. 

But of all the " contraries," in religion and nature, between 
England and India, the most contrary is the Indian Daddy Longlegs 
that does say his prayers,— and is " chucked " all the same. 



144 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

No. I.— THE HABITS OF THE COPPERSMITH. 

Since Jerdon's time it has been sometimes matter of doubt whether the 
Coppersmith Barbet [Xantholmma indicfi) climbs and taps like a woodpecker. 

Some eighteen years ago I shot a Barbet which I saw so employed on a banyan 
tree in the Thana District, but had no books with me then and lost the specimen. 

Long afterwards at Rohe, with a fresh specimen and books before me, I made 
sure of the species to my own satisfaction, and had ample opportunity of 
watching these birds feeding in the large wild fig tree before the Travellers' 
Bungalow at Poladpur, then in full fruit. But neither the Bote specimen 
nor the Poladpur birds tapped the tree. The former was singing when shot, 
and the others were eating the fruit with very much the action of green 
pigeons similarly employed. 

On the 15th March, 1893, in the Thana District, I heard a tapping in an old 
mango tree, less powerful than a woodpecker's, and less like the roll of a drum 
in rhythm. After a few minutes' dodging around the tree, I was able to see the 
Coppersmith climbing up a limb, in woodpecker fashion, only a few yards from 
me. The green streaks on the breast were distinctly visible. Another, 
probably its mate, had just flown out of the tree disturbed by my move- 
ments, and was uttering the usual note on the next tree. 

W. F. SINCLAIR, I.C.S. 

Thana Distkict, 12th March, 1893. 



Since writing to you about the tapping and climbing habits of the Copper- 
smith, I have again heard the same tapping in the same tree, and upon 
examination and disturbance of the tree, found no bird in it but the Copper- 
smith, who flew from the spot where the tapping seemed to be, and allowed 
me to identify him at pretty close quarters with a powerful field glass. 

I have long had no doubt about the habit myself, and I think that I 
have given evidence enough of it. But I am tempted to make another observ- 
ation which I should not have hazarded on my own account. Many of our 
readers know Mr. Wallace's theory that brilliance of colour is (or may be) a 
result of high vitality in the animal, and especially in the organ. This Barbet 
and some woodpeckers show very brilliant colour on the head and neck, which 
must be highly vitalized for such an effort as their hammering on the trees. 

Is there any other reason for this curious resemblance of their coloration ? 

W. F. S. 
Thana District, 15*7* March, 1893. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 145 

No. II.— WOLF HUNTING IN THE SOUTHERN MAHRATTA 

COUNTRY.* 

I have been tempted by the interesting account of your correspondent Mr. 
C. W. Waddington, on the subject of Wolf Hunting, published in Yol. YII 
of this Journal, to recount a somewhat similar experience that I had last year. 
My experience, however, differs in one important respect, which, of course 
considerably qualifies my pleasure in the recollection of it, and that is, whereas 
" C. W. W." was riding with a spear, I was riding (by an unlucky circumstance) 
with a gun. As, however, my object in writing this is to show the staying 
powers of a country-bred horse as against those of a full grown male wolf and 
as the point of my story is in no way affected by my having had a gun instead 
of a spear, I hope it may still be of interest to your sporting readers. 

In the month of February, last year, I was encamped in a remote village 
Ootgee, in the Jath District of the Southern Mahratta Country. I went to 
this village, because I had heard that great annoyance was being caused in the 
neighbourhood by wolves who carried off sheep and goats, and attacked 
children. On the evening of my arrival I was told that a pair of large 
wolves, male and female, with a couple of cubs, had taken up a position in a 
" cave" (as it was called) within a mile or so of my camp, close to a thorough- 
fare, and that the parents were in the habit of watching for passers-by and at- 
tacking them. My informants persisted that the jungle was impenetrable and 
riding an impossibility. In the morning I went to look at the place (taking 
both a gun and a spear), and found it to be a very large babul plantation, 
several hundred acres in area, thick in some places, but more or less rideable 
in others, though not sufficiently so for there to be any hope of spearing a 
wolf ; and, moreover, it seemed impossible to imagine that any animal would 
be foolish enough to leave such an extensive shelter and trust itself to the 
open country outside. I, therefore, gave up all idea of spearing, and wander- 
ed about with my gun, looking for the wolves ; but not seeing anything of 
them, I went back to camp, leaving men on the watch. At 12 o'clock one of 
these men ran in to say the large male wolf was lying under a tree close to 
where I had been in the morning. I immediately galloped off, taking, 'un- 
luckily, only my gun with a few ball cartridges, and little thinking that I 
should never cease to regret not having taken a spear. I soon came on the 
wolf, and, dismounting, I approached him for the shot ; but before I could get 
within range, he moved off, first slowly, then faster, so I called out for my 
horse and followed him, as well as I could, through the babul, keeping on the 
inside of the circle in which he was going, and between him and the centre of 
the cover. After a while I saw the open country before us, and so did the 
wolf, for he stopped short, turned inwards towards me, and stood still, allow- 
ing me to ride close up to him and fire. I saw the bullet strike the ground, 
and my horse at that moment, being a bit startled at the shot, reared straight 

* This appeared in the Times of India on 22nd March, 1893. 
19 



146 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BISTORT! SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

up and faced the other way. When I was able to get him round again, the wolf 
was still there, and snarling. I fired the second barrel, and again (my horse 
being very unsteady) the bullet struck the ground; but to my intense satisfaction 
it had the effect of determining the wolf to head for the open, and go away 
over the most perfect country I have ever seen — light sandy soil, absolutely 
flat, with only some small nullahs, and a few stones here and there — crops 
down, and not a bush or anything else to obstruct the view. 

The horse I was riding was a short-backed 14*1 country-bred, five years old, 
and in the hardest possible condition, as he had been doing fifteen or twenty 
miles a day for some time. So, with everything in my favour, I made up my 
mind that-, though I had the wrong weapon, I would try and compromise the 
matter by not using the gun till I had arrived at as close quarters as would 
have been necessary had I had a spear, Having headed for the open, the wolf 
at first went a great pace, evidently thinking that I was going to do the same ; 
but I had no such intention, for I was anxious to get him well away from the 
cover, and, moreover, from what I saw of the country, there was no necessity 
for hurry. I, therefore, went comparatively slowly, and in a couple of miles 
he began to come back to me, and we strode along together, he at a comfort- 
able lobbing canter, and I at an ordinary staging pace, about nine or ten miles 
an hour. This sort of thing lasted about half an hour, when we came to 
a small group of babuls, into which the wolf for a moment disappeared, I at 
once pulled up into a walk, and yelling at him as I went slowly through, I 
caught sight of him through the trees, going away at his best pace on the 
further side, still in the same direction. This gave my horse a breather which 
the wolf did not get, so I calculated I had scored the first point. Then again 
we settled down to the same steady gallop for the next four or five miles 
(150 yards separating us), when I saw the wolf was beginning to tire, and so 
was my horse, and I wondered how it was going to end. All of a sudden the 
wolf vanished, and on reaching the spot where I had last seen him I found 
myself at the edge of a steep bank of the river (Boor), and there immediately 
below me was the wolf's head emerging from the water, as he swam about 
enjoying his bath. The opposite side of the river was fringed with oleander 
bushes, which continued for some distance, and beyond again, about a mile or 
two distant, I saw what seemed to me to be another plantation. It was 
obviously necessary, therefore, to get to the other side as quickly as possible, 
and turn the wolf back, for I knew he could never get home again the ten 
miles that I judged it to be. I got across the river lower down without being 
noticed, reaching the other side while he was still in the stream, and was able 
to give my horse another breather and let him have a few mouthfuls of water. 
Thus I scored my second point, for the wolf in the meantime was tiring 
himself with swimming about. Instinctively, as an old pig-sticker, I waited 
for him to charge, as a good old boar would have done after his bath ; but he 
came quietly out, gave himself a shake, and dived into the oleander bushes. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 147 

I then trotted slowly up alongside the bushes for about half a mile, keepinw 
him in sight and preventing him from breaking on my side, till suddenly he 
plunged across the water again, back up the bank, and headed away at a great 
pace for our original starting point. My horse being comparatively fresh, I 
soon got up to him again, and we went along together at the same steady pace 
till we came near the group of babuls, where the first check had been ; but 
instead of entering this he began to bear round to the right, and I saw he was 
making for what looked like a large cover to our right front about a couple of 
miles distant, and I knew I must " ride" him now or never, so for the first 
time in the run I began to press him. It was astonishing with what ease he 
got away from me at first, but he soon came back, and I could see he was done. 
He had had three spurts and a swim, which had all been against him. My 
horse had had no spurts, but two good breathers and some water. So he had 
decidedly the advantage, as he proved by soon bringing me alongside, and then 
it was I would have given all E possessed for a spear. The wolf jinked, but 
went on — a couple more rushes, a couple more jinks, till (both of us going 
slower and slower) the wolf stopped and sat down on his haunches, got up and 
went on, stopped again, and sat down altogether unable to go another yard. 
I jumped off, slipped in a cartridge, and placing my gun up against his side 
put an end to him within a quarter of a mile of the forest lands of Boorgee, 
the shelter he had been making for. I felt a good deal of compunction in 
deliberately shooting him after such a run, as somehow it did not seem con- 
sistent ; but remembering that if I had had a spear I should have killed him a 
mile sooner, and also remembering that he and his friends had never had any 
compunction in destroying whatever they could get hold of, I thought it was 
legitimate to use what weapon I had. The little horse was exhausted, but by 
no means "dead beat," and a few mouthfuls out of my saddle flask soon 
revived him, and constitutionally he was none the worse the next day. The 
wolf was a large male, in excellent coat and condition, and stood thirty-three 
inches at the shoulder. 

Now as regards the length and duration of the run. The start was about 
two miles short of Hullee village. The turn at the river was opposite the 
village of Madgeehal, and I deduct three miles for rounding the corner. The 
finish was close to the forest lands of Boorgee, and about two miles from the 
Boorgee village. By the map Hullee village to Madgeehal village is thirteen 
miles ; Madgeehal village to Boorgee village is twelve miles ; total twenty-five 
miles. Deduct seven miles as above, and it makes the whole distance traversed 
as nearly as can be estimated eighteen miles. It was 12-40 when I looked at 
my watch shortly before seeing the wolf for the first time, and it must have 
been nearly one o'clock when he broke away. It was 2-45 exactly when I 
killed him. Taking the average pace throughout the run to have been nine or 
ten miles an hour, I imagine my estimate of eighteen miles in If to 2 hours is 
a fairly correct one, I must apologize for the length of this letter, but I have 



148 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

gone into details on purpose to try and show that it is not impossible with an 
exceptionally good country and lots of it, and a horse in hard condition with a 
fair stride, for a single horseman to ride a wolf to a standstill. 

J. W. WEAT, Major. 

March, 1893. 



No. III.— THE BREEDING SEASON OF THE SAEUS CRANE. 

On the 15th ultimo I took three eggs of the Sarus (Grus antigone) ; two 
from one nest were partly incubated, while the third, from another nest, was 
fresh. On the 12th of this month I found two more eggs slightly incubated. 
As a rule, these birds breed, in these parts, during the monsoon months — July, 
August, and September — so I think the above fact is worth recording. I have 
also taken this month two full clutches (4) of the Red-wattled Lapwing, quite 
fresh. 

H. BULKLEY. 

Kharaghora, 16th April, 1893. 



N 0# IY.—A BUTTERFLY ATTRACTED BY TOBACCO SMOKE. 
Insects and their like are generally supposed to dislike tobacco, but I have 
met with a butterfly to-day which evidently enjoyed it. I was sitting in the 
verandah, about 3 p.m., when one of the large black and white butterflies, 
common here now, appeared and began flying about me, so I sat perfectly still 
to watch him. He seemed to be attracted by the cheroot I was smoking, for 
he fluttered about it and actually settled upon it three or four times, once on 
the ash which dropped off under him. He settled on my forehead several 
times, and once or twice on the arm of my chair on the leeside, where he got 
the smoke. He went off to the garden, but soon came back and repeated his 
performance. This is so entirely different from the behaviour I should 
expect in a butterfly, that I think the incident is worthy of record in our 
Journal. 

R. G. OXENHAM. 

Matheran, April, 1893. 



No. V.—HABITS OF THE INDIAN ROBIN. 

Every one is aware that our English robin has a tendency to build its nest 
in all sorts of odd nooks and corners, and this peculiarity is shared to a great 
extent by its Indian representative, the " brown-backed robin" {ThamnoUa 
combaieyisis). At the present moment there is a nest containing young ones in 
the Mess of the 22nd Bombay Infantry, which is placed in the fold of a curtain, 
where it is looped up. The curtain separates the ante-room from the dining- 



Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 




Fig. 1. Head op Oryx Callotis. Fig. 2. Hkad of Jackson's Hartebeeste (Bubalis Jacksoni). 

Fig. 3. Skull of Jackson's Hartebeeste (Bubalis Jacksoni). 
Fig. 4. Head of White-bearded Gnu (Connochustes albo-jubatu). Fig. 5. Skull of White-bearded Gnu. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 149 

room, and is constantly being pushed aside by persons passing in or out ; but 
the bird soon got accustomed to these interruptions, and only moved when the 
fold was opened to permit of a closer inspection. 

A. NEWNHAM, 22nd Regt., Bombay Cavalry. 
Ahmedabad, 10th April, 1893. 



No. VI.— NEW AFRICAN ANTELOPES. 

I have had the good fortune to recognise three new species of African 
animals under conditions that are noteworthy. Amongst the vast number of 
heads and skins that come to me for preservation, particularly from Africa, 
I frequently discover many points thathave not been noticed by the owners 
of the specimens ; and now and then the discovery is of greater importance, 
inasmuch as it leads to the recognition by experts of a new species. For 
example, looking carefully over a collection of antelopes from Kilimanjaro and 
Masailand, I found what appeared to me to be a new species of Oryx, and so 
it proved to be ; for though at first sight it resembled Oryx beisa, a comparison 
showed many points of difference ; as will be seen in the annexed figure. The 
long tufted ears, which suggested to its describer, Mr. Oldfield Thomas, the 
specific name Oryx callotis, are particularly noticeable. It differs, moreover, 
from other species of Oryx in the general colour of the skin, which is much 
browner than that of its congeners, particularly on the head. So far as at 
present known, this antelope is found only in Masailand and contiguous regions. 
The example of which the head is now figured came from Kilimanjaro, and was 
described by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, F.Z.S., at a meeting of the Zoological 
Society in March last ; the type being now in the national collection at South 
Kensington. I may add that this species has been several times shot in 
Eastern Africa by sportsmen, among others by Sir John Willoughby, Sir 
Robert Harvey, the late Hon. Guy Dawnay, Mr. H. C. V. Hunter, Mr. T. W. H. 
Greenfield, Mr. E. Gedge, Mr. F. J. Jackson, Mr. Astor Chanler, Mr. R. P. 
Carroll, Dr. Abbott, and Count Teleki. But having been hastily identified as 
Oryx beisa, and so called for several years, its specific distinctness has until 
recently escaped notice. During his last visit to London, the late Sir Victor 
Brooke examined the specimen referred to with me, and our discussion was 
adjourned to enable further comparison with more examples of Oryx beisa. 
But before that could be effected, to the infinite regret of all naturalists and 
sportsmen, his untimely death was announced. Thus the opinion of one of 
the best authorities on deer and antelopes was lost. 

A second species discovered in like manner is a hartebeeste which has been 
named Bubalis jacksoni by Mr. Thomas. It was collected in Uganda by 
Mr. F. J. Jackson, who directed my attention to it. In general form and 
colour it is very like the South African Bubalis caama, figured in the Field, 
June 6, 1891. Its horns curve in much the same way, though not so sharply, 



150 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

as will be seen on reference to the annexed cnt. But its distinguishing features 
are the uniform colour of the face ; Bubalis caama has black face markings, 
B.jachsoni none at all. In this respect the new species resembles Coke's harte- 
beeste, the head of which is figured by Sir John Willoughby in his volume, on 
"East Africa and its Big Game" (pi. 1, fig. 1), and which also has no face 
markings. But a comparison of the two heads will show a considerable differ- 
ence in the character of the horns. In Coke's hartebeeste the horns diverge 
laterally, in Jackson's species their direction is vertical and backwards. 

A third new form, perhaps only a variety, is a wildebeeste, or Gnu. It is a 
fine creature, closely allied to the South African brindled Gnu {Connocluctes 
taurinus), but having the beard white, instead of dark brown. 

It is commendable that in so short a space of time as six months so many 
new forms should have been brought to light, it may be said, through the 
enterprise of English sportsmen, to whom naturalists are so much indebted for 
discoveries in Africa. How many other novelties have been lost for want of 
proper identification it would be difficult to say ; but if sportsmen having 
trophies which they are unable to name would refer them to experts on their 
return home, they would lessen the chances of being forestalled in the 
discovery of new species. It is with the view of clearing up confusion in 
regard to the species here figured that I venture to send you these notes for 
publication. 

ROWLAND WARD. 

166, Piccadilly, London, W. 

[The above appeared in the Field last year, and is reprinted with the 
permission of the author who has kindly supplied us with the accompanying 
illustrations. — Ed. ] 



No. VIL— THE OCCURRENCE OF THE HYiENA IN 
SOUTH TRATANCORE. 

I think the following fact is worth recording. My brother writes to me 
from Quilon, forty miles north of this place : — 

" A female hyama has been shot at Pundalam, about 15 miles north of 
Quilon. There is no doubt about it, as I have got the skin. I also examined 
the old man who shot it, and took down his statement. A large number of 
people saw the dead animal when it was brought to the Cutcherry for the 
reward, for it was supposed to be a kind of cheetah." 

This is the first occurrence to my knowledge of the hyama in Travancore. 

H. S. FERGUSON. 
Trevandrum, South Travancore, 
11th April, 1893. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 151 

No. VIII.— NOTES ON ARGYNNIS NIP HE, LINN2EUS, A 
NYMPHALID BUTTERFLY. 

During this last cold -weather (1892-93) I was very much surprised to see 
females of Argynnis niphe, Linnteus, in my garden at Bankipore, Behar. 
I had never seen this butterfly here, though I had often caught it at Mussoorie 
in the Western Himalayas. Mr. de Mceville tells us that the food-plant of the 
larvae is usually the wild violet. So far as I could find out, this does not 
grow in Bankipore ; and I, therefore, tried shutting up a female in a cage with 
a pot of garden violets, but she did not lay. Very soon after this, I picked 
up a caterpillar which I found crawling on the ground in a bed of pansies. 
Further search led to the discovery of others on the pansies. These 
were all put on a growing pansy under a cage. The caterpillar is black, 
with a broad orange band down the back, and has thorn-like black spines 
projecting laterally. It keeps itself carefully concealed under the leaves, 
but it feels the cold during the night ; and when the sun gets warm in the 
morning, it leaves the plant, and takes a little promenade on the ground, and 
frequently lies basking in the sunshine. When it has got comfortably warmed 
up, it returns to the food-plant with renewed vigour and a keen appetite. 
This made it easy to find them, and saved one the trouble of hunting under 
the leaves. Those in the cage behaved in the same way, and always left the 
plant in the forenoon to lie on the ground and bask in the warm sunshine. 

They are very good-natured caterpillars, and easy to move about ; they 
have good appetites, and seem happy and contented with things as they are, 
and do not sulk and mope, or spend their time rampaging about in a vain 
endeavour to escape, as so many others do. 

The butterflies seem to have preferred the pansies {Viola tricolor) to the 
violets (Viola odorata), because the violets were in pots, whereas the pansies 
were in the ground. I found that a female which refused to lay when caged 
on a pot of pansies laid freely when caged over pansies planted out. She 
ivalked about over the plant depositing an egg here and there, sometimes on the 
leaf, sometimes under it. Occasionally she would flit from one place to 
another. The eggs are cone-shaped, slightly flattened on the top, and when 
first laid, are pure white. They gradually take a bluish-green tint. 

I have also observed a female laying eggs in freedom. She kept partially 
opening and shutting her wings while she walked along the ground. Then she 
would get well into a plant, curl her body round the edge of a leaf, and de- 
posit an egg on the under surface. Then she walked on the ground to another 
plant, opening and shutting her wings the while ; she always laid under a leaf, 
except when she laid on a half -opened one, and then she deposited the egg 
well down and on the upperside. She laid only one egg on each leaf at one 
time. On one occasion she went back and laid a second egg on a leaf — at some 
distance from the first. After laying three or four eggs, she would refresh 
herself with a sip of honey from the flowers, and then begin to lay again. She 



152 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

showed no sign of fear, and on one occasion left the pansy and sat for some 
time on my dress. 

In going from one plant to another she sometimes dragged her body along 
the ground as if in the act of laying, but deposited no eggs. 

She sometimes curled her body round leaves of Phlox that were growing 
among the pansies, but seemed to recoil from their rough surface, and left no 
egg on them. 

Most of the eggs were laid on the underside of the outer leaves, a few on 
the stalk of the plant. I did a great deal of searching and reading in Mr. de 
Niceville's invaluable book " The Butterflies of India, Burmah and Ceylon," 
to find out what my caterpillars were, but in vain. Mr. A. Grahame Young's 
description of the larva of a Kulu specimen there given is as follows : — " Larva. 
Head and legs black, body black ; this colour, however, almost obscured by 
the orange-tawny markings ; a broad orange-tawny dorsal stripe ; four straight 
horizontal simple black spines on the head ; spines on the pectoral segments 
black ; on the abdominal segments pink, tipped with black ; on the caudal 
segments pink, faintly black tipped." Mine were all black, except the orange- 
tawny dorsal stripe ; and all the spines were black. 

Presently they went into pupse, suspending themselves by the tail from 
the top of the cage. When the imago emerged, I was equally surprised and 
delighted to find it a beautiful Argynnis niphe. Males and females emerged 
in about equal numbers. One lusus naturce, a male, had one wing as in the 
ordinary male, and the other as in the ordinary female ! 

I expected to have a second brood from the eggs laid by the female caged 
on the pansies, but the ants ate up every one. I cannot imagine how any- 
thing can escape these little pests. I suppose that the first batch of eggs 
escaped only by being laid when it was too cold for the ants to move about. 

Shortly after the imago emerges, it exudes a few drops of a bright crimson 
fluid. It is this fluid which has given rise in Europe to the tales of " showers 
of blood." Sometimes species of Vanessa and Pyrameis emerge as butterflies 
in large numbers simultaneously, each butterfly deposits its drops of red fluid, 
and hence the popular scare of a bloody shower ! 

I saw an imago on the wing to-day (9th April) ; but I have seen no second 
brood of caterpillars. 

The following is the biography of a beautiful specimen from the egg to 
the killing-bottle : — 

February 18th.— Put into a cage a pansy with one egg on it. 

March 6th.— Larva emerged, made its first meal off the egg-shell, and then 
proceeded to eat a tender shoot of the pansy. It changed its 
skin on the night of the 12th, again on the 20th, and again on 
the night of the 24th. It left the food-plant on the 27th. On 
the 30th the larva suspended itself by its tail to the top of the 
cage, and on the morning of the 31st I found it in chrysalis. 

April 1th. — The imago emerged — a beautiful female. 

Mrs. S. ROBSON. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 153 

Note by Me. de Niceville. 
Argijnnis raphe in its various forms is one of the most interesting of 
butterflies. Of all the species of the genus it has the widest geographical 
range— from Abyssinia, throughout Southern Asia, to Australia. A more exact 
list of localities where it is found may be of interest. 
Africa — Abyssinia. 

Continental Asia— Throughout the Himalayas, Assam, Shan States, Northern 
Burma, Punjab (Campbellpore and Rawal Pindi), North-Western 
Provinces (Agra), Oudh, Western Bengal (Bankipore and Durbungha), 
throughout Southern India (Bombay, Nilgiri and Pulni Hills, Trichino- 
poly, Travancore), China (Omei-shan, Wa-shan, Moupin, Chia-kou-ho, 
Chia-ting-fu, Chang-yang, Ichang, Niugpo). 
Ceylon. 
Sumatra. 
Java. 
Formosa. 
Japan. 

Australia — Hunter River, Nerang River, Moreton Bay. 

Mr. H. J. Elwes remarks that, except Argijnnis hanningtoni, Elwes, from 
Central Africa, A. niphe is the only species in the whole genus which has a 
tropical habitat. It may also be noted that though it appears to thrive in the 
tropics, it is equally happy in temperate climates, where at one stage of its 
existence, at any rate, it is annually exposed to severe frosts and snow. 

Another most interesting feature is the fact of the great divergence usually 
found in the coloration and markings of the opposite sexes. The male is not 
strikingly different from other species of the genus Argijnnis, but the female 
with the apical half of the forewing on the upperside deep purple crossed by 
a broad white band is an entirely unique animal. There is no doubt that this 
distinctive type of coloration has been acquired by the female as a protection 
against its enemies, as, on the wing, that sex passes very well for a Danais 
(Limnas) chrysippus, Linnaeus, which is a highly protected butterfly. In Java 
the female has assumed a slightly different dress, the ground-color of the 
upperside being considerably deeper and richer than the Indian form the 
butterfly mimicking Danais (Limnasj bataviana, Moore, which is a dark red 
geographical race of D. chrysippus. This geographical race of A. niphe has 
been named javanica by Monsieur C. Oberthiir."* 

But the most wonderful feature of all with regard to A. niphe is the 
occurrence in South India (Trichinopoly and the high range of bills in 
Travancore) and in Australia (Hunter and Nerang Rivers and Moreton Bay) 
of two geographical races which have females, to all intents and purposes 
similar to their respective males, the distinctive purple ground and white band 

* Bull. Soc. Ent. France, sixth series, vol. ix, p. ccxxxv (1889). 
20 



151/0 URNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

of the forewing above having entirely disappeared! The two species (as they 
have been called, though it is perhaps better to treat them as geographical 
races) may be indistinguishable the one from the other. I have only seen the 
Indian form, which has been named A. castetsi by Oberthur,* the Australian 
form being called A. inconstans by Butler. f It is highly probable that this 
form represents the ancestral (atavistic) one of the species, and the typical 
A. niphe a more recent development. It is a matter for interesting speculation 
why in all Asia the form found in a most limited area in extreme Southern 
India should alone have remained unaltered, while the form occurring over 
the immensely wide area enclosed between extreme Eastern Africa and 
extreme Western A sia should have shown such great sexual divergence in 
coloration and markings. 

There are two other points which I may mention. One is the curious fact 
that A. niphe does not exist apparently in Southern Burma and the Malay 
Peninsula, though it is found to the north in Upper Burma and to the south 
in Sumatra ; the other point is the presence in the males of both forms 
(typical A. niphe and A. castetsi), occurring in Southern India, on the upperside 
of the forewing of raised modified scales (androconia) along a portion of its 
length of the first median nervule. This feature is, moreover, absent from 
Ceylon specimens, which is again an extraordinary fact, Ceylon being so close 
to India, divided from it only by a narrow shallow strait. I may also note that 
were sufficient material available from South India, it would probably be 
found that typical A. niphe and A. castetsi merge into one another, as I 
possess female examples of the former from the Nilgiri Hills, which have the 
purple area indistinct and the white bar narrow of the forewing on the 
upperside, showing by the partial obsolescence of these especial features a 
distinct approach to the ancestral form, as I am inclined to believe A. castetsi 
and A. inconstans to be. 

* Bull. Soc. Ent. France, sixth series, vol. ix, p. ccxxxv (1889); idem, id., E'tndes 
d' Ent., vol. xv, p. 9, pi. i, fig, 1 , female (1891). 

t Cist. Ent., vol. i., p. 104, n. 30 (1873). 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 155 

No. IX.— SMALL GAME SHOOTING IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD 

OF BOMBAY. 

Season 1892-93. 

The season of 1892-93 as regards small game sport within a radius of 
forty miles of Bombay was a very poor one ; in fact, if a record had been kept 
of previous seasons, I believe it would be found to be the poorest we have 
had within the last ten years. The heaviest monsoon on record in Bombay 
(126*75 inches) and the fair distribution of rain over other parts of Western 
India had, I think, a good deal to do with the sport being so bad. 

The snipe began to arrive towards the end of September, and one or two were 
killed as early as the 17th of that month, but no decent bags were made before 
the middle of October, when to all appearance a fairly good season for snipe 
might have been expected. During the Diwali holidays (20th to 23rd October) 
we had several thunderstorms with heavy rain, flooding the juggers which 
had previously held snipe, scattering the birds over the country and driving a 
good many away altogether. The rains continued until late in the season, 
35*75 inches falling in September, 2'24 in October, and 1*80 in November, 
so that the paddy was not cut until fully a month later than usual. This 
was also against sport, as October and November are our two best months for 
snipe. Jack snipe, if anything, were more abundant this season, judging from 
the proportion in the bags of snipe recorded. 

There was plenty of water everywhere up-country, and duck were con- 
sequently anything but plentiful near Bombay and there is little inducement 
for them to come and stay any length of time about Bombay, unless the tanks 
up-country are low and the feeding poor. 

Quail were conspicuous by their absence, and on juggers where forty to fifty 
couple were killed in a day's shooting during January and February, 1892. 
The best bag made in the same months of 1893 was 8 couples for two guns, 
and the total killed for this season did not exceed GO head, chiefly of course 
because sportsmen did not find it worth while going after them, the khubber 
brought in being so poor. I myself, although shooting pretty regularly 
throughout the season, only saw two quail which I shot, one on the 30th 
October and the other on the 20th November. There being plenty of grass 
and cover for quail up-country accounts for the scarcity down here, although 
even in Guzerat the quail season was not so good as in former years. 

Partridges and hares were much the same in number as last year, and little 
need be said about them, as the sport is so poor and will decrease each season 
as long as netting and snaring is allowed to be carried on around Bombay 
during the whole year. 

Golden plover also made a better show than in former seasons, and six to 
seven couple picked up in a day's snipe shooting was not exceptional. 

Curlew were in fair numbers along the creeks, and early in the season were not 
difficult to obtain, but later on they got very wily and were not easy to approach. 



15G JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Of rare cold weather visitants shot or seen I have received no information. 
I did not notice any myself. 

As far as I can make out, there were twenty-eight sportsmen shooting this 
season, and they were out 473 days. The amount of small game killed was 
4,022 head, showing the poor total of 8'50 head per gun per diem. The two 
largest bags, made of snipe in one day, by three guns, were 104 and 103 head in 
November. 

Small game killed during the season— 

Full Snipe. Jack Snipe. 

September 29 ...... 

October 862 40 

November 1,184 169 

December 801 72 

January 386 49 

February..,.. 124 30 

3,377 + 360 = 3,737 

Duck 120 

Quail 55 

Hares.. 10 

Partridges 100 

285+3,737 = Total. ..4,022 head. 

I have to thank the sportsmen who have kept records of their bags and 
who have kindly sent them to me. I only hope that more will do so in the 
coming season. I shall be happy to send any one game books gratis for that 
purpose if they will apply to me. 

The season of 1892-93 is the first in which any sort of record has been 

kept of game shot within a radius of forty miles of Bombay, and although from 

inadequate information it can only be called " approximate," still, if it is 

kept up year after year, comparisons can be made, and the causes shown 

why one season is better or worse than another. This will be of interest both 

to sportsmen and naturalists. 

E. L. BARTON. 
Bombay, 1st June, 1893. 



157 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING HELD ON 23rd FEBRUARY, 1S03. 
The usual monthly meeting of the members of this Society took place on Thursd \y 
the 23rd February, 1893, Dr. D. MacDonald presiding. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The following new members were elected : — 

His Imperial and Royal Highness Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria d'Este 
(Vienna), the Hon'ble Mr. A. C. Trevor (Bombay), Major C. B. Wilkieson (Bangalore), 
Mr. A. W. Turner (Devacolum), Mr. John A. Douglas (Bombay), Mr. H. S. Jacob 
(Shohagpur), Mr. B. Bruce Foote (Baroda), Mr. A. Corrodi (Bombay), Mr. E. H. 
Hankin (Agra), Mr. Henry Rodgers, M.R.C.V.S. (Bombay), Mr. R. St. J. Walley, 
M.R.C.V.S. (Bombay), Lieutenant-Colonel J. M. Hunter (Kathiawar), Mr. A. Conley 
(Bombay), Lientenant H. H. Nurse (Ahmedabad), Mr. T. R. Lawrence (Bombay), Dr. 
E. H. Cooke, M.A., M.B. (Bhusawal), Surgeon-Major C. G. W. Lowdell (Poona, C. L), 
Lieutenant R. W. Burton (Raichore), Mr. G. Bildt (Bombay), Mr. G. Bower, B.C.S. 
(Mirzapore), Mr. W. Fraser Biscoe (Secunderabad), Mr. W. D. Sheppard, C.S. (Ear- 
war), His Highness the Maharajah of Eolhapore, and Lieutenant G. E. Bruce 
(Rangoon). 

LIFE MEMBERS. 
The Honorary Secretary stated that the following members had availed themselves 
of the new Rule and had compounded their subscriptions for life :— 0) H H the 
Maharajah Scindia of Gwalior, (2) Mr. G. C. Whitworth, C.S., (3) Mr K R Kama 
(4) Mr. D.J. Tata, (5) Mr. H. M. Phipson, (6) B. I. H. the Archduke of Austria, (7) 
Mr. Bomonjee D. Petit, (8) Major H. D. Olivier, E.E., (9) H. H. the Maharajah of 
Eolhapore, (10) Major Gerald Martin, (11) Mr. J. M. Coode. 

CONTRIBUTIONS DURING JANUARY. 

^ The Honorary Secretary acknowledged having received the following contributions 
since the last meeting : — 



Contribution. 



1 Snake (alive) 

1 Large Scorpion 

1 Snake , 

1 Short-nosed Fruit Bat ... 
1 Snake „, 

1 Red Spur Fowl .......""] 

A number of Butterflies 

4 Golden Orioles 

3 Eggs of the Ring-tailed 
Fishing Eagle 

2 Eggs of the Grey-backed 

Sea Eagle 

1 Indian Monitor (alive) ..'. 



Description. 



Contributor. 



Simotes russellii 

Scorpio swammerdami .. 
Trimeresurusnamallensis 
Cynopterus marginatus.. 

Vipera russellii 

Galloperdix spadiceus .., 

From Singapore 

Stuffed and mounted i 
case 



Haliactus leucoryphres. 

Haliactus leucogaster . 
Varanns bengalensis .... 



Mr. P. Benn. 
Col. D. Bobertson. 

Do. 
Mr. W. George. 
Mr. B. H. Elsworthy. 
Capt. P. L. Cox. 
Miss N. Prentice. 

Mr. C. Maries. 

Mr. M. D. Mackenzie. 

Mr. E. A. Bulkley. 
Dr. D. A. d 'Monte. 



153 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 



Contribution. 



Description. 



Contributor. 



4 Eggs of the Large Cor- 
morant 

3 Eggs of the black-winged 
Kite 

1 Snake 

1 Black -backed Goose 

Curiously deformed feet of 
Black Buck 

1 Otter's Skull 

1 Snake 

1 Trap-door Spider's Nest .. 

Skeleton of Lynx 

Teratological Specimen ... 

1 Turtle ., 

1 Fish 

1 Cobra 

A large piece of crystal ... 
1 Cobra ..... 

1 Skin of the Nilgiri Wild 

Goat 

2 Snakes 

1 Phrynus 

Photographs of Sambur... 



Phalacrocorax carbo 

Evlanus cseruleus 

Vipera russellii 

Sarcidornis melanonotus 

Antilopa cervicapra 

Lutra vulgaris 

Lyoodon aulicus 

From Belgaum 

Felis caracal 

Domestic fowl 

Trionyx leithii 

Platax teira 

Naga tripudians , 

From Zanzibar , 

Naga tripudians 

Hermitragus hylocnus 
Tropidouotus piscator and 
Oligodon subgriseus .., 

From Lanowli 

From Life , 



Mr. H. Bulkley. 

Do. 

Capt. B. A. Cole. 
Mr. E. A. Bulkley. 

Mrs. Gilbert. 
Capt. Sutton Jones. 
Mr. V. S. Simmonds. 
Mr. B. C. Wroughton. 
Surgeon- Captain B. Drake- 
Brockman. 
Do. 
Mr. B. A. Gupta. 
Mr. P. Messant. 
Mr. C. E. Kane. 
Mr. Isaac Benjamin. 
Mr. P. J. Tonkin. 

Mr. A. W. Turner. 

Mrs. G rattan Geary. 

Do. 
Mr. J. D. Inverarity. 



MINOR CONTRIBUTIONS 
Were also received from Mr. H.H. G. Dunlop,Mr. John Wallace, Mr. J. E. Whiting, 
Mrs. D. Robertson, Mr. R. Bruce Foote, Mr. S. Melling, and Miss H. Caddick. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 



Life Histories of North American Birds (Bendire) ; in exchange. 

List of the Batrachia in the Indian Museum (Sclater) ; presented by the Trustees 
of the Indian Museum. 

Proceedings of the Manchester Literary Society, Vol. II, No. 2 ; in exchange. 

The Victorian Naturalist for November 1892 ; in exchange. 

Scientific results of the second Yarkand Mission ; presented by the Government of 
India. 

The Canadian Entomologist, November, December, 1892, and January, 1893 ; in 
exchange. 

Le Monde des Plantes, No. 15 ; in exchange. 

Proceedings of the Linnasan Society of New South Wales, Vol. VII, Part 2 ; in 
exchange. 

Actes de la Socicte Scientifique clu Chili, Tome II ; in exchange. 

Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XXV, Part 4 ; in exchange. 



PROCEEDINGS. 159 

Journal of the Trinidad Field Naturalists' Club, presented by Dr. Bevan Hakes. 
Histoire Naturelle des Hymenopteres de Madagascar. Les Formicides, par Mods. 
A. Forel ; presented by the Author. 

The Indian Forester, Vol. XIX, No. 2 ; in exchange. 

EXHIBITS. 

Mr. C. G. Dodgson, C.S., exhibited some handsome skins of lions which he had 
recently shot in Somali land. 

JOUENAL No. 3, VOL. VII. 

The Honorary Secretary stated that, owing to a mistake on the part of the pub- 
lishers, a certain number of the Journals of No. 3, Vol. VII, had been sent out without 
any plates. He hoped that members would examine their copies and return them to 
him if they contained no illustrations. 

ACCOUNTS FOR 1802. 

Mr. Andrew Murray, the Honorary Treasurer, placed before the meeting the accounts 
for the year ending 31st December, 1892, which showed a cash balance in favour of 
the Society of Rs. 2,100-11-9. The accounts were duly passed, subject to the usual 
audit, and a hearty vote of thanks was voted to Mr. Andrew Murray for the trouble 
he had taken. 

PAPERS READ. 

The Honorary Secretary read extracts from the following papers:— (a) The Plant 
and its effects on Cattle, by Mr. Jaikrishna Indrajee ; (&) Indian Breeds of Dogs, by 
Mr. W. F. Sinclair, C.S.; (c) Food of the Flying Fox, by Mr. W. F. Sinclair, C.S.; (d) 
Moonlight Shadows, by Mr. W. F. Sinclair, C.S. ; (V) Note on Psilotnm triquetrum, 
by Dr. D. G. Dalgado ; (/") Birds observed breeding in Kharaghora, by Mr. H. 
Bulkley ; (#) A Gazelle's Food, by Lieutenant S. D. Vale, R.I.M.; (7t) On the 
Occurrence of the Spotted Grey Tree-Creeper at Ahmednugger, by Lieut. H. E. 
Barnes, F.Z.S.; (T) Measurements of Black-bucks' Horns, by Mr. B. W. Blood.; (j) A 
Lynx attacking a Man, by Dr. H. E. Drake-Brockman, F.Z.S. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING HELD ON 19th APRIL, 1893. 

A meeting of the members of this Society took place on Wednesday, the 19th April, 
1893, Dr. G. A. Maconachie presiding. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the Society :— 

Mr. Richard Whately (Godra), Mr. C. W. Waddington (Rajkote), Lieutenant C. R. 
M. Hutchinson (Bakloh), Mr. J. F. Snuggs (Hurdah), Mr. W. A. Wallinger (Surat), 
Colonel H. Wylie, C.S. I. (Nepal), Dr. Popat Prabhulal Vaidya (Bombay), Surgeon- 
Captain Baman Das Basu (Rajkote), Mr. Tribhovandas Kalliandas Gujjar (Baroda), 
Dr. Eduljee Nusserwanjec (Bombay), and Mr. G. R. Lowndes (Bombay). 



160 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 



CONTRIBUTIONS. 
Mr. H. M. Phipson, the Honorary Secretary, then acknowledged the following con- 
tributions which had been received since the last meeting : — 
CONTRIBUTIONS DURING MARCH. 



Contribution. 



A five-horned Sheep (alive) 
1 Indian Monitor (alive)... 

1 Lynx (alive) 

2 Bears (alive) ......-■■••-. 

1 White-handed Gibbon 

(alive) • 

1 Large Kudu Skin 

1 Dik-dik Skin 

1 Gazelle Skin 

1 Oryx Skin • 

1 Gazelle Skin 

1 Snake 

1 Shoveller 

A Collection of Sea Fish ... 
A Collection of 48 Birds' 

Skins • 

1 Hedgehog (alive) 

A Collection of Precious 

Stones 

1 Large AntNest 

Bones of a Dodo 

1 Booby 

8 Panther Cubs 

2 Red Jungle Cocks' Skins. 



5 Wild Cats' Skins 



1 Shieldrake 

Various botanical specimens 

1 Snake ■ 

1 Cobra « ■ 

1 Hornbill's Nest , 

1 Vampire Bat 

1 Snake 



1 do ...«• 

1 do 

1 do •• 

1 do. ■ 

4 do ...■•• 

4 do. • 

4 do • 

4 do • ■ 

3 do 

1 do ■ 

4 do 

4 do 

4 do 

2 do 

1 Tiger Cub 

Geological Specimens . 
1 Indian Oriole (alive). 

1 Snake (alive) 

1 Grey Hornbill 

1 Cobra 



Description. 



Contributor. 



From Arabia 

Varanus bengalensis 

Felis caracal 

Melursus ursinus ... 



Hylobates lar 

Strepsiceros kudu ...... 

Neotragus saltianis .. 
Gazella soemmerringii 

Oryx beisa 

Gazella walleri 

Lycodon aulicus -. 

Spatula dypeata 

From Colombo 



Mr. N. M. Patel. 
Mr. P. J. Tomkins. 
Capt. H. Parry. 
Do. 

Mr. H. P. Gallwey. 

Mr. C. G. Dodgson, C. S. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mr. B. W. Blood. 
Mr. E. L. Barton. 
Major W. G. Forbes. 



From N. Cachar Mr. E. C. Stuart-Baker. 

Erinaceus collaris Mr. P. B. Foote. 



From Nasik 

From Rodriguez 

Do. 
Foetal specimens ..,,.- 

Gallus ferrugineus , 

Felis bengalensis ....... 

Felis ornata 

Felis sp. (unidentified) , 

Tadorna cornuta 

From Goa 

Simotes russellii .., 

Naga tripudians 

Ocyceros birostris 

Megaderma lyra 

Silybura brevis 



Silybura maculata 

Platyplectrurus sanguineus 

Lycodon travancoricus 

Lycodon aulicus 

Oligodon subgriseus , 

Coluber helena , 

Dendrophis pictus 

Trop. beddomii 

Trop. stolatus 

Trop. plumbicolor 

Dipsas ceylonensis 

Dryophis my cterizans 

Trim, anamallensis ...... 

Trim, macrolepis , 

Foetal specimen 

From Australia 

Oriolus kundoo 

Trop. plumbicolor 

Ocyceros birostris 

Naga tripudians 



Mr. F. Fischer. 

Mr. H. M. Gibbs. 

H. E. Adml. Kennedy. 

Do. 
Mr. W. F. Sinclair, C.S. 
Mr. F. S. Bullock. 

Capt. ThornMU. 

Lt. G. Farquharson, R.E. 
Mr. C. de Figueiredo. 
Mr. A. Fran eke. 
Mr. E. A. Cooke. 
Col. W. Scott. 
Mr. W. B. Smith. 
Mr. H. S. Ferguson of 
Travancore. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
• Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mr. W. A. Wallinger. 
Capt. Mortleman. 
Dr. Douglas Bennett. 
Dr. A. K. Stewart. 
Major Fenton. 
Dr. K. It. Kirtikar. 



PROCEEDINGS. 1G1 

Minor Contributions. — From Mr. H. P. Hatch, Col. C. E. Hussey, Mr. C. Hud- 
son, Mr. John Griffiths, and Mr. H. E. M. James, C.S. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIBEARY. 

The Bombay Materia Medica (Khory), from Dr. M. D. Gama. 

The Oriental Sporting Magazine from 1858 to 1879, from the Hon. Mr. A. F. 

Beaufort. 
Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XXVI, Part I ; in exchange. 
Memoires de la Societe Zoologique de France pour 1892 ; in exchange. 

DESIDERATA. 

The Honorary Secretary stated that he was anxious to obtain sketches or photo- 
graphs of typical specimens of the different breeds of Indian dogs, such as the 
Wanjari Hounds {Brinjari-s), Thilari Hounds^ Luts, Polygars, tfc, for reproduction 
in the Journal, and he hoped that members up-country would assist the Society in 
this respect. He further stated that a series of coloured plates would appear in the 
Journal, illustrative of the indigenous orchids of Western India. Good specimens in 
flower were wanted, and should be sent by post, packed in cotton wool (up to 1st 
June), to Mrs. Griffiths, Matheran, who had kindly offered to make the sketches. 

PAPERS READ. 

The following papers were then read, and a vote of thanks was passed to the 
contributors :— (1) The Fauna and Flora of the Kachin Hills, by Capt. G. H. H. 
Couchman ; (2) The Poisonous Plants of Bombay, Part IV, by Surgeon-Major 
K. R. Kirtikar ; (3) Miscellaneous Notes : — (a) A Bold Panther, by Captain 
P. L. Cox ; (b~) Measurement of Sambur Horns, by Col. Kenneth Mackenzie ; (c) 
Ducks, by C. D. Lester; (d) The Giant Betel-nut Palm, by C. Hudson; (e) The 
Habits of the Coppersmith Barbet, by W. F. Sinclair, C.S. ; (/) The Breeding 
Season of the Sarus Crane, by H. Bulkley ; Q~) A Butterfly attracted by Tobacco 
Smoke, by R. G. Oxenham. 



Jo-urn. Bombay Nat. Hist Soc; 



Plate A. 




E C.S Baker del. 



Mintern. Bros . Gnromo lith.. London. 

STAPH IDIA CASTANElCEPSr 

Tke CKestrtat-KeadecL Staphidia 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



BOMBAY 

Uatara! Jptora JIm% 



No. 2.] BOMBAY. [Vol. vill. 

THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 

A CATALOGUE 

OF THE PASSERIFORMES, CORACIIFORMES, AND THE ORDER 

PS1TTACII OF THE SUB-CLASS CICONIIFORMES, 

By E. 0. Stuart Baker, 

(With Plate A.) 

(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society 
on 6th September, 1893.) 

The three orders abovenamed include all of what are popularly known 
as tc small birds." To take up the remaining orders of the Ciconiiformes 
and the other two sub-classes, Galliformes and Struthioformes^ I should 
require to expend at least two years in thoroughly working up the heavy 
bheel land running along the foot of the hills, the whole of which swarms 
with water-birds all the year round, and in the cold season is visited, 
in addition, by numerous migrants. To do this I have neither time nor 
opportunity, and I therefore make known the results of six years' 
work amongst the sub-classes mentioned, in a country teeming with 
bird-life, thinking it better to do this than wait until I can give a 



163 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

complete list of all the birds obtainable — a thing to be desired no doubt, 
but which I may never accomplish. 

Before commencing the catalogue itself, it may be advisable to give 
a brief description of the country in which I have worked. North 
Cachar in a small space gives as great a variety of country as most 
places of more than fifty times its area. To the whole of the south the 
country is covered with ranges of rugged hills, the principal of which 
is the Barail range. The mountains of this part are in height from 2,000 
feet up to some 4,000 feet, or rather more, and the only valleys of any 
importance are those of the Jetinga River in the West and of the Jiri 
and Jennam in the East ; these two latter running parallel with one 
another for about forty miles almost due south, and finally meeting in the 
plains of Cachar. As the centre of the sub-division is approached, more 
especially in the centre and west, the hills become less rugged, and do not 
run, with the exception of a few isolated peaks, above 2,500 to 3,000 
feet. In the central east the Hungroom and Lere range towers above 
all others. Hungroom stockade is some 5,400 feet high, and all round are 
peaks 600 to 800 feet higher, whilst a few miles distant across the Jiri and 
in Manipur territory are hills yet higher than these. Leaving Gunjong, 
which is just about the centre of the district, and working due north, 
the hills grow lower and lower until at the extremity of the sub-division 
one comes to a quantity of low-lying ground, in part covered, during the 
rains, with swamps and marshes overgrown with dense ekra and sun 
grass, but principally bearing evergreen forest, more or less broken up 
by patches of dry sun grass land and bamboo jungle. To the west and 
north-west is a lovely country of rolling hills and plateaux — a country 
consisting almost entirely of sun grass land, bearing a scattered growth 
of oak-forest, intermixed here and there with a few pines, whilst in the 
pockets and hollows the very thickest of forest, with close undergrowth, 
grows unrestrained. Here also are one or two upland valleys, of which 
the Umrang plateau is the chief, a great open space of gently undulating 
ground, covered with grass and merely dotted with single trees or small 
clumps growing on the higher parts : during the rains and even to a 
certain extent at other periods the hollows contain either stagnant 
water or slowly-running springs, some of which are brackish and entice 
every kind of wild animal into their neighbourhood. At the lowest 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 164 

part of this rims the Kopili, a largish stream, but full of rapids and 
water-falls, rendering even the transport of timber impossible. Thus, 
then, there is a country to meet the needs of almost every kind of bird ; 
on the bigger rivers the bolder king-fishers and bee-eaters, many fly- 
catchers, thrushes, fork-tails, &c, breed, whilst the densely-shaded 
nullahs, in gloomy evergreen forest, afford shelter to the Great Indian 
King-fisher and other shy, water-loving birds ; in the marsh lands 
running along the south all kinds of babblers, reed warbles, &c, have a 
haunt after their own hearts, and such as require open dry grass country 
have only to visit Umrang, the hot springs, or similar places. Hungrum 
and its lofty peaks afford a home for the tits, rarer thrushes, and 
babblers, who will not descend below 400 feet. Even the tree-creeper, 
wryneck, and many wrens find this part sufficiently lofty to tempt 
them to stay and breed ; whilst nuthatches abound in the evergreen 
forest in the valleys of the two small streams Laisung and Mahor. 

As regards classification, all I need say is that I have adopted that of 
Oates as given in the volumes of the Avifauna in the Blanford Series ; 
for though there are certain details with which I do not agree in this 
work, still there is no system which pleases every one, and I do not 
know of any existing classification which is better or, indeed, as good ; 
whilst as regards making one for myself, I am utterly incapable of 
doing so, and fortunately have not yet developed sufficient self-conceit 
to attempt the task. One word I must say, and that is, that it seems 
to me as if Oates, good and thorough ornithologist as he is, has 
thought fit to create a sub-family (Liotrichince) merely as a sort of waste 
land with a placard up, " All rubbish may be shot here," and in the 
waste land he has shot whatever he did not know how to dispose of 
otherwise. No argument on the formation of their bones will make me 
believe that Culicij^Egithina, Chloropsisj Melanochloixi, Psaroglossa, and 
Chalcoparia (Eulables too Oates suggests) should be massed together 
as they are. 

The only references I have made are to Oates' work and to Hume's 
catalogue, and this latter, of course, includes Jerdon. 

The notes I have given are for the most part very brief, and I have 
only launched out into lengthy details in regard to birds about whose 
nidification or habits nothing has yet been recorded, or about which I 



165 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII 

think I have something new to tell. In one or two cases I have also 
given brief notes as to measurements and descriptions. The principal 
fact that will be noticed is the very large number of Burmese forms 
given, and how they and the Indian forms come together. Again, in a 
few cases, such as Hemipus obscurus and Cisticola cursitans, forms re- 
appear here with apparently an immense extent of country intervening 
between North Cachar and the place where they next appear. 



Sub-Glass FASSERIFORMES. 

Order PASSEKS. 

Family Corvidae. 

Sub-family Corvince. 

(1) Corvus macrorhynchus. — The Jungle Crow. 

Oates, No. 4t ; Hume, No. 660. 
Common everywhere. Breeds in these hills principally in the latter 
part of March and April. Wing averages here about 13-4". Bill 2'45". 

(2) Corvus splendens. — Indian House Crow. 
Oates, No. 7 ; Hume, No. 663. 
Only occurs in the hills as a very rare straggler, and that only very 
close to the plains. 

(3) Urocissa occipitalis. — The Red-billed Blue Magpie. 
Oates, No. 12 ; Hume, No. 671. 
I have only met with one specimen of this bird — a female caught 
on the nest. This was obtained at Hungrum at a height of about 
5,200 feet. 

(4) Cissa chinensis.-— The Green Magpie. 
Oates, No. 14 ; Hume, No. 673. 

Common from the plains up to about 4,000 feet. Often feeds on 
high trees, especially during the cold season. Is occasionally found in 
small parties, probably consisting of the parent birds and their last 
brood. It seems possible that this bird may sometimes have two 
broods in the year, for, though the majority of eggs are to be found in 
April and early May, I have found them again breeding in the end 
of July and August. In May, 1890, a nest containing three young 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH C A CHAR. 1 Cl- 

ones was found in a well-wooded ravine, and in August the same year 
another nest was taken from the same tree containing four eggs, 
They lay from four to live eggs. 

(5) Dendkocitta rufa. — The Indian Tree Magpie. 

Oates, No.16; Hume, No. 675. 
Rare in this district, being replaced by the next. 

(6) D. hdialayensis. — The Himalyan Tree Magpie. 

Oates, No. 18 ; Hume, No. 676. 
The common type in North Cachar. 

(7) D. frontalis.— The Black-browed Tree Magpie. 

Oates, No. 19 ; Hume, No. 667. 

This bird is by no means rare on the higher peaks, but does not appear 
ever to descend below 3,000 feet, and very seldom below 4,000. In its 
habits there is little to note that is different from the better known 
species of the genus, but it is on the whole a less noisy bird. The 
flocks number from 4 to 7 or 8, and I am inclined to believe consist 
merely of the old birds and their last brood of young ones. The nest 
is in most cases a very flimsy construction, in general shape and size 
much like that of D. himalayensis, but perhaps even more flimsy and 
smaller. The materials consist of fine elastic twigs, and the coarse 
tendrils of some climbing plant ; occasionally the latter article is alone 
used. There is seldom any lining, though I have once or twice seen 
hair used, and now and then a little stout grass or fern roots may be 
placed at the bottom of the nest. In size the nests average about 
5" in diameter, the hollow being from one to two inches in depth. They 
are often placed very low down and generally below 6 feet. One nest 
taken at Hungrum was on a strong weed, in a fork about two and half 
feet from the ground. 

The eggs resemble those of the D. himalayensis^ but are, as a rule, 
more densely and boldly marked. The most common ground-colour is a 
greenish-grey, and the markings consist of blotches of dark olive-green. 
I have taken no eggs with the pale salmon tint, so common amongst 
the eggs of B. rufa. They average rather smaller than the eggs 
of the other species, and are also comparatively a somewhat broader 
oval ; 28 eggs averaged 1*10" X '84". 



167 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII 

The bill is black, legs almost quite black, sometimes with a dull 
brown tinge. The irides are crimson or crimson-brown. 
Sub-Family Parince. 

(8) Parus atriceps. — The Indian Grey Tit. 
Oates, No. 31 ; Hume, No, 645. 
Very rare here. 

(9) P. monticola. — The Green-backed Tit. 
Oates, No. 34 ; Hume, No, 644. 
I obtained a single specimen of this bird at Guilong — about 4,000 
feet elevation — in 1888. 

(10) JEgithaliscus manipurensis. — Hume's Red-headed Tit. 
Oates, No. 36. 
Not very rare towards the eastern part of the district. Those ob- 
served by me were all feeding on high trees keeping in small parties 
and uttering a constant, rather loud, chirp. 

(11) Sylviparus modestus. — The Yellow-browed Tit. 
Oates, No. 40 ; Hume, No. 632. 
Recorded by Godwin- Austen from the Barail range. I have never 
met with this bird. 

(12) Machlolophus spilonotus. — The Black-spotted Yellow Tit. 

Oates, No. 41 ; Hume, No. 649. 
I have only seen this bird in the scattered oak forests towards the 
north-west of North Cachar, and even there it is by no means common. 

Sub-Family Paradoxornithince. 

(13) Paradoxornis flavirostris. — The Yellow-billed Crow Tit. 
Oates, No. 51 ; Hume, No. 373. 

The female differs from the male in having the chin and throat 
suffused with earthy-brown. 

This bird is not uncommon at a good many places about 3,000 ft., 
generally keeping to the valleys, where there is lots of sun grass or ekra 
jungle. It frequents, however, almost any sort of jungle other than 
deep forest. I have most often met with it in mixed grass and bamboos. 
Throughout the cold weather it is found in flocks, sometimes number- 
ing as many as a dozen individuals, but more often only about 7 or 8. 
It is a very shy bird and very chary of taking to flight, but is a great 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 168 

adept at concealing itself, so that one may often be within a few yards 
of a party, their movements shown by the waving of the grasses, yet 
never obtain a sight of one of them. When they imagine themselves 
free from observance, they often mount to the tops of the reeds and now 
and then take short flights into the air, much in the manner of some of 
the Prinias. This bird is undoubtedly in part a fruit-eater, for in the 
stomach of one I examined there were a few seeds, which proved to be 
the seed of a small plum-like berry, the fruit of a climbing plant, which 
was very abundant at the place where the bird was shot. The nest is a 
deep cup, very strongly and compactly made. The diamater across the 
top is from 3-3" to 4", and in depth it is rather more than 2" 5" to nearly 
3". Internally it measures about 2'5" across by 2" in depth. Now 
and then the nest is shallow in shape, but such are very rare. 

The materials are composed of shreds of grass, a few narrow strips of 
bamboo leaves, occasionally a dead leaf or two, and still more rarely a 
few very fine elastic twigs. The lining is always the same and consists 
invariably of very fine pieces torn from the inner bark of ekra stems, 
which are in colour a bright yellow. There appears to be but little at- 
tempt at concealment. If the nest is placed on a tree, it is generally fixed 
to a small upright fork, some 6 to 10 feet from the ground, which is 
almost devoid of foliage and, if placed in a bamboo clump, it is always 
near the outside and often in a most conspicuous situation. 

The most common type of egg has the general colour a very pale 
greenish- white, and the markings consist of scanty spots varying in size 
from minute freckles to large blotches, and in colour a pale umber or 
olive-brown with other markings underlying them of a still paler shade 
of the same colour. Here and there are also a few very short-twisted 
lines of dark umber. In other eggs the markings are the same, but the 
ground-colour has a brownish or yellowish tinge, and in a few the ground 
is very nearly white. 

One clutch of two eggs in my collection is quite white with a few 
very faint pinky or purply-brown specks at the larger end. With the 
exception of this clutch, in none of my eggs do the markings tend to 
form a ring or cap, though they are very irregularly distributed over 
the surface of the eggs. The eggs vary in number from two to 
four ; I have found the former number hard set on three occasions. 
The texture is fairly close, though chalky and fragile, and the surface 



169 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. Tilt 

is smooth, in one or two cases showing a faint gloss. In shape the 
eggs are fairly regular ovals, though less so than those of Scceorhynchus. 
They measure from *86" to '92'' in length and in breadth from "63" to 
•68" ; the average of 11 eggs is "88" X 'W. 

(14) P. quttaticollis. — Austen's Crow Tit. 
Oates, No. 52 ; Hume No. 373. 

I had a bird of this species brought to me at Laisung. It was said 
to have been killed from the same party as were two birds of the last 
species which were brought to me at the same time. 

(15) Suthoka ruficeps.— The smaller Red-headed Crow Tit. 
Oates, No. 58 ; Hume, No. 377. 

Recorded by Godwin-Austen from Oachar. 

(16) S. atrisuperciliaris. — The Black-browed Crow Tit. 
Oates, No. 59. 

A distinct ring of white feathers round the eye ; the feathers of the 
lores and chin with prolonged black shafts. Maxilla fleshy, the culmen 
and base a little darker and becoming bluish close to the forehead, 
mandible pale fleshy, the gonys almost white, irides light, rather 
bright brown, legs pale, clear bluish plumbeus, claws paler still, 
length 5-85", wing 2'3", tail 3'9" ; bill at front -41" and from the 
gape •46", tarsus *88". The first bird of this species that I ever saw was 
one shot by one of my collectors, who, with one discharge, killed three 
of these birds (two being lost by him afterwards), and a Scceorhynchus 
ruficeps. The birds were shot in rather heavy bamboo jungle, and 
were part of a flock of some 16 to 20 birds, the Suthora being in the 
majority. The bird from which the above details of description were 
taken was a male in beautiful condition. Its stomach contained a 
mass of grasshoppers and a few small beetles. The bird was shot on 
the 11th November, 1892. 

Afterwards, during the cold weather, I obtained four more specimens *, 
all were clambering about in grass or bamboos when shot, and, strange 
to say, twice 1 saw them in company with Scceorhynchus ruficeps, so it 
would seem that these two birds are in the habit of keeping together 
sometimes as well as are S. ruficeps and Paradoxonis fiavirostris* 

* Since writing the above I have taken the nest and egg of this Crow-tit. The former is 
much like that of Scceorhynchus, but smaller, the egg, however, being totally different in 
colour, this being a uniform bright pale blue. 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR, 170 

(17) Sc^eorhynchus RUFICBPS.— The Red-headed Crow Tit. 
Oatesj No. 60 ; Huine, No. 375. 

The legs of all my birds have been of a dark slaty-blue ; the soles 
paler and duskier. 

This bird is by no means rare here. On the Hemeo peak, where it 
was obtained by Godwin- Austen, and the surrounding peaks, Hungrum, 
the Ninglo range, and Laisung it may constantly be met with, and it is 
found, though less often, down to 2,000 feet, and sometimes even in 
the plains at the foot of the hills. The description of the nest given 
by Gammie would serve for nine-tenths of those found by myself, 
though they average somewhat smaller than his. The lining is either 
of strips of bamboo or ekra or of fine grasses, but whatever the material 
may be, in colour it seems invariably to be a bright yellow. 

The eggs vary from two to four in number, and are very much like 
those of the Paradoxornis, already described, but are more profusely 
marked, and there are generally a good many secondary markings of 
very pale purple-grey or neutral tint. In shape they are a regular oval, 
and the surface is not as smooth as in the eggs of P. ruficeps. 

The shell is also less fragile. The average of 15 eggs is -8" by '62". 

They breed from May to the beginning of August. As so little is 
known of this bird, I reproduce here the notes which I sent to the 
" Asian " some years ago : — " Their favourite haunts are thin bamboo 
jungle, which they frequent in pairs or small parties of from four to six, 
and in such cases I believe the flocks consist merely of the parent birds 
and their last brood. Jerdon states that it does not shun observation, but 
this remark does not agree with the results of my own experience. 
True, as long as the observer is perfectly motionless and silent, the birds 
hop about, clambering about the shrubs and creeping amongst the bam- 
boos in their search for food, taking but little notice of him, but should 
he move hand or foot, or open his mouth to speak, in a minute every bird 
has disappeared, not by flying away, but by scrambling from branch to 
branch, or at once hiding in dense thicket or the undergrowth and fallen 
rubbish. When on trees it is very tit-like in its motions and spends 
much of its time in clambering about the smaller twigs and branches, 
sometimes hanging head downwards, and in this fashion proceeding 
along the lower side of some thin bough. I have also observed it 

2 



171 JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

amongst reeds and in long grass, where it moves about like the babblers, 
taking short flights from reed to reed, alighting on the ground and 
then climbing again to the summit of a reed before once more taking 
flight. Once when I was camping in a jhum or cultivated clearing 
on a hill-side, in which the rice was almost ready for reaping, a pair 
of these birds used to come daily to feed, one or the other of them 
constantly flying off to a clump of bamboos at the edge of the jhum, 
where, on investigation, I found a nest containing four young birds 
fully fledged and quite ready to fly and, before I left the camp, they 
used to come with their parents into the rice field, where they were 
fed on the spot by them. They seemed quite unable to assist them- 
selves, and from what I could observe the duties of dry nurse were 
divided between the old birds, each of them taking care of two young- 
ones. This was in October and unusually late for the young birds to be 
still nestlings. 

The principal sound I have heard them utter is a note sounding like 
cliir chirrup repeated two or three times quickly. I have heard them 
use this note when feeding only. The young birds, when being fed, 
fluttered their wings and gave a prolonged chir-r-r. 

Another cry, and one which seems to be common to this genus and 
Paradoxornis, is exactly like the bleat of a kid, so much so that, when I 
first heard it, I mistook it for that sound. 

Their flight is level but weak and never long sustained, their feet 
being their favourite means of locomotion. If they have to fly across 
an open space, they alternately flutter their wings and then spread them 
out and sail for a yard or two. When flying, their wings make a soft 
whirr unlike that of any other bird I know. 

They are chiefly insectivorous, but sometimes eat grain as well, 
though both the rice and berries which I have taken once or twice 
from their stomachs may have been swallowed together with the 
insects which were adhering to them. 1 ' 

(18) S. gularis. — The Hoary-headed Crow Tit. 
Oates, No. 61 ; Hume, No. 374. 
In nidification, habits, and distribution closely similiar to the last bird. 
26 eggs average *78" by # 58", 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 172 

Family Crateropodidj5. 

Sub-family Crateropodince. 
(19) Dryonastes ruficollis. — The Rufous-necked Laughing 
Thrush. 

Oates, No. 62 ; Hume, No. 410. 
Common up to about 3,000 feet, above which it is seldom met with. 

(20) D. C2ERULATUS. — The Grey-sided Laughing Thrush. 

Oates, No. 65 j Hume, No. 408. 
Fairly common towards the north-west of the district. All my eggs 
are very pale blue-green. 

(21) D. sannio.— The White-browed Laughing Thrush. 

Oates, No. 67 ; Hume, No. 409. 

I have only found this bird on the higher peaks towards Manipur, 
and on only one is it at all common. 

The nests are very much like those of D. ruficollis, but are, as a rule, 
rather more massive, in some cases measuring as much as 7" across the top 
and about 4" in external depth. Internally they measure much the same, 
about 3'2'' X 2". The lining is almost invariably of coarse roots and fern 
stems, and I have never known any other material used for this pur- 
pose. The nests are generally placed in small saplings or high bushes 
between 5 and 10 feet from the ground, but one was found in a 
sapling about 20 feet high. The eggs are either two or three in 
number. I have not taken any nests with four eggs, and have often 
seen two eggs much incubated. They are a beautiful soft blue-green in 
colour, about the same shade as in the eggs of D. ccerulatus, yet easily 
distinguishable by their satiny appearance. The texture can be best 
described by the word already used, satiny, and the surface is very 
fine and close, displaying a slight gloss, always more than in the 
eggs of D. ccerulatus and never as much as in those of D. 
ruficollis. The texture is the same as in the eggs of Trochalopterum 
virgatum and T. limatum and of Statocichla merulina, but can be dis- 
tinguished from the former by their greater size, and generally from 
the latter by their shape, which is a long oval, somewhat drawn out 
towards the smaller end, which is rather blunt. 

A series of twenty-four eggs average in size 1*19" X '79", and range 
in length from 1:12" to 1'26" and in breadth from -76" to -83". 



173 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

This bird is found, as far as I know, only in the thickly-wooded 
ravines which run down the sides of bamboo-covered mountains or 
evergreen forests. I have never seen the bird during the cold season, so 
cannot say whether it collects in flocks or not. It has a fine, loud, 
double whistle. I have not heard it chattering like the other laughing 
thrushes. 

(22) D. galbanus. — Austen's Laughing Thrush. 
Oates, No. 68 ; Hume, No. 409, Quat. 

I have had two nests of this bird brought to me, together with one 
of the birds which had been trapped on the nest, and they are therefore 
most likely authentic. The nests were deep, massive cups composed 
of bamboo leaves, creepers, tendrils, fine twigs and grass and were 
lined with coarse fern roots and fern stems. In size they were 
about, externally, 8'5" across by some 6" deep, internally about 4" by 4". 
Another nest much the same, but less massive, was shown to me as 
belonging to this bird ; but it was apparently deserted, for, though 
I waited a long time to watch for the parents, neither of them turned 
up. All three nests were placed in tangles of wild raspberries and 
other creepers. The normal number of eggs seems to be three, 
and in appearance they are hardly to be distinguished from the eggs 
of Garrulax lencolophus^ which they closely resemble in colour (pure 
white), shape and texture, but they have their surface less pitted and 
they also average larger, vis.j 1*22" by '93". 

(23) Garrulax lencolophus. — The Himalyan White-crested 
Laughing Thrush. 

Oates, No. 69 ; Hume, No. 407. 
Common everywhere. 

(24) G. pectoralis. — The Black-gorgeted Laughing Thrush. 

Oates, No. 73 ; Hume, No. 413. 
My eggs, a series of 100, average longer than Hume's measure- 
ments and at the same time are not so broad, being 1*2" by "83" as 
against 1'07" by -85" in " Nests and Eggs" (vol. I, p. 81). I have 
some eggs quite as pale blue as the eggs of Dryonastes ruficollis, but 
they are devoid of any gloss. 

(25) G. moniliger. — The Necklaced Laughing Thrush. 
Oates, No. 74 ; Hume, No. 412. 
Common everywhere. 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH GACHAR. 174 

(26) G. gularis. — The Macclelland's Laughing-Thrush. 
Oates, No. 74 ; Hume, No. 409, Ter. 

This bird has already been recorded from Luckipur in Gachar. 
I have found it fairly common to the east of the district at heights 
over 3,500 ft., very rare below this and never below 2,000 ft., 
whereas Luckipur is in the plains and well away from the Hills. 
The nest is a typical laughing thrush's, much like that of G. moniliger, 
but the bird seems to have a strong predilection for tendrils, and I 
have seen nests composed entirely of this material and lined with the 
usual black fern and moss roots. 

The nest is placed at all heights from the ground up to about 20 
feet, generally from 4 to 6 feet. The eggs are either two or three in 
number, and are, strange to say, of two types, either pure white or very 
pale blue ; the same colour as the eggs of D. ruficollis. In shape they 
are rather long ovals, often rather drawn out and pointed ; the shell is 
very stout with a fine close texture and has a decided gloss, almost as 
much as in the eggs of the Dryonastes just mentioned. 

Twenty-eight eggs average 1'15" by *80" or rather less ; they vary in 
length from T04" to 1'21" and in breadth from 76" to 84". My series 
of eggs originally embraced eggs of every shade from pure white to 
decided blue, and with many eggs, when placed by themselves, it was 
difficult to say whether they had any tinge of blue or not, nor was it 
until they were placed beside really white eggs that the blue tint 
showed. 

(27) Garrulax albigularis.— The White-throated Laughing-Thrush* 
Oates, No. 76 ; Hume, No. 411. 

Very rare everywhere. 
(28) Ianthocinela cineracea. — The Ashy Laughing-Thrush. 
Oates, No. 79 ; Hume No. 418, Ter. 

I shot two of these birds, both males, in June, 1890. The birds were 
two of a largish flock which were scrambling about some brushwood 
by the side of the road running over the Hengmai Peak at an elevation 
of about 6,000 feet. This party of birds were chattering and calling to 
one another just like a party of Garrulax leucolophus. 

(29) I. rufigularis.— The Rufous-chinned Laughing -Thrush. 
Oates, No. 80 ; Hume, No. 421. 

Common above 4,000 feet. Often lays two eggs only. Breeds here 
from April to June, seldom later. 



lib JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

(30) I. austbni. — The Cachar Laughing-Thrush. 
Oates, No. 81 ; Hume, No. 417, Bis. 
I note this bird simply on the strength of its name. I have not 
either volume III or volume XI of Stray Feathers with me to refer to, 
and do not know in what part of Cachar Godwin- Austen obtained it. 

(31) Trochalopterum chrysopterum.— The Eastern Yellow- 
winged Laughing-Thrush. 

Oates, No. 84 ; Hume No. 415, Bis. 
The habits, nidification, and eggs of this bird are just the same as 
those of T. phcenicium. The eggs average 1"1" by °76". 

(32) T. phcenicium. — The Crimson-winged Laughing-Thrush. 

Oates, No. 92 ; Hume, No. 420. 
Common everywhere. 

(33) T. squamatum. — The Blue-winged Laughing-Thrush. 
Oates, No. 92 ; Hume, No. 420. 

I have seen no birds here of the T. melanurum type, all having 
bronze tails, not black. I believe that eventually T. melanurum will 
prove distinct from T. squamatum. 

Oates is undoubtedly right in what he says regarding the colour 
of the lores in relation to the sex of this species, two females taken by 
me on their nests in May, 1891, both had grey lores; a male shot the 
same month had lores which might have been described as fulvous- 
grey. 

(34) T. virgatum. — The Manipur Streaked Laughing-Thrush. 
Oates, No. 98 ; Hume, No. 425, Bis. 

Is not very rare on the high peaks to the east of the district where 
it breeds. 

The nest is much like that of Iantliocinela, but is more stoutly built 
and much deeper. The tendrils also, of which it is to a great extent 
composed, are always much mixed with grasses, roots and fine bents, 
and sometimes also with a few bamboo leaves, the last more especially 
when it is built close to the ground. The lining is always of fern roots 
and fern stalks with a few moss roots intermixed. As a rule I have 
found the nests either in thick high bushes or in small trees standing 
amongst the same and built between four and eight feet from the 
ground, but on more than one occasion I have taken it from a mass of 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 176 

vegetation where it rested, practically, on the ground itself. It appears 
to be a more compact and smaller nest than that built by its nearest ally, 
T. lineatum (Hume's c< Nests and Eggs," 2nd edition, Vol. I, p. 65). 
The eggs are the same in colour as those of that bird, i. e., of a pale blue 
green, rather brighter than the average run of Laughing Thrush's eggs, 
and having the peculiar satiny texture already referred to in describing 
the eggs of S. merulina. 

Eighteen eggs, average 1"X73", which is almost exactly the same as 
the average of the fifty-eight eggs of T. lineatum measured by Oates. 

(35) Gramnoptila atjsteni. — Austen's Striated Laughing-Thrush, 
Oates, No. 102. 

I got two of these birds in 1887 on the Hengmai Peak, and at that 
time wrongly identified them as a local variety of G. striata. They 
were undoubtedly, however, of this species. The following year I got 
another bird which, like the former two, was caught on its nest, and 
this time the nest contained three eggs, 

This, the only one of the three nests I examined, was exatly like 
that described by Gammie in the second edition of Hume's ' £ Nests and 
Eggs" (Vol. I, p. 67), but was just one inch broader — that is to say, it 
was 8*5" across at the widest part and was rather less than 6" deep ; 
internally it was 5" in diamater and 2 "3" deep. There were a good 
many scraps of bracken fronds used in its construction, besides masses of 
green moss, grasses and few tendrils. The lining was of moss roots 
only. This nest was in a bush, well hidden and less than 5 feet from the 
ground. 

The eggs, which, alas have since been broken, were, as far as I 
remember, exactly like a pair of eggs 1 have in my collection of 
G. striata which were given to me by Mr. H. Edwin Barnes. They 
measured l-3"X-93", 1-3"X'92" and 1-26"* -87". The third egg 
was very remarkably smaller than the other two. There were no signs 
of marks on them. 

(36) Stactocichla merulina.— The Spotted-breasted Laughing-Thrush. 
Oates, No. 103 ; Hume, No. 413, Bis. 
I never came across this bird until April, 1891, and during that 
month I obtained at least a dozen and about the same number of nests 



177 JO UBNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL EISTOB Y SOCIETY, Vol, VIII, 

with eggs, most of the birds being caught with hair nooses on their nests. 
These are bulky, rather shallow cups made of moss and moss roots, grass, 
bamboo leaves, and fern and bracken fronds, the lining being generally 
of fern and moss roots, sometimes of very fine twigs or tendrils. The 
materials are generally fairly well put together, and the nest, when new, 
is strong and compact, but, owing to the situation in which it is placed, 
soon becomes damp and rotten. It averages some 7" across by about 4" 
externally, the hollow being about 3*5", or rather more in diameter, and 
seldom over 2" deep. It is invariably placed near the ground and often 
almost, if not quite, on it. All the nests I saw were taken from ever- 
green forest with an undergrowth of fern, bracken and brambles. 

The eggs, three in number, closely resemble those of G. moniliger, but 
are broader on the whole and the surface is far more satiny, often 
showing a fair amount of gloss. Thirty eggs average 1"14" X 81". 

All my eggs were taken in April and May. 

I have only met with this bird in one place, namely, the valley of 
the Laisung, at an elevation of about three to four thousand feet. The 
birds kept principally to the evergreen forests, but were also noticed in 
bamboo jungle on several occasions. At this place it is very common, 
but I have not met with a single specimen elsewhere. It is a very shy 
bird and, as Hume says, a terrible skulk. 

(37) Argya earlii. — The Striated Babbler. 

Oates, No. 104 ; Hume, No. 439. 

Only occurs as a straggler from the plains in the low-lying grass 
lands on the borders of Nowgong. 

(38) A. caudata.— The Common Babbler. 
Oates, No. 105 ; Hume, No. 438. 
I have been told by a friend that this bird had been killed by him at 
the foot of the North Cachar Hills, but I very much doubt whether it 
was correctly identified. 

(39) A. longirostris. — The Small Rufous Babbler. 
Gates, No. 109 ; Hume, No. 386. 
(40) Grateeopus canorus. — The Jungle Babbler. 
Oates, No. 110 ; Hume, No. 434, 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 173 

(41) Pomatokhinus SCHISTICEPS.— The Slaty-headed Scimitar Babbler. 
Oates, No. 116 ; Hume, No. 402. 
The common type below 3,000 feet. Often lays only three eggs, 
and sometimes only two. 

(42) P. olivaceus. — The Tenasserim Scimitar Babbler. 
Oates No. 118; Hume, No. 403, Bis. 
In 1888 I had a female of this species brought to me which had 
been trapped in the nest. 

(43) P. ferruginosus.— The Coral-billed Scimitar Babbler. 
Oates, No. 122 ; Hume, No. 401. 
The nests I have taken of this bird have been of the usual rough and 
loose manufacture typical of the species and were not at all well made 
like the one mentioned by Gammie (Hume's " Nests and Eggs," vol. I 
p. 86). Most of those I have found were placed at the foot of bamboo 
clumps and more or less buried amongst the dead leaves and rubbish 
collected round them. As with the other Pomatorhini, this species 
frequently lays only two eggs. 

(44) P. phateh.— Phayre's Scimitar Babbler. 
Oates, No. 124; Hume, No. 401, Bis. 

This species is very common about 3,000 feet, but below that height 
I have very seldom met with it. I have taken numerous nests, 
and the distinctive feature of its nesting is that it more often than 
not places its nest in a thick bush at a considerable height from the 
ground. Its nest does not differ from that of P. schisticeps, being 
the same bulky, globular affair made of bamboo leaves, etc., though 
from its situation it is of necessity somewhat more firmly put together. 

The average of a dozen eggs is I'l&'X'H". I once took a nest of 
this bird from the top of a big bush about seven feet high, and, amongst 
the roots, I also found a nest of P. ferruginosus, both nests containing 
three eggs. In the same valley, that day, I also took nests of P. 
erythrogenys and P. schisticeps and two others of P. phayrii. Scimitar 
babblers of all the species mentioned were very plentiful at this place 
(the Laisung valley), and P. macclellandi was also met with. 

(45) P. erythrogenys.— -The Rusty-checked Scimitar Babbler. 
Oates, No. 129; Hume, No. 405. 
Not very rare, but very locally distributed, being fairly common in 
one valley and not to be seen in the very next. 
3 



179 JOURNAL, BOMBAY J* A TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

(46) P. macclellandi. — Macclelland's Scimitar Babbler. 

Oates, No. 130; Hume, No. 404, Quat. 

Godwin- Austen found this bird in the Barail Range, and I have met 
with it on all the ranges between this and Manipur and the Naga Hills. 
It is one of the commonest forms to the east, but I have never met with 
it on the grass-covered hills to the north and north-west, where P. 
schisticeps, P. ruftcollis* and P. ferruginosus are all very common. 

The eggs measure 1-09" X'76". 

The nest is like that of P. erythrogenys, and is usually placed amongst 
bamboo roots or the roots of some thick shrub growing on a bank. 

(47) P. HYPOLEUcus.— The Arrakan Scimitar Babbler. 
Oates, No. 131 ; Hume, Nos. 405, Bis and Ter. 

This babbler does not appear to be rare at the foot of the Hills, but 
does not ascend to any height. 

(48) Ximphoramphus SUPERCILIARIS.— The Slender-billed Scimitar 
Babbler. 

Oates, No. 133; Hume, No. 406. 
A very rare bird. I have met with it barely half a dozen times in 
as many years. It seems to keep almost entirely to bamboo jungle, and 
during the cold weather collects in small, but noisy, parties. These 
birds have a very folio w-my-leader style of going along; if one bird 
mounts a bush and then hops down again and climbs another, all the 
party are sure, one by one, to do just the same. I think these are the 
noisiest of all the scimitar babblers, their cries being like the softer notes 
of the laughing thrushes, but rather deeper in tone. It is found well 
up to 5,000 feet, and the lowest I have observed it was at about 2,400 feet. 
It is an early breeder like others of the sub-family, and by the end of 
April I fancy theyjiave nearly finished laying. 
Sub-family Timeliince. 
(49) Timelea pileata.— The Red-capped Babbler. 
Oates, No. 184; Hume, No. 396. 
By no means common anywhere and very local in its distribution. 

(50) Gamsorhynchtjs rufultts. — The White-headed Shrike Babbler. 
- Oates, No. 137; Hume, No. 384. 
Oates says that probably the young do not assume the adult plumage 
until they are about a year old. As a matter of fact I believe that they 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. .180 

take two years before completing it. A young male which was killed in 
August, 1890, and which was the father of four nearly fully-fledged nest- 
lings, had but few signs of the adult plumage, and he must have been at 
least 14 months old. The female had the adult plumage fully developed. 
The nest of this bird was a large oval affair, much like that of the 
Pomatorhini, and was made of bamboo leaves lined with fern roots, narrow 
strips of ekra bark and grass. It was placed about six feet high in a thick 
clump of bamboos. I have never seen an egg of this bird, but the 
natives assure me that it is very much like that of Trochalopterum 
plioenicium, but marked with a paler colour. 

In its habits it is far more like the Crateropodince than the Timeliirm. 
It collects in large flocks like most of the members of that family and 
is also extremely noisy, uttering incessantly a variety of cries, all more 
or less like the notes of Garrulax leucoloplmsj but less harsh, nor has it the 
so-called laughing note of that bird ; though it has another equally fit 
to be called a laugh. Nearly all the birds I have seen have been in 
bamboo or thick grass jungle; indeed I can recall to mind no instance 
of ever having seen them in any other. They are not shy birds, and 
I have sometimes remained within easy shot of a party for nearly half 
an hour, following them up as they made their way along the bamboo 
tops, to all seeming causing them no anxiety or annoyance by my 
proximity, though one would now and then mount a bamboo close to me 
and loudly expostulate with me, not so much in fear as in contempt for 
my curiosity. They are comparatively active on the wing also, far 
more so than any other of the Timeliince that I have closely observed, 
and altogether I am inclined to think that it will eventually have to be 
placed with the Crateropdince rather than in its present position. 

(51) Pyctorhis sinensis. — The Yellow-eyed Babbler. 

Oates, No. 139; Hume, No. 385. 
Common everywhere in suitable localities up to nearly 3,000 feet. 

(52) Pblloraneum mandellii. — Mandelli's Spotted Babbler. 

Oates, No. 142 j Ilume, No. 399, Bis. 

The common form of Pelloraneum in these hills. Some time ago an 

article appeared in the " Asian " over my signature under the heading 

P. ruficeps. The description and remarks, however, all applied to 

this bird, and my notes must have got very much mixed up. So 



181 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIIL 

little is known of these and the allied birds that I reproduce my 
remarks here, as also those on the other members in their right place, 
omitting only the descriptions of the birds themselves. 

Niditication.— I think that I must take at least two nests of this 
bird to every one I find of all the other wren babblers collectively. Out 
shooting I am constantly having my attention drawn by a little lark- 
like bird gliding noiselessly out of some tuft of grass and almost 
immediately after becoming invisible. Even after the bird is seen 
to quit, it often takes some time to find the nest, for it is generally 
carefully concealed and more or less covered with fallen leaves,. &c. 
Occasionally, when I have not been able to mark the exact spot from 
whence the bird has made off, I have been quite unable to find the 
nest, and have had to await the return of the bird in order to obtain 
the eggs. It is always placed on the ground, and amongst fully one 
hundred nests taken in the last four years, I have never yet met with 
' the exception that proves the rule.' 

" The situation most commonly chosen in which to place it is a tuft 
of coarse grass or a thick clump of rank weeds growing either in, 
or close to, bamboo jungle. It is very remarkable how often 
these birds select seemingly dangerous positions by the side of 
some well-worn mithna , buffalo, or elephant track. On one occasion 
(24th April, 1891) I was tracking up a wounded bull that I had 
damaged the night before, and no less than four times did I disturb this 
bird from one side or the other of the track. Each time I put them 
up, a coolie, who was carrying my drinking water, looked for and found 
the nest, and at the end of the tramp he gave me them with such eggs 
as he had not managed to smash. All four nests were taken from 
beside comparatively well-worn tracks. I have often taken nests from 
amongst the masses of dead bamboo leaves collected at the foot of 
bamboo clumps or even from the open ground, where it is fairly steep, 
and dead vegetation and leaves lie thickly enough to afford protection. 
Another favourite place is just at the edge of patches of sun grass, ekra, 
or elephant grass; I do not think they ever build inside these patches 
at any distance from the edge ; personally I have never seen a nest 
more than a foot or two inside. Low bushes in which the branches 
come quite down to the ground, more especially such as are thorny, 
sometimes conceal a nest, but not one in ten will be taken from such 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 182 

positions. All nests are composed of the same materials, namely, 
bamboo leaves alone, as far as the outer part is concerned, and, as 
regards the inner part, fine grasses will be found to constitute the 
greater portion, more or less mixed with slender moss roots, hair-like 
fibres, and the extremely delicate tendrils of a wild flower that looks like 
a yellow convolvulus. In shape the nest is generally a broad oval, 
sometimes rather lengthened and egg-shaped ; it is placed .either up- 
right or slanting at an angle of nearly 45°. The entrance is about one- 
third of the way down from the top, sometimes lower and rarely 
almost level with the ground. It is often partially protected by the 
loose leaves of the upper half of the nest hanging over and concealing 
it. These cases appear, however, to be more the result of accident 
than design, and the leaves are never artificially made to form a porch, 
however rude. 

" The nest is sometimes merely semi-domed, much like what I have 
already described as being built by Stachyridopsis ruficeps. Very 
rarely it is a deep cup, but even in these cases the depth of the interior 
far exceeds the diameter. I once took a nest of this bird from a very 
peculiar situation. I had killed a female bamboo rat which showed 
signs of having young, and in looking for these, I commenced prodding 
about in a pile of loose leaves and rubbish which had collected in the 
open by the road-side. Pushing the stick through the centre of this, 
I touched something which scuttled away on the ground. A closer 
inspection showed me a nest buried nearly six inches deep amongst the 
loose stuff, containing three eggs which I easily recognized as belong- 
ing to this bird. As usual it was very roughly and loosely built, not 
being strong enough to stand removal. I have said above that I have 
never seen a nest placed otherwise than on the ground, but I must 
modify this statement, for as long ago as 1887 I took two nests which 
were practically placed in the ground. Both nests were placed in 
holes some eight inches deep in steep banks of nullahs running 
through bamboo jungle ; both were semi-domed, and in both cases the 
hollows were completely filled up with loose bamboo leaves. 

The full complement of eggs is three or four, either number being 
about equally often laid. I have never seen five in a nest, nor have I 
ever taken two only which showed any signs of incubation. The 
ground-colour of the eggs is white, either pure or very faintly tinged 



183 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

with greyish or greenish. Typically they are thickly stippled and 
freckled with rufous-brown and purplish-brown, the latter marks being 
sometimes almost black. They are most numerous towards the larger 
end, where they occasionally form a ring or a cap. 

" In addition to these markings, there are in most eggs a few rather 
larger underlying dots of pale lavender and pale dull purplish. In 
the majority the first-mentioned marks strongly predominate, but in 
a few these latter gave the prevailing tint to the eggs. 

" In about one egg in five there are a very few large blotches of 
one or two of the colours already mentioned. In a few specimens the 
prevailing colour of the markings is a ruddy brown or ruddy pink, and 
these eggs are almost undistinguishable from those of some bulbuls. 
On one occasion 1 had taken four bulbuls' nests and one nest belong- 
ing to this bird, and for some reason — I now forget what — had placed 
all the eggs in the same box. On my return home it was with the 
greatest difficulty I was able to distinguish between one clutch of 
bulbuls' eggs and the eggs of P. mandellii. I have about four clutches 
in which the markings are more than usually dark and are very 
minute. In three there is a very distinct broad ring round the top 
of the larger end, within which are scattered a few brown and purple 
spots ; in the fourth clutch the freckles form a small dark cap, many 
of them coalescing, and all more or less indistinctly divided from one 
another. 

" A solitary clutch in my possession has all four eggs marked with 
rather light umber-brown, only here and there one of purple and 
a few of raw sienna. Many eggs have the markings at the smaller 
end rather lighter than those of the large end. In shape the eggs 
are rather broad and very regular ovals, in many cases the difference 
in size between the two ends being barely perceptible. Abnormal 
specimens generally incline to the peg-top shape, a few being met 
with rather longer and with the smaller end somewhat compressed. 
The surface is very fine and close, and the greater number of eggs 
have a slight but appreciable gloss ; in some this is absent, in others 
rather highly developed. In proportion to the size of the egg the 
shell is rather fragile. In the hundred and eighteen eggs which I 
have measured the length only varies between '85" and -93" ; the 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 184 

difference in breadth is proportionately rather greater, the limits either 
way being -63" and '71". The average of one hundred eggs is '90* 
(almost) by -675". 

" The earliest date on which I have obtained eggs was on the 4th 
of April, 1891, on which date I took a nest with two fresh eggs. 
The latest date noted is the 21st July 1888, when four hard-set eggs 
were taken. Of all my nests, one-half were taken between the 15th 
April and the 25th May, one-third between the latter date and the 
25th June, and the remaining one-sixth early in April or in the last 
few days of June and the first few of July. 

" This bird is so shy and unobstrusive that, in spite of its being so com- 
mon, it is a most difficult matter to collect any materials for notes on 
its habits. Its knack of getting out of sight in a moment is something 
wonderful and has to be seen to be believed. When put up off its 
nest, a bird is just seen to slope away for a foot or two, or perhaps a 
yard or two, after which it is non est. I have used the word slope in- 
tentionally, as I think it describes best the bird's mode of progression • it 
cannot be said to be a hop, run, or flight, but seems to be a combination 
of all three in which no one mode is visible. As regards its voice the 
only notes I have heard it utter have been the pleasant musical call 
alluded to hy Oates as being the common note of P. subochraceum 
and the chattering cries it constantly gives during the cold season 
when the bird goes about in company with a few others. It also uses 
this note when disturbed by an intruder, i such as a squirrel or another 
bird, but it never, I believe, utters any cry when disturbed by a human 
being or big animal, confining itself to performing the vanishing trick 
with neatness and celerity. Jerdon mentions ' a kind of crowing laugh' 
as being amongst the sounds they make. This, like Eider Haggard's 
crabs, ' they cannot do in my fiction,' though, like the same crabs, it is 
quite possible that they may ' do ' so in reality, although I do not 
happen to have heard them myself. It is a frequenter of low scrub 
and brush jungle or of bamboo and grass jungle mixed, and does not 
haunt the tops of high trees as so many wren babblers do in the cold 
weather. It may often be seen feeding actually on the ground and 
this more especially when the birds are collected in flocks. At this 
time they appear rather less shy, and the few observations I have been 
able to make have nearly all been collected at this period of the year. I 



185 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

have often been reminded by its actions of the common Bengal Babbler 
(A, terricolor). One bird takes up the call started by another, and then 
each bird repeats it until every member of the flock has notified his 
exact whereabouts. They quarrel too occasionally, such an event be- 
ing a matter of the most intense interest to each individual, who backs 
his particular fancy much in the same way as other bipeds in England 
back prize-fighters, that is, on the win, tie or wrangle system. They 
often appear to be very undecided as to whether some article of food is 
good enough to eat or not, and they contemplate it in a melancholy 
way with their heads on one side, until another bird decides for them 
by eating it himself, or else he seems to make up his mind to eat it and 
risk the result. I have never examined the stomach of any birds and 
can say nothing about their food. They are extremely active on their 
legs, but their flight is feeble and they never seem to travel far on the 
wing. They descend a long way into the plains, having been recorded 
from the low lands of Sylhet, and I believe they remain there all the 
year round. I have seen this bird and taken its nests up to 5,000 feet, 
but it is most common about 2,500 feet. There is one place in parti- 
cular in these hills, called The Hot Springs, where this bird is most nu- 
merous. The country consists of open grass lands with sparse oak forest, 
the pockets between the hills being filled with dense scrub jungle and 
here and there patches of the small hill bamboo. As already mention- 
ed, I once took four nests there in one day, and several times I found 
two myself and had others brought to me." 

(53) P. minus. — Sharp's Spotted Babbler. 

Oates, No. 143. 
Sharp's type bird was recorded from Cachar. I have never met 
with it. 

(54) P. euficeps. — The Spotted Babbler. 
Oates, No. 144 ; Hume, No. 399. 

This bird, hitherto supposed to be a purely southern form, re-appears 
in North Cachar and is by no means uncommon. The first bird I obtained 
was sent by me to Mr. Barnes, and was identified by him as being of 
this species, and it was also, the same day I believe, identified by Mr. 
Murray. Since then I have met with any number of birds, and Mr. H. 
A. Hole has also obtained it in South Cachar, and has, I think, a specimen 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 186 

now in his collection. The remarks on nidification made on P. mandellii 
would equally apply to this bird. 

(55) P. palustre.— The Marsh Spotted Babbler. 
Oates, No. 146 ; Hume, No. 399 Quat. 

A rare bird here, and, unlike the other members ."of the genus, never 
found to my knowledge outside grass land. I have never noticed it 
near swamps or marshy land, as its name would seem to infer it should 
be found. 

The nests and eggs are undistinguishable from those of P. rujiceps or 
P. mandellii, but the latter are smaller, averaging about "87" by - 64". 

(56) P. ignotum. — The Assam Babbler. 
Oates, No. 148 ; Hume, No. 399 Ter A. 

I reproduce in full my notes from the Asian, which give all the infor- 
mation I have collected concerning this little-known bird. 

" Nidification.— The nests of this bird differ in one important re- 
spect from those of the other members of the genus in that, as far as I 
know, it is never found on the ground. It is of course of much the same 
character, being either shaped like a very deep cup, one side being more 
or less prolonged and sometimes bent over, or it is a perfectly globular- 
shaped nest. The entrance is generally high up on one side about an inch 
from the top, sometimes it is about the centre, and rarely quite low down- 
so low as to allow the eggs to be seen from some distance away when 
the nest is not well concealed or when the covering branches have been 
disturbed. The materials used may be of almost any kind of grass or 
bamboo leaves, and it is lined only with grass. From its position it is 
naturally rather more compactly built than the nest of those species 
which build theirs on the ground, but it is also sometimes a good deal 
neater than nests placed in a similiar position and of the same type. I 
have seen one or two which were made of very fine grasses which were 
so neatly and strongly built that I at first sight mistook them for the 
nests of the Himalayan Munia. The majority of the nests I have per- 
sonally found were taken from the dense masses of twigs growing on 
the lower parts of clumps of the small clump bamboo and were placed 
at heights varying from two to four feet from the ground, rarely higher 
than the last-mentioned height and, nearly equally as rarely, lower than 



187 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIll. 

the first mentioned. A few nests were taken from tangles of creepers, 
weeds, and brambles, and one or two from small thick patches of coarse 
ekra, in these last cases being generally within a few inches of the 
round. The earliest and latest dates I have recorded as having found 
eggs are respectively the 29th of April, 1891 and 11th of July, 1890. 

" This bird s as far as I know, does not breed in these hills below 
3,000 feet and is most common above 5,000 feet. I have never taken a 
nest except towards the north and north-east of the sub-division, though 
I have met with occasional birds elsewhere. In number the eggs are 
generally three ; sometimes, though not often, four and, on one or two 
occasions, I have taken two eggs only which showed signs of incuba- 
tion to a greater or less extent. The most common type of egg has the 
ground-colour rather a decided pale pink, the markings consisting 
of freckles of a rather dark brownish-red, profusely scattered over the 
whole surface of the shell, but even more numerous towards the larger 
end, where they generally form either a ring or a badly-defined and 
irregular cap. In some few cases the markings are equally numerous 
everywhere, running into one another and occasionally forming small 
blotches where two or more of the marks coalesce. A few clutches 
that I have are much fainter in colour both as regards the markings 
and ground-colour, and these eggs bear a striking resemblance 
to the eggs of some of the bulbuls, such as Xanthixus or 
Spizixus. Again in others of my clutches the ground is a pure 
white, so that the freckles appear to be more boldly and strongly 
defined than in the pink eggs, although such is not really the case. In 
a very few eggs, both of the white and pink types, the markings are 
confined almost entirely to the larger end in the form of a ring or cap ; 
such eggs are, however, so rare that they may be said to be abnormal. 

<: In shape the eggs vary but little, being of a rather regular oval, 
very slightly, if at all, compressed towards the smaller end and always 
blunt. Abnormal eggs only differ in being somewhat lengthened ovals, 
and it is a -peculiar fact that the only two clutches I possess, in which 
the markings are confined to the larger end, are also those which are the 
most lengthened of all my eggs. 

" The shell is firm and close in texture and often shows a fair amount 
of gloss, but for its size it is decidedly fragile. Eighty eggs that I have 



THE BIRDS OF NORTE CACEAR. 188 

measured varied in length between "72" and *90" and in breadth between 
'57" and '62", the average dimensions of the same number being '78" 
by '60". From the above measurements it may be seen that the varia- 
tions in length covered no less than *18" of an inch, whereas in breadth 
they only covered '05 of an inch. As a matter of fact very few eggs 
exceeded *82" in length, and only six eggs exceeded "84, and again only 
5 eggs are less than *75" in length, so that the variation in length, put- 
ting on one side the eleven eggs, which were either abnormally long or 
short, the remaining 69 eggs only ranged in length between *75"and '84". 
I know of nothing practically of any interest to record concerning the 
habits of this bird. Like all others of the genus, it is very shy and 
retiring and gives but little chance of close observation ; it is a very 
silent bird ; such notes as I have heard are very like the lower chucks- 
ling notes of the genus Trochalojrterum, but are very sweet and soft. 
When disturbed it never makes any harsh noise, but evinces its distress 
or fear in a low rippling note that conveys not the slightest sign of 
anger, though perhaps to a certain extent it does show fear. I have 
repeatedly had the bird leave its nests when I was within a yard or so 
of it — for, in spite of its shyness, it is a very close sitter — and then 
flutter about at a little distance in a palpable state of fear and 
anxiety ; yet the only note it ever uttered was the one already 
mentioned. It sometimes utters a clear low whistle, probably as a 
call for its mate ; this note is, however, very seldom made use of, for 
I do not think I have heard it half-a-dozen times altoo-ether in as 
many years. This species so far appears only to have been recorded 
from the Naga Hills and from Dibrughur, but nothing is said as to 
the elevation at which it has been obtained. Here I have never 
noticed it below 2,400 feet even in the cold season, and it is most 
common at Hungrum and the surrounding peaks at an elevation of 
some five thousand feet upwards, where it is principally found 
in thin brushwood and scrub jungle or in bamboo jungle whenever 
there is such available. As the lower hills are reached and the 
bamboo jungle becomes more plentiful, the bird seems to keep almost 
entirely to it. It is found very plentifully towards the north and 
north-east of these hills, and thence extends into Manipur and the 
Nasa Hills." 



189 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

(57) Dbymocataphus tickblu.— Tickel's Babbler. 
Oates, No. 151 ; Hume, No. 399 2V. 
Nidification, — I have now taken fully a score of nests of this 
bird, and I can therefore have no doubt as to the identity of the 
owner, although, as will be seen, the eggs have not the slightest 
resemblance to those which Bingham found and which he believed 
to have belonged to this bird. On ten occasions I have trapped the 
bird on the nest ; twice I have shot it as it flew out of it and once as 
it rested on a branch of a bush above the nest. The nest is either 
a globular concern or else a very deep cup with one side prolonged 
and bent somewhat forward. As a rule it is made of bamboo leaves 
and shreds of the softer parts of sun grass, but very often there are a 
great many pieces of bracken and fern also interwoven with the 
former materials. It is much like the usual type of nest of Pellor- 
neum ruficeps, but is far more compact and therefore somewhat 
smaller in external measurements, and also much neater, though 
internally averaging about the same. Most nests are placed actually 
on the ground, either at the foot of a bamboo clump, a thick bush or a 
mass of grass and weeds. Other nests are placed a foot or two above the 
ground in tangles of creepers or wild raspberry bushes, the latter kind of 
situation especially being a very favourite one. Most nests are very 
well concealed, but such is not always the case, for on one occasion 
I found a nest just by a pathway which led from my camp down to a 
stream and which was used by some twenty people every day on their 
way to and from the water. The nest was placed about eighteen 
inches from the ground, in a mass of wild caladium plants and raspberry 
creepers and, from one direction, was fully exposed to view. When I 
first came to the camp the nest contained a single egg, and two days 
afterwards, when another had been laid, the two were taken away, bul- 
bnls' eggs being put in as substitutes in order that the bird should not 
desert the nest. Two more eggs were laid, and the bulbuls' eggs were 
taken out and thrown away. The bird was very shy at first and always 
used to leave the nest before a sight could be got of it, but afterwards 
she sat very close and would lie in her nest and blink at me when I 
stood barely three yards away. I regret to say that during my absence 
for a short time from the camp some Naga boys trapped the bird and 



THE BIRDS OF NO RTF C A CHAR. 190 

stole the eggs, although I had ordered them not to do so. The eggs 
seem to be either four or three in number, and I think I have taken as 
many nests with the former as with the latter number. All my eggs are 
alike in coloration and the character of the markings, the latter merely 
differing slightly in amount. The ground-colour is a pale greenish- 
grey, in some few eggs rather more decidedly green than in others, and 
the markings consist of numerous freckles and irregular small blotches 
of pale reddish-brown, numerous everywhere, but more so, as a 
rule, towards the larger end, where in most eggs they form an ill-defined 
cap or ring ; besides these brownish marks, there are other underlying 
ones varying from the very palest bluish- grey to rather dark purplish- 
grey. In general appearence the eggs are very like small, dull- 
coloured specimens of the eggs of Copsychus saularis. In shape they 
are broad, blunt ovals, very slightly smaller, as a rule, at one end than 
at the other. The shell is very fragile, but the texture is fine and close, 
in one or two eggs showing the very faintest perceptible gloss, but in 
most rather dull. 

Twenty-four eggs average in size 81" X 51" and vary in length from 
77" to 88", and imbreadth from 58" to 66". The 29th of April, 1891, is 
the earliest date I have recorded as having taken eggs, and the 27th of 
June the previous year is the latest date. 

Hitherto, with only two exceptions, I have only found it breeding 
on the peaks round about Hungrum, all about 5,000 feet high and 
some above 6,000. During the cold weather I have noticed it now 
and then very much lower down, occasionally as low as 2,500 feet. 
It is a very timid bird, avoiding observation and interference, haunt- 
ing low brushwood, bush jungle, bamboo and tree forest, or indeed 
almost any kind of ground where there is plenty of undergrowth to 
screen it, though the first-mentioned sort of place is that which it 
chiefly frequents, and during the breeding season it is in such places 
alone that there is any chance of finding it. I know but very little 
of their habits ; all that one ever sees of the bird is a small brown 
object squatting on the ground in front of one for a second or two 
before it suddenly dives into the nearest patch of grass or other 
shelter, when it at once becomes invisible. I have never seen the 
bird fly above a few yards at a time ; even those which I trapped 



191 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

and then released flew out of my hands on to the ground and began 
to make off in long bounding hops, using every stone and turf on its 
way to assist in its concealment. The only note I have heard it 
utter is a soft rippling chir-chir, and this sound it seems to make use 
of on all and every occasion — when calling to its mate, disturbed off 
its nest, resisting being caught, or when quietly feeding. 

(58) Corythocichla striata. — The Streaked Babbler. 
Oates 7 No. 154. 

Upper mandible dark brown, lower plumbeous, darkish at the base, 
pale elsewhere, mouth creamy-slate colour. Irides dark red. During 
the hot weather and rains this bird seems to keep to the higher peaks, . 
descending lower during the cold season. It is a very rare bird, and 
such a shy one also that it is impossible to find out much about its 
habits. Like C. hrevicauda^ it never makes use of its wings unless 
absolutely compelled, and it is so sharp and active on its legs that 
these alone are generally sufficient to carry it out of sight before one 
has even time to shoot at it. I have been very fortunate in obtaining 
several of its nests and also in obtaining nests which had eggs in them. 
All those 1 have taken (six) or had brought to me have been of the 
same type, viz., very deep cups with one side prolonged and project- 
ing over, making it almost a domed nest ; indeed in one or two cases 
it might have been termed such. The materials consist principally 
of dead leaves, a few fern fronds, or rarely a few scraps of grass. 
These are bound together with fern roots and moss, and the lining is 
composed merely of a few more dead leaves. All the materials used 
are of a dark brown tint, and so far I do not think I have seen a single 
light-coloured nest. The materials are fairly well put together, but 
from their nature they stand but little handling and soon fall to 
pieces when once removed from the original position. They are 
placed either at the root of a tree, below some log, or in a cluster of 
plants in a hollow on some bank, and one was found at the foot of a 
survey pillar wedged in between two of the stones which formed its 
base. Wherever they are, I believe they are always placed actually 
on the ground, not above it in bushes, &c. 

The full complement of eggs seems to be four, but I have found a 
nest containing three and another only two eggs showing signs of in - 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 192 

cubation ; also a nest in which I found two young ones only. 
In shape my eggs are broad ovals, but little compressed at the 
smaller end, which is very blunt. They are white, and the markings 
consist of primary freckles and small spots varying in colour from pinky- 
red to pinky-brown, none of a very deep shade ; besides which, there 
are subordinate markings of pale pinkish-purple rather larger in size 
than the primary specks. As a rule the spots are very sparingly scat- 
tered over the whole surface except at the larger end, where they are 
fairly numerous. In none of my eggs is there any indication of a ring 
at this end, but in some they form a very indistinct cap. 

In length they vary between -78" and -83", and in breadth between 
•59" and '62"; the average of 14 eggs is -81" X -6". They appear to 
breed in May and June and the latter end of April. 

(59) Tuedinus abbotti.— Abbott's Babbler. 
Oates, No. 160 ; Hume, No. 387. 

Not rare in North Cachar, but, as far as I know, keeping entirely to 
densely- wooded valleys at a low elevation. I have never observed it 
over about 1,500 feet high. 

(60) Alcippe nepalensis.— -The Nepal Babbler. 
Oates, No. 163 : Hume, No. 388. 

Extremely common from 2,000 feet "up to the summit of the highest 
peaks. The eggs of this bird vary most wonderfully, and I notice here 
a few of the most marked varieties :— 

(1) Pure white, with most minute speckles of purply-pink, usually 
forming a dense ring round the larger end ; sometimes practically con- 
fined to this end, at other times fairly numerous all over. 

(2) Much the same, but with a pinkish ground and the markings 
somewhat larger, lighter, and even more numerous. 

(3) The same, but with the markings of pale reddish-pink. • 

(4) Ground-colour pale to deep salmon and more or less covered with 
blotches and clouds of pink and underlying marks of greyish, with here 
and there a speck or short line of deep blood red. This type can be 
almost matched by many eggs of Pyctorhis sinensis. 

(5) Ground-colour from pale pink to pure white with rather sparsely 
scattered marks of deep purple, ranging from mere specks to largish dots 
and lines. In this type the marks nearly always form a distinct ring or 
cap. 



193 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

( 6) In a few eggs the marks consist almost entirely of hair-like lines 
intertwined with one another and forming a ring round the larger end, 
some *15" broad. Fifty of my eggs average '69" X '54" ; one hun- 
dred of them vary in length between 61" X 78" and in breadth between 
•48" X 61". 

(61) Alcippe phayrii ( Vel phacocephala). — The Burmese Babbler. 
Gates, No. 165 ; Hume, No. 388 Bis. 

I cannot with certainty assign the birds of this region either to the 
Burmese or Southern Indian form. The typical bird of North Cachar 
has either no sincipital stripe or only the very faintest indication of it ; 
moreover the colour of the lower parts varies considerably in individuals 
according to whether the plumage is abraded or not. As regards the 
cap, there is seldom any trace of it in the birds of these parts. 

Oates seems undecided rather as to whether A. phayrii is a good 
species, and personally I think the two forms, if they can even be called 
such, should be combined under the name A. phacocephala. 

(62) Stachyeis nigriceps.— The Black-throated Babbler. 
Oates. No. 169 ; Hume, No. 391. 

Very common from the level of the plains, where it remains to breed, 
up to about 3,500 feet, above which it is less common, but is still met 
with, even up to the highest peaks. 

(63) S. chrys^ea.— The Golden Babbler. 
Oates, No. 170 ; Hume, No. 394. 

I have taken a great number of nests and eggs of this bird, which is 
not uncommon in a few localities, though its distribution is very con- 
fined. The majority of nests have been either completely domed or 
else very nearly so, but on a few occasions I have also taken cup-shaped 
nests, and the first year I obtained any, all I took were of this shape, 
so that I began to think this species differed from the others of the 
genus and did not build a domed nest. Since then, however, I have 
found out my mistake. It is formed of bamboo leaves, either whole 
or in strips, grasses, and, very rarely, a dried leaf or two, all loosely 
wound together and lined with finer scraps of the same material or with 
fine rootlets. On one occasion I found one lined partly with buffalo 
hair* 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 194 

Most of my nests were found actually on the ground and had become 
very damp and dilapidated even before being taken. Some few were 
in bushes or bamboo clumps, but never more than a foot or two from 
the ground. The eggs are, of course, pure white. 40 eggs average 
•62" X '46", which is even smaller than Gammie's clutch (flume : Nests 
and Eggs, vol. I, p. 112), which surprised Oates so much by their 
small size that he could hardly believe they belonged to the bird. My 
smallest egg is -59" X *44". They do not vary very much in size or 
shape. 

(64) S. assimilis.— The Allied Babbler. 
Oates, No. 171 ; Hume, No. 394 Bis. 

Nidification. — Precisely the same as with S. chrsycea. They lay, 
as with that bird, from two to four eggs, three being the number most 
often found. Fourteen eggs average -61" X '47". They have the 
same glossy white surface with close hard texture as have the eggs of 
the last species. 

(65) Stachyridopsis ruficeps.— The Red-headed Babbler. 
Oates, No. 172 ; Hume, No. 393. 
Fairly common everywhere, more especially to the north-west of 
these hills, where I get many nests yearly. I have one very handsome 
clutch of eggs of this species ; the ground is, of course, pearly white, as 
are all others, and the markings consist of largish, boldly-defined 
blotches of deep reddish-brown, together with one or two of pale 
purplish, forming a well-marked ring near the big end. A clutch 
that contrasts very strongly with the last is one which is very feebly 
marked with pale pinkish and greyish-pink. This last type, only 
less feebly marked, is the one which is most common. Nearly all my 
eggs are broad ovals, very little smaller at one end than at the other. 
48 eggs average *63" X '52". They vary from -59" to -66" in length 
and from '49" to -54" in breadth. 

(66) S. rufifrons. — Hume's Babbler. 
Oates, No. 173 ; Hume, No. 393 Bis. 
Description. — Differs from S. ruficeps in the following particulars : 
The chestnut of the head only extends to the back of the crown, where 
it merges into the olive-brown of the nape and back ; the lower parts 

5 



195 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

are more a dull oily fulvous or fulvous-grey than oily yellow as in 
S. ruficeps, and the flanks and thighs are strongly tinged with brownish. 
Immature birds have the chestnut crown duller, but in other respects 
are like the adult. 

I cannot discern the slightest difference between the sexes, but I 
must own that I have seen very few specimens ; indeed only five 
females and sis males in addition to one nest of fully-fledged young 
which were able to fly. 

Captain Bingham states (vide Oates) that the hen has the chestnut 
of the head duller. 

Bill slaty blue 5 irides reddish-brown ; legs yellowish-brown, very 
pale. Length 4'4" to 4-5"; tail 1'9" ; wing 2" or rather more ; 
tarsus *7" ; bill at front -35", and from gape '55." 

The female is slightly smaller ; the three I have measured were 4 , 3", 
4-2", and 4'2" in length, tail 1"7", 1-8" ; wing 1'9" barely. 

Nidification.— I regret to say that I never noticed this bird till 
1889, when I had a nest with a male brought to me. It was, as usual, 
formed outwardly of grass and was lined with some light-coloured, 
fibrous material mixed with the fine ends of grass. In shape it was 
something like an egg placed on its large end, leaning slightly to one 
side, and with the small end cut off. It was 5*7" in length and 4'2" in 
breadth ; inside the diameter was 2-1". 

In 1890 I took three nests ; of these, two were of the ordinary glo- 
bular shape, and the third was as described above. 

The nest taken in 1889 was built in amongst the roots df a bamboo 
clump, two in between bamboos and the masses of twigs with which 
they were covered, one at about 4 feet, the other at about 6 feet from 
the ground. The fourth nest was taken from a bush, fairly thick and 
well covered with leaves ; it was wedged in between several twigs, and 
was quite screened from view until a careful search had been made. It 
was rather less than two feet from the ground. 

In shape, coloration and texture the eggs do not in any way differ 
from those of S. nificeps. In the ten eggs I have all are regular obtuse 
ovals, there being no abnormal specimens. Strange to say, although the 
bird itself is distinctly smaller than the last, the eggs on the contrary are 
rather larger, those I have averaging •64" by '53", They vary 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 196 

extremely little in size, in length between '62" and -66", and in breadth 
from *50" to '55". I have no specimens with bright reddish spots, all 
being of the paler type. 

The nests were taken on the following dates :— 29th April, 1890, 
female, three eggs quite fresh ; 19th May, 1890, female, four eggs 
slightly incubated ; 25th May, 1890, male, two eggs fresh. The 
eggs of the second nest have not been included in the average given 
above. 

A nest with four fully-fledged young were brought to me on the 21st 
of May, 1890. In habits I do not know of any trait that it exhibits 
which is unlike S. rufcceps. It is much rarer and I think also more shy 
in its habits. As I have only observed it during the breeding season, 
it has always been in low scrub or bamboo jungle. At other times it is 
sure to feed, like others of this genus, on trees. 

(67) Mixornis rubricapillus. — The Yellow-breasted Babbler. 

Oates, No. 176 ; Hume, No. 395. 
This bird sometimes lays unspotted white eggs. I have once taken 
a nest myself with such eggs, and on another occasion I took three 
eggs, which were so faintly marked that it was difficult to make the specks 
out at all. Another nest, with three white eggs, was also sent me in 
1891 from Jellalpur by Mr. H. A. Hole. The hen-bird was also sent 
with the eggs, and there could have been no mistake about their identity. 
I have observed this bird feeding on the ground in the bamboo jungle, 
and, though it is the only time I have seen it so feeding, it is sufficient 
to prove that it does do so now and then. I have far more often noticed 
it in bamboo jungle than in tree forest. It does not seem to ascend the 
hills to any height, and I have not often met with it over two thousand 
feet, it being most common quite at the foot of the mountains or on the 
very low grass and bamboo-covered hills. 

(68) Schceniparus mandellii. — Mandelli's Tit Babbler. 
Oates, No. 179 ; Hume, No. 622. 
This handsome little bird is not uncommon in the east of the North 
Cachar Hills, and what I have observed of its habits agrees with Hume's 
remarks on the subject. I have found about a dozen nests, all placed 
on the ground, amongst the roots of herbaceous plants with the 
exception of two, which were placed amongst ekra and were from 



197 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIIL 

4 to 6 inohes off the earth itself. The materials were principally 
dead leaves, and the description I have already given of the nest 
of Corythocichla striata would stand equally well for these ; but 
they are on the whole, perhaps, rather more bulky. The full comple- 
ment of eggs is, I think, four, but I have taken one or two nests with 
only three eggs and one with only two, all of which showed signs of 
incubation. They are in appearance the same as the eggs of S. dubius 
described by Davison (Hume's Nest and Eggs, vol. I, p. 117). The 
ground-colour is white with, in some eggs, a faint brownish or greenish 
tinge, and they are marked much in the same manner as many eggs of 
Pyctorhis sinensis. There are numerous clouds and smudges of pale 
vandyke-brown, and a few coarse marks and irregular lines of a dark 
shade of the same, beside which there are usually a good many secondary 
marks of pale neutral tint confined chiefly to the larger end. The sur- 
face is very fine and close, and the shell strong, often with a slight gloss. 
In shape they differ from those described of S. dubius, for they are very 
regular ovals, the difference between the two ends being sometimes 
hardly perceptible and seldom very distinct. Twenty eggs average 
•83" X '61". They breed in the latter end of April, May, and June. 
(69) S. BUFiGULARis. — The Eed-throated Tit Babbler. 
Oates, No. 180 ; Hume, No. 618 Bis. 

I shot a male of this species in May, 1891, just on the borders of 
Manipur. 

(70) Sittiparus cineeeus. — -The Dusky-green Tit Babbler. 
Oates, No. 181 ; Hume, No. 620. 

Legs fleshy brown or reddish ; irides reddish-brown. A rare little 
bird, which I have only found in the Laisung Valley and at Hungrum, 
generally feeding in scrub jungle. Mr. Hole has also two or three 
specimens in his collection which he obtained at the foot of the hills in 
low brushwood. They go about in small parties and are very active 
and qnick, but are very shy, moving away at once at the sound of any- 
body approaching them. 

I have taken two nests, which were simply miniatures of those of 
Schamiparus ; both were placed amongst the roots of thick plants, but not 
actually on the ground itself. In one nest the three eggs were ready to 
hatch ; in the other there were also three, but so hard set that it was with 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 198 

difficulty I managed to save two out of them. The eggs bear no 
resemblance in any one detail to those of S. dubius ; they are white, 
tinged with the palest dusky green, and are marked with tiny dots and 
specks of brown and neutral tint, which form a very distinct ring at the 
larger end, being very sparsely scattered over the rest of the sxirface. 
Some of the marks are so dark as to appear almost black. In shape the 
eggs are rather long ovals, decidedly compressed towards the smaller 
end, which is blunt. The surface is fine and close, and in one egg has 
a faint gloss. 

The two eggs measure *69" X "5" and -71" X '49". The nests were 
taken on the 29th April and the 5th May, 1891. 

(71) Sittiparus castanciceps. — The Chestnut-headed Tit Babbler. 

Oates, No. 182 ; Hume, No. 619. 
Very rare. I have only met with it twice in six years. 

(72) Liopartjs CHRYSiEUS. — The Golden-breasted Tit Babbler. 
I shot a typical hen of this species on the Jennam River in 1888. 

(73) Turdinulus robertl— Robert's Babbler. 
Oates, No. 186 ; Hume, No. 332 Bis. 
A rather rare bird everywhere. I have seen a specimen shot in the 
cold weather in the plains and have taken a good many specimens 
myself in these hills. 

(74) Myiophoneus temmincki. — The Himalayan Whistling Thrush, 

Oates, No. 187 ; Hume, No. 343. 
Common everywhere near water. I have one clutch of eggs of 
this bird marked .just like many of Geocichla citrina. The site 
selected for the nest varies far more than would be thought from 
Oates' remarks on the subject. It is, however, always built near water, 
most of them actually on the bank, but sometimes, where the ever- 
green wood is moist, cool, and shady, it may be placed some hundred 
yards away from the stream. A very favourite place is a hole in the 
bank of some deep nullah running through evergreen forest, and it 
was in such a position I took my first nest. It was placed in a 
natural hollow formed by the massive and twisted roots of a large 
tree, being perfectly concealed from view except from the bottom of 
the nullah, and even thence visible only from exactly opposite. The 



199 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIIL 

internal cup was large and deep, but externally there was no exact 
shape, the nest being so formed as to fill up the whole lower portion 
of the cavity, and the outer side was alone neatly finished off ; in this 
the breadth was all but two inches, whilst the back wall must have 
been fully five and the two sides nearly as much. The cup was 
4*8" in diameter and 4 - l" in depth. An immense amount of material 
had been used, and as the moss was all wet and mixed with a great 
deal of earth, the weight also was very great. The base, back, sides 
and outer wall were composed outwardly entirely of moss with the 
roots attached ; the root ends with the wet earth were placed down- 
wards and inwards ; thus the visible portion of the nest was all bright 
green moss ; inside this outer layer was another, about an inch thick, 
of muddy fern and moss roots, and inside this again the true lining of 
clean dead moss alone. Other nests I have taken from the banks 
of rocky streams ; they may be either placed in depressions in mossy 
banks and be quite concealed from view by the waving bracken and 
luxuriant moss ferns, or they may be in bare patches and resting on 
ledges of rock visible to, though almost unobtainable by, every passer- 
by ; sometimes, again, they are built in holes and hollows over a foot 
deep. Once I took a nest from under a large slab of rock in a gloomy 
ravine, over which the water was constantly running, falling with 
a splash into a little pool some four feet below it, sprinkling the nest 
and the young birds with the spray. The damp, however, did not seen 
to effect their spirits, for I found them out by the great chirping that 
was being carried on between them, and it is evident that thrushes 
do not suffer from rheumatism and colds. 

One nest I took in 1889 was built on a dead stump, up which was 
growing a mass of creeping plants. The nest was completely hidden 
by the overhanging leaves, and I should never have found it but for 
the parent-bird flying off just as I passed. It was about 3^ feet from 
the ground and rested partly on the tangle of creeper stems and partly 
on the stump. In shape it was a deep cup, broader at the base than 
at the top ; this nest was lined with grass and had also a few leaves, 
both in the inside and woven into the outer part as well. There was 
also less earth than usual, and altogether it was a lighter-built nest than 
are 19 out of 20. The walls at the top were about 1*3" thick and the 
base about 3". 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 200 

Another nest which I found in March, 1890, was built under the 
" chung " (raised bamboo floor) of a rest-house and was placed in 
between three of the piles. The birds had only just commenced work 
and during the ten days that I occupied the house they kept on their 
building operations, though making the very smallest modicum of exer- 
tion to get it finished, for when I left it was still hardly half completed. 
(75) M. bugbnii.— The Burmese Whistling Thrush. 
Oates, No. 187; Hume, No. 343 Bis. 

Only very rarely met with towards the extreme south-east. A bird 
sent me by Mr. H. A Hole appears to a hybrid between M. temmincki 
and M. eugenii. There are but two spots on the wing coverts on one 
side and none on the other, the bill is unusually large for M. temmincki, 
but has the black colour normally developed. 

(76) M. horsfieldii.— The Malabar Whistling Thrush. 
Oates, No. 187 ; Hume, No. 342. 
Specimens of this bird are found only in the Jatinga Valley and are 
I believe (from information received a year ago), merely the descendants 
of two pairs of Whistling Thrushes, which were brought up from 
Travancore by a lady and released from captivity on her leaving the 
district. I have seen none during the last two years, and they have, 
I fear, died out. 

(77) Larvivora brunnea.— The Indian Blue Chat. 
Oates, No. 191 ; Hume, No. 507. 
Rare everywhere, but a permanent resident wherever found, except 
in the lowest valleys. 

(78) Drymoichares cruralis.— The White-browed Shortwing. 
Oates, No. 197 ; Hume, No. 388. 
Occurs from the level of the plains up to the highest peaks, but does 
not breed below 2,500 feet. My eggs all agree in description with 
those of Hodgson and Mandelli, but the only three nests I have seen 
were very deep cups made of moss, bound together with roots and a 
few fine grasses and thickly lined with black fern roots, over which 
were placed a layer or two of dead leaves. 

(79) D. nepalensis.— The Nepal Shortwing. 
Oates, No. 198 \ Hume, No. 336. 
By no means rare to the north-east on the higher peaks. My eggs 
vary a good deal in colour between rather bright olive-green and olive- 



201 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

brown, some being more or less stippled and clouded with darker 
shades of the same, the stipplings being so fine that the eggs appear 
to be of one uniform colour. 

(80) Tesia cYanoventkis. — The Slaty-bellied Short- wing. 
Oates, No. 201 ; Hume, No. 328. 
Fairly common at Hungrum and the higher peaks surrounding 
that place, descending to the plains in the cold season. I have taken 
some half dozen nests of this bird, and they agreed well with the de- 
scription given by Hodgson (Hume's Nests and Eggs, vol. I, p. 131), 
but were much smaller, measuring only about 5" in diameter. My 
eggs too are all of a long oval, often considerably pointed at the smaller 
end. The markings, which are everywhere very numerous, vary 
between light pinky-red to dark clear red, always very bright, what- 
ever the tint; 16 eggs average "70" X *59". 

Sub-family Sibiince* 

(81) Lioptila annectens. — Blyth's "Sibia. 
Oates, No. 208 ; Hume, No. 613. 

This is the form of sibia most often met with in North Oachar, but 
at the same time is far from common. Hitherto I have only met 
with it to the east of the Guilong stockade down as far south as the 
range of hills dividing the Jenam and Jiri Rivers. 

It breeds at Hungrum and the surrounding peaks above 5,000 feet, 
seldom lower. The nests I have seen have all been rather bulky deep 
cups composed outwardly of moss and moss roots with perhaps one or 
two scraps of grass or a leaf or two. The lining seems invariably to be in 
two parts— the innermost of fine fern and moss roots alone, the inter- 
mediate portion between the true lining and the nest being of shreds of 
grass more or less mixed with roots and herbaceous stems, the latter not 
always present. Unlike its near allies, S. capistrata, L. pulchella, etc., 
this bird does not select very lofty situations for its nest. As a rule I have 
taken them from the upper portions of saplings, the branch on" which 
they are placed being usually a slender one towards the outside of the 
tree and therefore difficult of access. Little, if any, trouble is taken to 
conceal them, and, even if not noticed at once, the excited movements of 
the parent-birds are sure to attract attention. The tree selected is one 



TEE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 202 

in fairly thick or evergreen forest ; never I think, one in open country. 
The full complement of eggs is three, and less than this number I have 
never taken showing signs of incubation. 

In general appearance the eggs are hardly distinguishable from the 
paler type of egg of Actinodura egertoni. The ground-colour is a bright, 
pale green-blue, and the marks consist of pale reddish-brown lines and a 
few blots, blotches and specks of the same. The lines are of consider- 
able length, sometimes nearly f ", or even more, and are very irregular 
in shape. In most eggs there are also a few marks of purply-red, 
consisting principally of well-defined dots and also a few blurred, half- 
washed-out-looking blotches. In a few eggs there are less numerous 
lines than there are spots and blotches, but the former are never alto- 
gether absent and are usually the most numerous kind of marking. 

Twelve eggs average '87" X '59", and they vary between '85" and 
'89" in length, and between '58" and '61" in breadth. Some eggs are 
not unlike weakly-marked specimens of the eggs of Mesia argentauris. 
I know absolutely nothing concerning the habits of this bird beyond 
the fact that it is not found much below 3,500 feet, and frequents fairly 
thick evergreen forest. 

(82) L. pulchblla. — The Beautiful Sibia. 
Oates, No. 210 ; Hume, No. 429 Ter. 
Recorded from North Cachar by Godwin- Austen. 

(83) Actinoduka egertoni. — The Rufous Barwing. 
Oatesj No. 211 ; Hume, No. 427. 

The middle tail feathers very distinctly barred ; fairly common 
between 4,000 and 5,000 feet and upwards ; rare below this height. It 
is very local in its distribution. My eggs are of two types — one like thoso 
obtained by Gammie and Mandelli and the other more like those of 
Trochalopterum phcenieium, the markings being far darker than in 
those obtained by the above collectors, mostly of a deep purply- 
brown or blackish as regards the coarser lines and blotches, the 
numerous hair-like lines being of a brighter shade. This latter type 
is much less smudgy also than the other. Eighteen eggs average 
86" by -78". They vary very considerably in size, the largest measuring 
93" X -74", and the smallest -82" X -64". Most of my eggs are broad 
ovals. 

6 



203 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIIL 

(84) Ixops daflaeNSis. — Austen Barwing. 
Oates, No. 214 ; Hums, No. 428 Bis. 
I got a single specimen of this bird at Shemkher on the borders of 
the Naga Hills. 

(85) Staphidia castaneiceps. — The Chestnut-headed Staphidia. 
Oates, No. 216 ; Hume, No. 624 Bis. 

Forehead grey ; the feathers centred dark brown ; anterior crown 
dark rufescent-brown ; remainder brighter rufescent, almost chestnut ; 
nape grey ; upper back, scapulars, and upper tail-coverts greenish-grey 
with pale shafts ; lower back and rump grey, obsoletely tipped greenish- 
grey ; tail brown ; the third pair of feathers obsoletely tipped white, this 
white gradually increasing in extent until on the outermost pair it is 
about 5" deep ; lores and a short supercilium white ; ear-coverts 
chestnut with white shafts ; chin, cheeks and lower plumage white, 
more or less suffused with grey and to a less extent with fulvous ; 
under tail-coverts brown, broadly tipped with white ; lesser and median 
wing-coverts like the scapularies ; greater coverts and inner secondaries 
a more decided brown and with white shafts ; other quills brown, very 
narrowly edged with grey. 

Bill rather light reddish ^horny, gape and base of both mandibles 
slightly purplish ; after death the whole bill becomes brownish horny ; 
legs dull reddish or flesh-colour ; claws dusky flesh-colour ; irides pale 
hazel. 

Male.— Length ■■ 5'3" ; wing 2-5" ; tail 2-3"; bill at front '31" ; and 
from gape '51" ; tarsus '55". 

The females seem to be slightly smaller ; length barely over 5" ; wing 
2-4" ; tail 24" to 2'2" ; bill at front -3" and from gape -5" ; tarsus -63". 

Nidification — Until 1891 I had only taken one nest of this bird 
which contained eggs. It was found on the 11th July, 1890, and was 
taken from a high bank running parallel with, and only a short distance 
from, the road, where it was placed against, and partly under, a large 
clod of earth lying amongst the thick roots of a laurel-like shrub. 
The greater portion of the nest was composed of the very softest 
shreds of sun grass and a few scraps of equally soft bark. The outer 
side of the nest, where not touching the clod or roots, was more 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 204 

massive and was wound round with the dead brown stems of some 
jungle plant, fern roots, a few very fine tendrils and one or two small 
leaves, all further strengthened by a few cobwebs. The lining is of 
the same grass as the rest of the nest, with the addition of half-a-dozen 
tiny feathers. In shape the nest is a compact little cup ; the internal 
dimensions are about 2' 2" in diameter by rather over one inch in 
depth ; externally the nest is about 1*6" in depth and in breadth 
across the narrower way 3 "8", or across it, so as to include the outer 
side, 4*4". The jungle in which it was found was composed of mixed 
clump bamboos and trees, with a scanty undergrowth of bracken and 
shrubs. In 1891 on the 20th April I found another nest which was 
placed in a low road-side bank. The place was absolutely devoid of 
all vegetation, and the nest could be seen from some ten paces 
distant in both directions. As it was empty, it was not disturbed or 
measured. On the 23rd I took another nest containing a single egg. 
In this case also it was placed in a hole about a foot deep or rather 
less, just below the top of a perpendicular mud wall by a pathway ; 
there was no attempt at concealment, and the nest could not have 
been overlooked. Of these two nests, one was found at about 
2,300 feet elevation and the other at about 4,000 feet. The nests are 
both like that already described, but there are no feathers in the 
lining of either. The nest taken in 1890 was found quite close to 
where the one on the 20th April was obtained. A third nest, found 
on the 25th, was placed in exactly the same position as the others, 
namely, in a hole in a bare road-side bank, but differed in being made 
solely of grass and in being slightly smaller. The dimensions are 
internally 2" in diameter by *9" in depth or rather less. Since the 
last date I have taken more than a dozen nests, all of which were got 
whilst marching from one camp to another, being placed in holes by 
the road-side, and in shape, materials, etc., agreeing with those 
already described. 

The first-mentioned nest contained three eggs, perfectly fresh, in 
colour a pure white rather profusely spotted and speckled with different 
shades of brown, principally of a rather light sienna ; here and there 
are also a few minute blotches of a greyish colour, and in one 
egg there is also a dark hair-like mark, about # 2" long, on the 
larger end. In one egg the markings tend to form an indis- 



205 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

tinct ring ; in the other two they are most numerous at the extreme 
end of the larger half. In all three eggs they are very sparsely 
scattered towards the smaller end. There is a very slight but appreci- 
able gloss on the eggs ; the texture is close and smooth and the shell 
extremely fragile. In shape they are broad ovals and very obtuse. 
They measure '65" X '52", -6Q" X -52", and -67" X '51". The single 
egg in the second nest found in 1891 differs slightly from those found 
in the previous year in being somewhat more darkly marked ; the size 
is -68" X -56". 

The last described nest contained three eggs ; the ground-colour is the 
same' — pearly white — but the markings are more of a Vandyke shade than 
sienna as in the others. They are also more numerous, and there are 
many smudgy indistinct streaks as well as blotches and speckles. The 
secondary marks are entirely absent in this clutch. They measure 
•67" X *5", '68" X -5", '6o" X "51". In addition to these I have 42 
other eggs which, as far as the markings go, agree with one or other of 
the descriptions given above ; but the ground-colour in four clutches 
is of a very faint yet decided greenish tinge, and in one other clutch 
it is slightly greyish. In many of the eggs the markings are very 
equally distributed throughout and show no tendency to form either 
ring or cap. Amongst the 49 eggs there is no variation in form and 
but little in size. The average of 30 eggs is -67" X '52" or slightly 
less. 

Their breeding time seems to extend over a considerable period, for, 
as may be seen by the dates given above, I have taken their eggs as 
early as the 25th April and as late as the 11th July. I also found a 
nest with fully-fledged young on the 29th of April. This pretty little 
bird is found all over these hills above 2,000 feet ; rarely, I believe, be- 
low that height. It is nowhere common, but may be most often 
observed between 2,500 and 3,000 feet. It keeps much to the tops of 
the taller shrubs and young saplings, neither ascending to the tops of 
bigger trees nor frequenting the very low scrub. Throughout the cold 
weather, up to April or May, it collects in small flocks, the members of 
which always keep very close together. It is an extremely active little 
bird, assuming all sorts of postures when engaged in clambering up 
and down the branches in its search for food, and is most tit-like in 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 206 

its actions when so employed. On the wing it is not nearly so strong, 
and it seldom indulges in a flight of any length. It is not at all a 
shy bird and may be watched from a distance of some twenty paces 
without any fear of driving it away. Should it at last become 
frightened, it will descend lower amongst the jungle and hastily make 
its way deeper into it by flitting and scrambling from twig to twig and 
branch to branch. Its ordinary note is a rather loud chir-chit, chir- 
chit, repeated two or three times ; besides this it has a musical double 
note that can almost be called a whistle. Neither of these sounds are 
often uttered, and sometimes for several minutes together not a bird in 
the flock will utter a single note. There is a species of small tree to be 
found here, which is nearly always much infested with green Aphides ; 
and where there are many of these trees about, a flock of these 
birds may generally be met with, specimens that I have shot in such 
places always being full of the insects. Another favourite food is the 
larvse of the common locust. I have also on two occasions taken some 
very hard black seeds from their stomachs, which are in size and 
appearance very similiar to mustard seed, but are much harder. 
(86) Siva cyanuroptera. — The Blue-winged Siva, 
Oates, No. 221 ; Hume, No. 617. 
During the breeding season this bird is only found on the very 
highest peaks, descending to about 4,000 feet in the cold weather ; 
more rarely as low even as 2,000. It is a common bird here. 

(87) Yuhina nigrimentum. — The Black-chinned Yuhina. 

Gates, No. 225 ; Hume, No. 628. 

I obtained this bird at Guilang this year, 1893, and also took its 

nest. This is a pendant cradle-like structure made almost entirely of 

moss-roots and attached to the moss or lichen on the Under part of a 

bough. 

The eggs are pale greenish marked with specks of pale brown, and 
Oates was quite correct in thinking they would prove not to be plain 
white. 

(88) Zosterops palebrosa. — The Indian White-eye. 
Oates, No. 228 ; Hume, No. 631. 
Common to the west and north, meeting and being equally 
common with the next species in the centre and almost entirely 
replaced by it to the east and south. 



207 JO UBNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

(89) Z. simplex. — Swinhoe's White-eye. 
Oates, No. 228 ; Hume, No. 681 B. 
The common form to the south and south-east. The numerous 
nests and eggs I have taken differ in no way from those of Z.palebrosa, 
nor does its habits call for any remark. 

(90) Ixulus occipitalis. — The Chestnut-headed Ixulus. 
Oates, No. 231 ; Hume, No. 624. 
Very rare. I have seen only two specimens. 

(91) I. flavicollis. — The Yellow-naped Ixulus. 
Oates, No. 232 ; Hume, No. 623. 
All my nests, with two doubtful exceptions, have been taken from 
the ground. The eggs are, as Oates says, just like rather densely- 
marked eggs of Hirundo rustica, but I think they are more brightly 
marked on the whole. 

(92) Herpornis xantholeuca. — The White-bellied Herpornis. 
A very rare bird in North Cachar. I have only seen it about 
half a dozen times, and on these occasions it was always in small flocks, 
and engaged in the busy pursuit of insects on the higher branches 
of lofty trees. I have only observed it on the outskirts of tree-forest. 
I do not remember ever hearing their notes, and they seem very silent 

birds. 

Sub-family Liotrichince. 

(93) Liothrix lutea. — The Red-billed I.iothrix. 
Oates, No. 235 ; Hume, No. 614. 
Fairly common on some of the higher peaks. 

(94) Cutia nepalensis. — The Nepal Cutia. 
Oates, No. 236 ; Hume, No. 612. 
I have seen this bird during the cold weather, on two or three occa- 
sions, towards the north-west of the district, haunting the tops of the 
oak trees which are the principal timber in that part. The elevation 
of the highest peaks in this direction is under three thousand feet. 

(95) Petruthius erythopterus. — The Red-winged Shrike-Tit. 

Oates, No. 237 ; Hume, No. 609. 
Not uncommon at about 3,500 feet upwards, but seldom appears to 
come down below this height. These birds are very shrike-like in all 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 208 

their ways and manners, even more so than in their general ap- 
pearance. 

(96) P. MELANOTI8. — The Chestnut-throated Shrike-Tit. 
Oates, No. 239 ; Hume, No. 611. 
A very rare bird here, only found in the loftiest peaks round about 
Hungrum, ranging from 5,500 feet upwards. 

(97) -ZEgithina typhia. — The Common Iora. 
Oates, No. 243 ; Hume, Nos. 467-8. 
A very common bird indeed. I may mention that all the eggs I 
have ever seen of this species have been marked with grey more or 
less tinged with brown, and sometimes also, but not often, one or two 
small marks of reddish. I have never yet seen an egg marked only 
with brown and reddish-brown, as described by Oates. 

(98) Chloeopsis aueifeons. — The Gold-fronted Chloropsis. 
Oates, No. 247 ; Hume, No. 465. 
I shall make no remarks on this genus here, as I included it 
amongst the bulbuls of North Cachar, on which birds I have written 
an article which has appeared in the Bombay Society's Journal. 

(99) C. haediwickii. — The Orange-bellied Chloropsis. 

Oates, No. 249 ; Hume, No. 460. 
(100) C. chloeocephala. — The Burmese Chloropsis. 
Oates, No. 250 ; Hume, No. 463 Bis. 
(101) C. jerdoni. — Jerdon's Chloropsis. 
Oates, No. 252 ; Hume, No. 463. 
(102) Ieene puella.— The Fairy Blue Bird. 
Oates, No. 254 ; Hume, No. 469. 
This bird does not appear to ascend the hills of the north-east above 
2,000 feet, and is most often met with very low down or actually in the 
plains themselves. I have never noticed it in parties, nor have I ever 
seen a single bird ; they seem always to keep in pairs. It breeds only, 
I believe, in evergreen forest, and generally near some small stream or 
other piece of water. 

(103) Melanochloea sultanea. — The Sultan Tit. 
Oates, No. 255 ; Hume, No. 650. 
This is another genus which, I think, has been taken from its former 
position (amongst the Parince) without good cause, and has been 



209 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

chucked in amongst the Liotrichince, because Oates was at a loss where 
else to put it. 

On the 17th May, 1890, I was fortunate enough to take anestol this 
bird. I was out at the time after gaur and was going through thinly- 
scattered oak forest with an undergrowth of young sun grass. Whilst 
resting for a few minutes under a tree, I noticed a male of this species 
on a tree opposite carrying something in his mouth ; presently he flew 
to a tree about a dozen paces away, and promptly disappeared into a 
long crevice which ran down one of the main boughs. Sending a man 
up to investigate, both male and female flew away, and to my delight 
the man announced that there was a nest with seven eggs. 

Both nest and eggs were brought down for my examination. The 
former was a thick pad of very fine scraps of moss, compressed down 
until it formed an almost solid mass, in depth about 4" and about the 
same in diameter at the top, whence it gradually narrowed to a point 
in shape the same as the hollow in which it was placed. The depression 
in which the eggs were laid was about 8" in diameter by hardly |" deep, 
and this was almost filled with soft cotton down. 

The eggs are exactly like those of Maclolophcs spilonotus, differing 
only in size. The ground-colour is a chalky-white, and the whole sur- 
face is thickly scattered with brownish-red spots of a bold character, 
others underlying of a pinkish-grey and light neutral tint. The mark- 
ings are more numerous towards the larger end, but do not form a cap 
or ring. I have eggs of Sitta frontalis very closely resembling these 
eggs, but of course much smaller. Of the seven eggs, I only managed 
to blow five as they were very hard set. From two eggs the young 
were already emerging, and these I broke in trying to clean. Three 
others were cleaned with a good deal of trouble, and two, which were 
much less hard set than the others, were blown fairly easily. In shape 
they are a broad regular oval, very little compressed towards the 
smaller end. In size the five eggs average *76" X '&'• 

Another clutch of eggs was brought to me, which were said to belong 
to this bird and were exactly like those already described, but were 
much larger, measuring about # 83" X '65". They were, however, so 
damaged in addition to being hard set that it was impossible to pre- 
serve them and difficult even to measure very correctly. 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH CACHAR. 210 

I have found this bird both in the evergreen forest of some of the 
lower, warmer valleys, and also in the open oak forest to the north- 
east of the district. In its habits and actions it is essentially tit-like, 
but perhaps less active than the majority of these birds. 

(104) Mesia argentauris. — The Silver-eared Mesia. 
Oates, No. 257 ; Hume, No. 615. 

Very common everywhere over 3,000 feet. 

(105) Minla igitineta. — The Red-tailed Minla. 
Oates, No. 258 ; Hume, No. 618. 

I once met with a large flock of these birds hunting for insects on 
the high bushes and small saplings beside a road at an elevation of some 
4,000 feet. They did not seem to visit the higher trees at all, but kept 
low down below 20 feet or so. They were not at all shy, and several 
of them came again and again within a few feet of me, so that, though 
I had no gun with which to obtain a specimen, I had not the slightest 
difficulty in identifying them. They continued to flit along the sides 
of the bushes in front of me for some two or three hundred yards, 
uttering a continuous twittering chirp. 

(106) Psaroglossa spiloptera.-— The Spotted-wing. 
Oates, No. 261 ; Hume, No. 691. 

This bird is common everywhere during the cold season, but appears 
to retire to the hills from 3,000 feet upwards during the breeding 
season. 

Oates says that neither its structure, its habits, nor the colour of its 
eggs show any affinities with the Sturnidw. I should have described 
its habits as being exactly the same as Sturnia maldbarica, and its nest 
as being undistinguishable from that of that bird—that is to say, it makes 
a rough pad of straw, grasses and a few feathers in a natural hole in a 
tree. Its eggs are nearer to Oates' Eulabetida? than to the Sturnidce. 

It is curious that none of the modern ornithologists seem to have 
mentioned one of the most distinctive characteristics of the male bird's 
plumage, viz., the remarkably lengthened plumes at the base of the 
outer secondary quill feathers of the wing. For a distance of about -75" 
to "90" from the base the plumes of the feathers are much lengthened 
on the outer webs, forming a most distinct fluffy patch on this part of 
the wing. This feature is not present in the wing of the female. 
7 



211 JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Some of the notes of this bird are peculiarly like the conversational 
notes of Molpastes burmanicus, the Burmese Red-vented Bulbul. It 
also has a loud clear whistle of the same style as, but softer and much 
less loud than, the usual call of Eulabes intermedia, the Indian Grackle. 
The females I have shot measure much smaller than the males. 
The average of 8 females is as follows :— Length, 7" barely ; wing, 
3-8" to 8-9" ; tail, 2'2" to 2'3". 

Sub-Family Bracliypodince. 

(107) Crinigbk flaveolus. — The White-throated Bulbul. 

Oates, No. 263 ; Hume, No. 451. 

(108) Hypsipetes psaroides. — The Himalayan Black Bulbul. 

Oates, No. 269 ; Hume, No. 444. 

(109) H. ooncolor. — The Burmese Black Bulbul. 

Oates, No. 270 ; Hume, No. 448. 

(110) Hemixus flavala.— The Brown-eared Bulbul. 

Oates, No. 272 ; Hume, No. 448. 

(111) H. macclellandi. — The Rufous-bellied Bulbul. 

Oates, No. 275 ; Hume, No. 447. 

(112) Alucurus steiatus. — The Striated Green Bulbul. 

Oates, No. 277 ; Hume, No. 449. 

(113) Molpastes burmanicus.— The Burmese Red- vented Bulbul. 

Oates, No. 279. 
(114) M. bengalensis. — The Bengal Red- vented Bulbul. 
Oates, No. 282 ; Hume, No. 461. 
(115) XanthiXus flavescens. — Blyth's Bulbul. 
Oates, No. 287 ; Hume, No. 452 Bis. 
(116) Otocompsa emeria. — The Bengal Red-whiskered Bulbul. 
Oates, No. 288 ; Hume, No. 460. 
(117) O. flaviventris.-— The Black-crested Yellow Bulbul. 
Oates, No. 290 ; Hume, No. 456. 
(118) Spizixus canifrons. — The Finch-billed Bulbul, 
Oates, No. 292 ; Hume, No. 453 Bis. 
(119) Iole virescens. — The Olive Bulbul. 
Oates, No. 296 ; Hume, No. 452 Des. 
(120) Micropus melanocephalus.— The Black-headed Bulbul. 
Oates, No. 310 ; Hume, No. 457 Bis. 
(121) M. cinereiventris.— The Grey-bellied Bulbul. 
Oates, No. 311 ; Hume t No. 457 QuaU 



212 

THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY 

SHORE. 

By A. Abercrombie. 

PART I. 

{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 6th Sept., 1893.) 
In an article which appeared in the 7th Vol. of the 4th Series of 
" Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philoso- 
phical Society," a catalogue of about 320 species of the Marine 
Mollusca of Bombay is given ; but local collectors not having all the 
advantages of museums and good books of reference cannot make much 
use of this article which is not descriptive, and the object of the present 
paper will be to give some little account of the families and species 
most common on our shore. 

The descriptions attempted must necessarily be short, and they have 
been made from as perfect and full-sized specimens as I have been able 
to obtain. Collectors must be warned against attempting the identifi- 
cation of worn and bleached specimens, and there is also often great 
variation in the colour, shape, and size of different shells of the same 
species, so that too much exactness of description must not be looked 
for. Classification proper, of course, rests upon the animal and not 
upon his shell ; but this part of the science is so intricate and so bristling 
with hard scientific terms that I leave it and content myself with an 
endeavour to deal with the shell alone. There are many shells all duly 
named and classified, the animal of which has never been seen, so that 
at least there is some excuse for the course I am taking, and if it 
simplifies the study to beginners, it may find some favour. But if we 
set aside the question of anatomy, there is at least the live animal to 
interest us ; but here again, I am afraid, I must fail you. When obser- 
vation is possible, that is at low tides, the animal is always at rest, and 
in confinement he does not thrive, at least not under the conditions that 
I have been able to offer him. He seems also to be impressed with the 
fact that his shell has been given him by nature for protection and to 
screen him from observation, and he takes care to act up to this belief. 
I kept various specimens alive for three to four months in a small tank ; 
but what impressed me most about them was the surprising power they 



213 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIIL 

exhibited of keeping on doing nothing ; for instance Planaxis sulcatus 
is a common little black shell, living on rocks at about § tide mark, 
and he ought to be pretty hardy, considering the amount of heating he 
can stand at one time of the year and drenching with fresh water at 
another ; but in confinement I could make nothing of him. He would 
not condescend to stop in my tank, notwithstanding daily supplies of 
fresh salt water, syringings to aerate it, and surroundings in the shape 
of slimy stones, such as must have been familiar to him. He pre- 
ferred, however, an adjoining deal box, on which he had climbed, and 
there he sat and brooded over his misfortunes till I returned him to 
his element as hopeless. 

The univalves are both vegetable feeders and carnivorous, and they 
are armed with a long rasping tongue, composed of microscopically 
minute calcareous teeth. This tongue, in the case of the carnivori, and, 
as is thought by some authorities, with the aid of an acid they have the 
power of secreting, enables them to bore holes in the shells of bivalves 
and other members of their own species. An actual case of this boring- 
happened under my own observation — a specimen of Urosalpinx 
contracta perforating the shell of Semele cordiformis (a bivalve) in about 
twenty-four hours. 

The Semele had, as is the custom of most bivalves, embedded itself in 
some sand provided in my tank for that purpose, and how Urosalpinx 
got him on to the top of the sand I can only surmise ; but it was there 
that the boring operation took place. 

This custom of retreating into the sand is no absolute protection 
to the bivalves from their enemies the univalves, as many of the latter 
regularly burrow in search of them, which is attested by the large 
quantity of bivalve shells found with a circular hole drilled through 
them. The animals of the Natica family, four to five of which are very 
common here, are specially adapted for this burrowing. They have a 
large and powerful foot or gliding surface ; they are blind or nearly so, 
and are provided in front of the head region with a sort of shield. 
Their shell is light, very smooth and round, and so offers little or no 
resistance to the pushings through the sand ; but Urosalpinx belongs to 
a family differing widely from this description. Most members of it are 
heavy shell-bearers, and their shells are rough and ridged, often with 
varices or fringes, and they frequent, as a rule, rocks or 'muddy stones, 



THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY SHORE. 214 

but apparently they are not above attacking the bivalves when they 
come across their path. Now Semele cordiformis, as far as my obser- 
vations go, is not one of the bivalves that burrow deeply into the sand, 
and if, as I suspect, the shell was barely immersed, the univalve on 
touching it whilst gliding along would easily prevent any further 
burrowing. 

Any one who has attempted to remove or push aside the common 
limpet knows what adhesive or suctional power the animal has in his 
foot, and it must be this power that renders the bivalve helpless when 
once caught. I am unfortunately unable to give any account of the 
actual process of the boring, as Vrosalpinx sat on the top of his prey and 
performed all his offensive actions under cover of his shell ; but the 
Semele was bored as stated and devoured, and those little scavengers — 
the hermit crabs, of which I had several in my tank — soon scented what 
was up and assisted at the feast. 

Conchological books inform us that certain members of the snail 
tribe are provided, like spiders, with a viscous thread, by which they can 
let themselves down from the branches of trees, and it appears that some 
marine shells can draw themselves up by a similar means. I was fortu- 
nate enough to find a live specimen of, I believe, Scalaria consors, to which 
was attached by a thread a small sort of anchor consisting of several 
bits of shell agglutinated together. The shell is extremely light, and it 
seems reasonable to suppose that the animal having secured its 
anchorage would, or at any rate could, float in mid-ocean, and the shell 
being a dull white would not be readily seen in such a position. 

As Mr. Phipson is reprinting, with the accompanying illustration, the 
descriptions by Mr. Melvill of twenty-five new species found here, I 
have not considered it necessary to refer to any of them in this article. 
THE UNIVALVES OR GASTEROPODA. 

The order I follow is that given in the article on the Mollusca in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Division I. — Shield shape or conical hollow shells with an oval base. 

Division II.— Shells, the mouth of which is generally circular or 
semi-circular and not produced into a canal at the base. 

Division III. — Shells, the mouth of which is produced into a canal 
at the base. The mouth is sometimes a sort of canal in itself. When 



2X5 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

the canal is not very obvious, there is a deep sinus or cut into the base 
of the shell. 

Division I. 

In Division I. we have really only one common shell, the limpet 
{Patella aster, Reeve), but a so-called key-hole limpet, with a small 
hole at the apex of the shell (Fissurella lima, Sow.), is also to be found, 
and under muddy stones there lives a little animal with a shield-shaped 
shell {Scutum unguis, Linn.) 

Division II. 
TROCHIDiE. 

There are a great many members of this family, several very common, 
and they are best known by the nacreous (M. 0. P.) construction of 
their shells, which may generally be seen by an examination of the 
mouth or by removing the outer or coloured layer of the shell. 

Turbo elegans (Phil.). — A large shell having four to five whorls ; 
whorls rounded and ridged spirally ; brown with green and yellow 
shadings and mottlings ; mouth circular ; length, which I shall always 
take as from apex to base, about 2 inches ; breadth at the widest part 
of the last whorl, 1\ inches. 

The next three are all pyramidal in shape, the whorls being out- 
wardly flattish. 

Trochus radiatus (Gmelin) and Clanculus depictus (A. Ad.). — Both 
very commonj especially the former ; both are beaded, the headings 
forming spiral bands running round the shell. T. radiatus is much the 
larger and easily recognised by the broad, red or maroon, irregular 
stripes running down the shell. Between the stripes the colour is 
greenish when alive, turning to yellow or whitish when dead. C. 
depictus is yellow or grey, with similar but black stripes. I have found 
some specimens a light yellow-grey colour, with no stripes. Others 
uniformly dark grey, but black stripes are the rule. 

Astralium stellatum (Gmelin). — Whorls sharply noduled at intervals 
at the lower margin and diagonally striated ; colour, a dull yellow. 

Euclielus indicus (A. Ad.). — A dull brown, smallish shell, very com- 
mon ; whorls rounded with minute headings, forming fine spiral lines ; 
mouth circular. 



THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY SHORE. 216 

Rotella vestiaria (Lam.). — Is the little highly coloured shining shell 
so common on the sandy beach. It is often pink. The spire is depres- 
sed, and in size it is smaller than a two-anna piece. 

NERITIDjE. 

Smallish, thick, semi-oval shells ; mouth large, flat, and in shape 
like a capital D ; columella or central pillar of shell broad, flat, and 
sloping inwards. 

Nerita oryzarum (Recluz). — Very common on half-tide rocks or under 
stones ; colour white and black mottled and streaked, sometimes with 
a tinge of rust ; last whorl envelops nearly the whole shell and is 
ridged ; shell polished. 

Neritina crepidularia (Lam.). — Apex bent down towards mouth of 
shell ; colour white, with purple transverse bandings ; shell quite 
smooth ; frequents muddy places on the harbour side of the shore. 

IANTHINIDiE. 

lanthina communis (Lam.). — Is a very fragile and beautiful shell. 
The upper half of the whorls a delicate white purple j the under or 
aperture side a deep purple. It is a floating shell, and only found 
when washed up after stormy weather. It also, I am told, has been 
procured in a very perfect state from fishermen's nets. 

CERITHIID^]. 

Cerithium morus (Lam.) and Potamides (Tympanotonos) flumatilis 
(P. M.). — These two little shells live along with Planaxis at three- 
quarter tide mark, especially where there are muddy stones. The latter 
seems to belie its name, at any rate as far as Bombay is concerned. 
C. morus is a blackish, small and spiral shell, with sometimes a white 
band ; spirally striated and heavily beaded, and regularity of shape 
interrupted by varices or thickened ridges ; mouth — outer lip rounded 
and thickened, causing the varix as the growth of the shell is continued 
leaving the thickened part standing out ; about Y to f " long. 
P. fluviatilis is a slender pyramidal shell, about f " to 1'' long. Each 
whorl has three rows of spiral headings ; mouth produced and flatfish 
at the base ; last whorl often shows marked white and black spiral 
bandings and is smooth. 

TURRITELLID^. 

Turritella duplicata (Lam.) is a massive tapering shell, having ten 
to fifteen or more whorls ; easily known by two parallel ridges 



217 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

running spirally round the centre of each whorl ; colour, rusty yellow. 
A good specimen would be 5" to 6" long. 

NATICIMJ. 

Shining, globular, thinnish shells, many of them of great beauty ; 
last whorl envelops greater part of shell ; mouth large and somewhat 
semi-circular or auriform. Shells are umbilicated, i.e., the axis or 
columella round which the whorls are formed is more or less hollow. 

Natica didyma (Bolten) attains a good size, yellow or fawn- 
coloured young shells and apex often with a leaden hue ; easily known 
by a chocolate-coloured callosity nearly covering in the umbilicus, 
this callosity having a central groove running across it. I am indebted 
to Mr. E. A. Smith, of the British Museum, for the information that 
this shell is figured in Reeve's Conchologia as Chemnitzii lamarc- 
kiana, petiveriana, and problematica. 

Natica lineata (Lam.). — White, with irregular, slanting, closely set 
stripes of reddish- brown colour running across the whorls of the 
shell ; umbilical area pure white. 

Natica maculosa (Lam.). — A smaller and very common shell, with 
brown or purple spottings or streaks. When the shell is bleached these 
spots become reddish. 

Natica rufa (Born.). — A plain, yellow-brown shell with a distinct 
band of white running spirally round centre of whorl ; base very 
white. 

Mammilla zanziharica (Recluz.).— A white, oblong, very thin shell, 
with a faint central band of colour on last whorl ; mouth very large 
and auriform ; umbilicus nearly covered in by a long purple or brown 
recurvement of shell. 

CAPULIMl. 

There is one specimen of this curious family which should be men- 
tioned. It [Ergcm walshi (Herm.)] lives inside dead shells and adapts 
itself in shape to its situation like the oysters. It is most often a flat, 
white, oval shell, looking like a bivalve, but the inner side is porcella- 
neous, and has a protruding lip, which forms a cavity and, no doubt, 
serves to protect the vital parts of the animal. 

PLANAXID^E and LITTORIMDiE. 

The authority I am following does not seem to give the former 



THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY SHORE. 218 

family a place by itself, and as the only member of it lives alongside 
the Littorinidce I take them together. 

Planaxis sulcatus (Born.) has been already spoken of. The shell is 
small, thick, dark, and smooth with light streakings, and is strongly 
spirally grooved ; whorls 4 to 5 ; columella flattened, and outer lip of 
mouth ridged inside. 

Littorina ventricosa (Phil.) and L. malaccana (Phil.). — These are two 
minute shells to be found living on the boulders of our shore, even 
above the reach of all tides. L. ventricosa is Natica shaped, dull yellow 
or grey, with incised lines running spirally round the shell. 

L. malaccana is black or dark grey, and easily known by the double 
row of white nodules round the centre of the whorls. 

Division III. 

STROMEUXE. 

There is only one member of this family at all common, the Rostel- 
laria curta (Sow). It is a long tapering shell of 5" to 6", smooth and 
shining ; colour yellow to brown ; outer lip of mouth flattened and 
toothed, and a long pointed canal at the base. 

DOLnm 

Dolium maculatum (Lam.). — The largest and perhaps handsomest 
shell we have, and sometimes bigger than a cricket ball. Last whorl 
nearly envelops the whole shell, and mouth very large ; colour white 
with a touch of purple-grey ; raised bands encircling the shell with 
brown interrupted blotches ; shell thin, polished, and somewhat trans- 
parent. 

TRITONID^. 

Ranella tuberculata (Brod.). — Common and easily known by the two 
opposite varices or ridges running from apex to base, and giving the 
shell a flattened appearance ; whorls 7 to 8, spirally, tubercularly, 
ridged ; mouth rounded and canal distinct ; colour dull brown ; 
when dead reddish-yellow and shining. 

CYPR^ID^.— The Cowrees. 

The shape of these shells is so well known as to need no description. 
All highly polished and rarely obtained as dead shells in a sufficiently 
perfect state for identification, 



219 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Cyprma arabica (Lam.). — About the size of a hen's egg ; easily- 
known by a sort of hieroglyphic writing over the back, interspersed 
with white roundish blotchings. 

Cyprcea pallida (Gray).— Size of a sparrow's egg ; light grey-green 
ground, and finely speckled with brown dots, culminating frequently in 
a dark blotch on the back. 

Cyprcea ocellata (Lam.) and Cyprwa lamarckii (Gray). — The size 
of a pigeon's egg. Former rich yellow ground, and covered with 
white spots, which are frequently pupilled like eyes. Latter greenish- 
yellow ground with larger white spots without pupils. An offshoot 
of this family, Ovula spelta (Linn.) is not very uncommon ; shell 
smooth, white, shining, and somewhat bow -shaped ; aperture long, 
narrow, and produced into a canal at both ends ; length 1 J" to 1|". 

CONIM1.— The Cones. 

Three varieties of this very large family are common here, and the 
name describes their shape. The spire is very short or almost 
immersed ; shell tapering with a long narrow mouth widest at the base. 
The same species may vary much in colour and marking. 

Conus rnonachus (L.). — The largest of the three ; ground-colour 
brownish, frequently much clouded, especially towards the centre, with 
gray-white streakings and blotches ; encircled with dark lines inter- 
rupted in the clouded parts. 

Conus mutabilis (Chem.) is a uniform yellow, dark or light, and 
sometimes with encircling lines. 

Conus lentiginosus (Reeve). — The smallest, sharp-pointed ; raised 
spire ; white with burnt yellow zigzag streakings. 

PLEUROTOMIDiE. 

These are shells with a tall spire and a fusiform (tapering at both 
ends) shape. They have also— which is peculiar to the family — a 
notch in the outer lip of the mouth, near the body of the shell. There 
are several varieties, but only four are common. 

Pleurotoma javana (L.) or nodifera (Lam.).— A dark fawn-coloured 
shell ; whorls angular and noduled at the angle, with whitish knobs ; 
below the angle strongly spirally striated ; length, 2" to 3". 

Pleurotoma fulminata (Kiener). — Smooth, polished, white with rich 
yellow markings. A sort of spiral band formed by the upper part of each 
whorl overlapping its predecessor is a noticeable feature in the shell. 



THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY SHORE. 220 

Pleurotoma athinsonii (Smith), cremdaris (Lam.). — Very common ; 
whitish, rough, with strong tubercles in the centre of each whorl, 
almost forming longitudinal ridges ; spirally striated. Young shells 
often have a brown or grey tinge. Length, 1^" to 2". 

Pleurotoma amicta (Smith,) cincta (Lam.). — A white or dirty white 
chalky-looking shell with an even spire and regular spiral ridges ; 
length, li" to 2". 

MUEICIM]. 

Murex adustus (Lam.). — A black, rather large shell, with large frill- 
like varices, which get quickly worn down in the dead shell. Each 
whorl has three of these varices running down the shell and raised 
humps between them ; mouth, small, oval ; canal produced and almost 
covered over ; general shape fusiform. 

BUCCIMD.E. 

This family and the last are very closely connected, and there are 
many sub-divisions, which are not always placed under the same head 
by Conchological authorities. Any general or leading description of 
these shells is impossible. 

The following are common shells on our sandy shores : — 

Dipsaccus or Ehurna spirata (Lam.) (the ivory shell). — It has a 
thick rough epidermis, beneath which the shell is quite smooth ; colour, 
yellow with large blotches, and zigzag streaks of white or vice versa ; 
whorls 7 to 8 ; upper edge sharp and sloping inwards, forming a sort 
of spiral gutter ; mouth porcellanous ; shape ovate ; spire rapidly 
diminishing. 

Nassa nodifera (Powis) and Nassa omata (Kiener). — Both these 
shells are polished and somewhat similar in shape, but the former is 
much larger. It is of a grey-green or yellowish hue, with an indistinct 
white band running round the last whorl ; whorls about 8, longitudi- 
nally ridged and slightly noduled at the upper part ; mouth rather 
broad at the base and sinus large ; length, 1J" ; breadth, f". 
N. omata is purple-brown with a very distinct white band round the 
last whorl ; base also whitish ; longitudinal ridges stronger and shell 
shorter and stouter ; length, f " ; breadth, ^". 

Cyllenefuscata (A. Ad.). — A beautiful little shell about £" long, thick, 
spire sharply pointed and beaded ; last whorl enveloping greater 



221 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

part of shell ; smooth or slightly ridged longitudinally ; mouth nar- 
row, oval, dark, and ridged inside ; outer lip thickened ; sinus deeply 
eut back ; colour variable — whitish, grey tinged with yellow markings. 

Bullia lineolata (Wood)>— A smooth, shining, thin tapering shell ; 
whorls 7 to 8, grooved towards, the base ; colour yellow with grey 
ting;e, and more or less streaked with longitudinal brown lines ; mouth 
widest at the base/and sinus broad ; length, about f", breadth, §". 

We now come to the Purpuras, which live chiefly amongst the 
boulders of our shore at low tide, mark. 

Purpura bufo (Lain.). — A thick, massive, large shell, generally en- 
crusted with limey matter hiding marking and colour ; spire depressed, 
last whorl enveloping the whole shell nearly, and generally with swollen 
tubercles towards its centre ; mouth large and oval, with a narrow 
but deep sinus at the base ; shell coloured by encircling lines of 
brown. In young shells the colour is a dull yellow with fine encir- 
cling striations. 

Purpura rudolfi (Lam.), persica (Linn.). — Also a large shell ; 
colour light to dark brown with encircling striations and darker raised 
bands, the upper ones being slightly noduled. The bands are blackish, 
interrupted with white oblong spots ; mouth very large ; outer lip 
serrate ; columella flattish and grooved towards the base. A good 
specimen would be three inches long. 

Purpura carinifera (Lam.). — Smaller than the last ; very common ; 
colour light yellow to grey ; chiefly distinguishable by a double row of 
sharp, up ward -pointed tubercles round the upper and middle part of the 
last whorl ; fine cancellated striations ; mouth orange-coloured in- 
side ; length, If" ; breadth, 1£". 

Purpura sacellum (Lam.). — Shell slightly fusiform. The upper 
part of the last whorl and the spire bear a resemblance in outline to a 
pagoda. This last whorl has rows of sharp scaly ridges. Colour yellow 
to brown ; mouth, white ; length, 1£". 

Purpura tissoti (Petit).' — A small shell \" to f" long, with a tallish 
spire, 4'' to 5" broad encircling ridges on the last whorl with an inter- 
mediate narrow ridge ; ridges slightly tubercled and sometimes dark 
coloured. 

(See Mr. Melvill's description and figuring of Purpura Uanfordi.) 



THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY SHORE. 222 

Tritonidea (Cantharus) spiralis (Gray). — Shell has a rough epi- 
dermis, beneath which it is smooth, white and with burnt markings • 
whorls about 7, strongly ribbed, 8 to 9 ribs on last whorl, 3 on upper 
ones ; last whorl undulating, and looking down on to the apex ; the 
shell is hexagonal in outline ; mouth white and porcellanous. 

Urosalpinx contractu (Reeve).— Fusiform, thick, about 11" long and 
|" broad ; spire tall and spirally, closely striated ; old shell, often chalk- 
white ; young brown with dark bandings ; upper whorls prominently 
tubercled, formed in the last into longitudinal ridges ; mouth oval and 
canal distinct. 

Ricinula (Sistrum) tuberculata (De-Blain). — A small but remarkably 
massive shell ; easily known by the strong, dark, rounded tubercles 
standing out of a greyish ground ; mouth purple-tinged, strongly 
toothed inside in the mature shell ; length, f " ; breadth, i". 

Columbella terpsichore (Leathes).— -A small shining slightly fusiform 
shell ; white or light yellow ; longitudinally fluted ; ridges brown 
coloured and shell figured with yellow markings ; mouth narrow ; 
spire sharp ; length, £" to f"; breadth, J". 

OLIVINE. 

Oliva nebulosa (Lam.).— One of the commonest shells on our 
sandy shore ; cylindrical ; sharp-pointed, shining, thick ; mouth, long 
and narrow and widest at the base ; colour, whitish-yellow' with 
fading grey zigzag cloudings and a broad yellow encircling band 
near the base of the shell ; length, 1" to 1J". When bleached, the 
markings become reddish. 

There are two other shells fairly common here, which, though belong- 
ing to none of the families or divisions given, should be mentioned. 

BULLID^E. 

Haminea galba (Pease).— An extremely delicate little oval shell 
transparent white or yellow ; aperture the full length of the last whorl, 
and broadening into an oval at the base ; apex instead of being pointed 
is indented. 

SCAPHOPODA. 

Dentalium longitrorsum (Reeve).— A long slightly curved cylinder 
open at either end; shell white and shining; length, generally 
X" to 2" ; resembles in miniature an elephant's tusk. 



223 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 

By Surgeon-Major K. R. Kirtikar, i.m.s., f.l.s. 

PART VI. 

( With Plate H.) 

{Continued from page 106.) 

TERMINALIA BELLERICA.— (Roxb.) 

(Natural Order — Combretace^.) 

Marathi— BEHEDA fe T , 

A very large tree with rusty pubescence cm young branchlets and 
calyx ; attains a height of 60 — 100 feet ; trunk tall, erect, regularly 
shaped ; branches spreading, forming a coppery-tinted bright, broad, 
massive crown when young ; bright green when old. Youngest 
offshoots beautifully crimson. 

Stem. — " Bark \ inch thick, dark grey, uneven, and tessellated by 
broad longitudinal furrows crossed by short narrow transverse wrinkles, 
the old bark exfoliating in dry corky scales. Wood lightly grey, or 
yellowish, open and coarse grained, easily worked but not durable ; no 
distinct heartwood." — (Brandis.) The girth of the stem is 6—10 feet, 
at times 10—20 feet. 

Leaves. — Exstipulate, alternate, crowded about the extremities of 
branches ; crenulate, pubescent ; when quite young, of a bright reddish 
or copper colour, tinged with bright crimson ; older leaves bright green, 
pale beneath ; broad elliptic or ovate elliptic, 3 — 8 inches long, 2—3 
inches broad ; base often unequal ; the lower margin of the leaf tapering 
as it approaches the petiole, and finally merges into the upper margin of 
the petiole, leaving the petiole slightly grooved on the ventral aspect. 
Apex of the leaf obtuse, refuse usually ; sometimes acuminate, especially 
in the larger leaves ; margin of the leaf entire ; main lateral nerves 
arcuate, prominent, 5 — 8 on either side of the midrib ; often reddish. 

Petiole.— Roundish, longer than ^ length of the leaf. The tree 
sheds its leaves from January to March. 

Flowers. — Small ; male and hermaphrodite mixed on solitary 
simple spikes which are sometimes erect, sometimes bent, sometimes 
drooping ; spikes 3 — 6 inches long, arising from the axils of fresh 
leaves just before or about the same time as the year's tender leaves 
shoot out. Sometimes the spikes shoot out from below the insertion 



Jcarm . B oirib. Nat Hist.Soc . 



Plate H. 




THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 

Ter.mirlalia belerica Nat.Ord. Combretacese . 

(% McUxral Sixe .) 



THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 224 

of the fresh leaf ; not unfrequently from either above or below the 
cicatrix at the insertion of the previous year's leaf. The flowers and 
foliage appear about the commencement of the hot weather. They can 
fee seen in their full beauty in April and May. Roxburgh and Brandis 
condemn the flowers as of a dirty grey or greenish-yellow colour, but 
although they may be unattractive from a distance on account of their 
diminutive size or entire absence of petals, and positively repulsive on 
account of the offensive odour as they open, their bright yellow anthers 
and the crimson streaks on the calyx, variegated with the soft down 
inside and outside the calyx, as clearly seen even under an ordinary 
magnifying glass, are by no means unattractive ; at any rate they are 
not suggestive of any dirtiness in appearance. The offensive smell 
resembles that of Sterculia foetida or of Sterculia guttata. Male 
flowers are usually to be seen on the upper part of the spikes ; they 
are sessile. The hermaphrodite flowers are chiefly confined to the 
lower part of the spike. They have short pedicels. Bracts linear ; 
very early caducous ; of a brownish colour ; not seen at the base of the 
topmost flowers of the spikes. Sometimes two or three flowers arise 
from the same point or base on the spike. 

Calyx. — Deciduous ; free part of the calyx cup-shaped, cleft half 
way into five triangular segments, woolly inside with long whitish- 
crimson hair ; the hair outside is short. 

Estivation — Valvate. Calyx-tube of the hermaphrodite flowers 
above the ovary, with a campanulate mouth ; segments of calyx 
pointed slightly backwards, i.e., towards the dorsal surface. 
Cokolla.- — Absent. 
Stamens. — 10. 

Filaments : — 5 short, 5 long, arranged alternately, inserted 
below the calyx-segments ; the larger ones twice the length 
of the calyx. In the hermaphrodite flowers there is an 
epigynous brownish disc between the stamens and pistil, densely 
hairy. The upper part of the filaments curves over the top 
part of the anther as it thins out into the connective. 
Anthees.— Bright yellow, bold, slightly reniform with convexity 
on its ventral surface ; consisting of two distinct loculi sepa- 
rated below, uniting at the connective ; bursting longitudinally. 
The loculi are joined to the connective at their topmost part 
on their dorsal surface. 



225 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Pistil : — 

Style. — Slender, filiform, tapering at i the apex to half the size it 

has near the ovary, projecting slightly beyond the filaments. 
Stigma. — Simple, a mere depression at the apex, turning brown 
about the time the anthers burst and throw out their ample, 
impalpable offensive-smelling pollen. 
Ovary. — Inferior, coherent with the tube of the calyx, 1-celled, 

always tomentose. 
Ovule. — Pendulous from the apex of the cavity. 
Fruit. — DeCandolle, Eoxburgh, Wight and Arnott, Dymock, Lyon, 
&c, all agree in calling the fruit a " Drupe." Clarke in Hooker's 
Flora of British India discards this name. A drupe, according to the 
signification assigned to the term by modern Botanists, is morphologi- 
cally a different fruit ; and accustomed as I am to the arrangement 
and terminology of Bentley as regards Fruits, I think that the fruit 
of Terminalia better ica being inferiox^ cannot strictly be called a drupe, 
which is a superior mono-carpellary fruit, that is to say, formed of a 
single flower, the ovary of which is made up of a single carpel. Clarke 
calls it drupaceous, and that is a more accurate term for it. The fruit 
is fleshy, indehiscent, \-~ f inch in diameter, ovoid, grey or tan- 
coloured, velvety when young, turning into reddish or deep buff- 
colour as it matures, with five more or less distinct furrows f to 1 
inch long. The skin becomes coriaceous as the fruit grows older ; 
epicarp and mesocarp shrivel as the fruit dries up after it is detached 
from the parent tree. The fruit ripens during the cold season. It is 
so persistent that the fruit which ripened last cold weather can even 
now be seen in the jungles in the middle of May on the trees just as 
they are throwing out the fresh foliage and flower-stalks of the current 
season. 

Nut.— Thick and hard, rough, irregularly coarse-grained, varying 
from \ — f inch in length ; £ — ^ inch at its broadest part, which is 
about the middle. 

Seed. — One, which constitutes the kernel in the nut. The nut 
yields a bland oil and is sweet to taste. 
Albumen. — None, says Clarke, as also Eoxburgh. 
Cotyledons. — Convolute ; creamy white colour. 
Embryo.— Inverse, spiral. 



THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 226 

REMARKS. 

By far the most accurate description I have seen of this plant is 
that given by Brandis (p. 222, Forest Flora of North-West and 
Central India). I have therefore tried to follow him and Wight and 
Arnott as much as possible in the description given above, and the 
remarks that are to follow. 

There is one thing striking about the venation of the leaves of the 
tree. Half-way between the midrib and the margin of the leaf, the 
main lateral nerves on either side of the midrib suddenly swell out 
into longish irregular nodules, assume a deeper crimson tint and 
develop more abundant hair. This is more marked on the older 
green leaves than on the earliest tender crimson ones. So far as I 
am aware this peculiarity has not been specially noted by any observer 
before. 

The observation of Roxburgh, that there are two opposite glands on 
the upper side of the apex of the petiole and sometimes near the base, 
is not borne out by the experience of Wight and Arnott and Brandis. 
I have myself failed to find the glands Roxburgh speaks, of, although 
I have examined several specimens in the plains and hills of Thana, 
and at Matheran. Clarke, in Hooker's Flora of British India, in 
referring to the supposed occurrence of glands on the leaves of 
Terminalia better ica, says that they are often on the petiole, or near 
the base of the midrib beneath. (The italics are mine. — K. R. K.) 
When Clarke speaks of glands on midrib, and on the under-surface 
of the leaf, just near the apex of the petiole, he was evidently thinking 
of or had before him the leaf of A in (Terminalia tomentosa) instead of 
the leaf of Beheda (Terminalia bellerica). I have a specimen of each 
of these plants before me as I am writing this paper. 

DeCandolle says that the petioles are glabrous. Roxburgh also says 
the leaves are glabrous. It is not so. The whole organ is essentially 
tomentose ; so is the flower ; so is the fruit. An ordinary magni- 
fying glass is enough jco show the fine, white or buff coloured hairs or 
down on the petiole, midrib, nerves and their minuter ramifications ; 
on the upper and under-surfaces of the leaf, several weeks after the 
foliage appears. As the leaf gets- older and assumes a brighter green> 
the down on the leaf shrivels. It may then disappear and perhaps the 
oldest and most mature leaves may appear glabrous. That is the only 



227 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

way I can account for the statements of DeCandolle and Roxburgh. 
The down on the petioles is distinctly of a crimson or coppery tint. 

Roxburgh further observes that " the Natives do not use any part 
of the fruit of Terminalia bellerica in medicine." This remark 
appears to be based on scanty information. As a matter of fact, 
Beheda is one of the commonest articles used not only by learned 
Hindu Vaidyas and native practitioners of all sorts, but also as an 
ordinary domestic remedy. It is well known to the natives that 
Triphala is a panacea for all kinds of ailments. 
. Triphala is a combination of three fruits, viz. : — 

JEfirda — Terminalia chebula, 

Beheda — Terminalia bellerica, 

Awala — Phyllanthus emblica, 
vide p. 44, Ark-Prakash, vol. 3, Nighanta Ratnakar. 

These are pounded together, and used in the shape of a powder, 
decoction, or cold infusion. They are valuable for the large quantity 
of tannin they contain. They are valuable as astringents when given 
in combination. The mixture, however, acts as a laxative in children. 
It is generally known to give tone to the intestinal canal. It must be 
remembered that the part of the fruits used medicinally is the rind, not 
the pulp, as is wrongly said, for there is no pulp strictly so-called on any 
of these nuts covering the hard kernel. The kernel of the nut is never 
used medicinally. It is eaten for its sweet taste, sometimes in large 
quantities, as many as twenty-five being swallowed at a time without 
harm. I have heard from several reliable sources that the kernel is 
harmless. From other sources equally reliable I hear that if the 
kernel is eaten in large quantities it acts as an intoxicant. But of 
this more hereafter. Brandis says that the fruit of Beheda is a 
favourite food of monkeys, deer, sheep, goats and cattle. The taste of 
the rind of the fruit is astringent. The taste of the kernel is like that 
of its congener Badam (Terminalia catappa). There is no evidence 
of the kernel of T. catappa ever having produced intoxi- 
cation, eat what quantity of it you like. It is the tannin in the 
rind of the fruit that gives Behedh its commercial value in common 
with its congener the Hirda, as an important ingredient, largely used 
in and out of India for dyeing cloth and leather and for tanning. 
Beheda is also known in the Konkan by the name of Yely&. 



THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 228 

An insipid gum of brown colour exudes from wounds in the bark of 
T. bellerica, in vermicular pieces, about the thickness of the 
finger. " It is hardly at all soluble," says Dr. Dymock, " in water, 
in which it swells up and forms a bulky gelatinous mass." Rox- 
burgh's statement, that the gum is soluble in water, is nearer the truth. 
I have verified it myself and have just at this minute a specimen of 
the gum in water, and I find it is as easily soluble as the ordinary gum 
arabic. Dr. Dymock was not able to verify from personal observa- 
tion the statement of Drury that the gum burns like a candle. From 
my own experience I can say that it does burn and continues to burn 
with a pale reddish flame, and with a spurt and a flash now and then, 
swelling the whole mass out and leaving a charred residue. I have 
tried the experiment just this minute on a fresh 'bit of gum obtained 
from a bark wounded only yesterday. Perhaps Dr. Dymock's speci- 
men of gum was old and dry, and had got rid of its inflammable 
material in the process of drying, as is but natural to suppose. 

Wight and Arnott observe in their Prodromus that " the tree 
known as Terminalia moluccana of Roxburgh and probably of Blume 
(but not of Lamarck) is allied to T. bellerica. It has precisely the 
same kind of fruit and male flowers, but the petioles are short, giving 
quite a different aspect to the plant." 

The flowers of T. bellerica are of offensive odour as I have 
already stated above. I have alluded to an incident at Thana regard- 
ing this offensive odour in a Lecture on Indian Flowers I delivered 
last year before the Sassoon Mechanics Institute of Bombay. Extracts 
from this Lecture have already appeared in the last number of the 
Society's Journal wherein the incident is mentioned. I need not 
therefore repeat it here. 

THE POISONOUS PROPERTIES. 

The kernel of the seed of Behedci is narcotic in its action. Dr. 
Lyon refers in his Medical Jurisprudence (p. 222) to two sets of cases 
of accidental poisoning by it. One set of cases he quotes from Dr. 
Norman Che vers' Medical Jurisprudence as recorded by Mr. C. E. 
Raddock, Sub-Assistant Surgeon of the Malwa Bheel Corps, wherein 
three boys are mentioned as having suffered from poisonous symptoms 
after eating some of the dry nuts. They all recovered however. 
The symptoms in two of the boys were drowsiness, headache, sickness 



229 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol, VIII. 

at stomach and free vomiting of a thick white frothy mucus. With 
regard to the third boy, who was weakly and seven years old, the 
symptoms were more severe. Briefly stated, they were as follows i — 
Total insensibility ; heart's action frequent and weak; legs cold, eyes 
rather glistening, and pupils normal but fixed ; jaw firmly closed. 
This boy had eaten the largest quantity, . it is said between 20 to 30 
kernels. He is said to have played all day and night before going 
to bed. He showed no symptoms of poisoning till the following- 
morning, when he was found insensible. Notice in these cases the 
long time that it took for the poisonous symptoms to show themselves. 
In the first two boys they did not appear till about eight hours after, 
and in the third boy not even in twelve hours. 

The other set of cases referred to by Dr. Lyon are from the 
Bombay Chemical Analyser's Report (187S-79, p. 14), in which a 
woman and two children, one of whom was a weakly girl of eight or 
nine years, were poisoned. Of these, the girl died and the two others 
recovered. The symptoms were nausea and vomiting followed by 
narcotism. Dr. Lyon observes that it is not known to what these 
narcotic properties are clue. In a collection of old Sanskrit obser- 
vations on Indian drugs recently edited by Mr. R. S. Lale under the 
name of Guna Dosha-Prahash (1892, p. 135) the kernel of Beheda 
is referred to as intoxicating, O'Shaughnessy seems to have heard of 
this property. 

From all accounts I have hitherto received, it appears probable that 
the eating of the kernel affects different individuals differently. In 
some it produces intoxication ; in others it is harmless even in large 
quantities. This reminds one of the effect of a variety of Arecha 
catechu or Sup&ri nut, known as Majri Supari has on different 
individuals. Majri means " intoxicating." True to its name in some, 
Majri Supari unmistakably produces giddiness, nausea, hiccup ; where- 
as in others it is perfectly harmless. 

In the printed Proceedings of the Grant Medical College Society for 
the year 1880 (vide Part No. 8, p. 71) there is an abstract of an 
interesting paper recording a case of poisoning by the kernel of 
Beheda seed, which occurred in the practice of Dr. Tribhuvandas 
M. Shah, L.M., then Assistant Surgeon at Mmedabad, now Chief 
Medical Officer of Junagadh State. Dr. Tribhuvandas is one of the 



THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 230 

most accomplished Medical Graduates of the Bombay University. 
He is as careful a clinical observer as he is a skilful and facile 
operator. I cannot, therefore, do better than give in full, with his 
kind permission, the abstract of his notes as published by the Grant 
College Medical Society : — " A child, about five years of age, was 
brought one morning into the Hospital in an insensible condition, the 
parents stating that the child had eaten some of the kernels of the 
nut the previous evening. The parents were dyers and used the nuts 
for dyeing clothes black ; the pericarp was used by them while the 
kernels were thrown away. The Natives are well aware of the 
effects produced by the eating of the kernels. About half a pound 
of the nuts will be eaten before they produce narcotic effect in an 
adult ; the effect is not rapid but takes several hours before it is 
exhibited. The child had apparently gone to bed all right and in the 
morning was found quite insensible. When seen she was totally 
unconscious, the pupils were of natural size, the cornea was insensible 
to touch, breathing was stertorous, body of natural temperature, pulse 
somewhat frequent, jaws partially locked." Emetics, stimulants and 
other remedies were administered. The child, however, died of 
convulsions within half an hour from the time they set in. A post 
mortem examination was made two hours after death. Herein lies 
the value of this paper. The stomach was found somewhat congested 
and contained some greenish black grumous fluid ; the intestines and 
all the other organs were found natural. 

The question that strikes me is : — Is it that the symptoms of intoxi- 
cation or narcotism may be due to small quantities of Hydrocyanic 
acid developed in the kernel of some of the fruits of Beheda ? I 
leave the question to be solved by practical Pharmacologists and 
Chemical Analysers. 

Description of Plate H, 

1. The tender branchlet of T. heller ica with flower-spikes in bud 
and blossom. 

2. The fruit of T. hellerica on the previous year's apical branchlet 

3. A transverse section through the middle of the fruit. The 
outermost brown line showing the downy epicarp ; the green layer 
indicating the mesocarp which contains tannin, and which alone is 
used medicinally ; the next yellowish layer represents the irregular 
hard nut. The central white mass represents the kernel. 



331 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 



LIST OF BIRDS NOTED AT ADEN AND ITS VICINITY. 



By Lieut. H. E. Barnes, m.b.o.u., f.z.s. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 



Gyps fulvus, Gm. 
Neophron percnopterus, Linn 
Falco peregrinus, Tunst. 
Falco Barbaras, Linn. 
Tinnunculus alaudarius, Gm. 
Accipiter nisus, Linn. 
Aquila chrysaetos, Linn. 
Aquila imperialis, Bechst. 
Pandion haliaetus, Linn. 
Haliaetus leucogaster, Gm. 
Melierax polyzonus, Rupp. 
Milvus egyptius, Gm. 
Elanus coeruleus, Desf. 
Strix flammea, Linn. 
Carine, sp. inc. 
Scops giu, Scop. 
Hirundo rustica, Linn. 
Cotyle obsoleta, Cab. 
Cypselus, sp. inc. 
Caprimnlgus, sp. inc. 
Merops cyanophrys.Cab. et Heine 
Merops persicus, Pall. 
Merops, sp. inc. 
Coracias garrulus, Linn. 
Coracias abyssinicus, Bodd. 
Halcyon semi-coaraleus, Fors. ... 
Guculus canorus, Linn. 
Coccystes, sp. inc. 
Centropns, sp. inc. 
Nectarinia metallica, Liclit. 
Upnpa epops, Linn. 
Lanius lahtora, Sykes. 
Lanius nubicus, Licht. 
Lanius, sp. inc. 
Hypocolius ampelinus, Bp. 
Terpsiphone paradisi, Linn. 
Muscicapa grisola, Linn. 
Monticola cyanus, Linn. 
Cercotrichas melanoptera, Hemp 
and Ehr, 



Griffon Vulture. 

Egyptian Vulture. 

Peregrine Falcon. 

Barbary Falcon. 

Kestrel. 

European Sparrow Hawk, 

Golden Eagle. 

Imperial Eagle. 

Osprey. 

White-bellied Sea Eagle. 

Egyptian Kite. 
Black-winged Kite. 
Barn Owl. 
Owlet, sp. 

European Scops Owl. 
Chimney Swallow. 
Pale Crag Martin. 
Swift, sp. 
Goatsucker, sp. 
Bee-eater, sp. 
Egyptian Bee-eater. 
Bee-eater, sp. 
European Roller. 
Long-tailed Roller. 
Arabian King-fisher. 
Cuckoo. 

Crested Cuckoo. 
Coucal. 

Arabian Sunbird. 
Hoopoe. 
Grey Shrike. 
Nubian Shrike. 
Shrike, sp. 
Grey Hypocolius. 
Paradise Fly-catcher. 
Spotted Grey Fly-catcher. 
Blue Rockthrush. 

Blue-winged Chat-thrush, 



BIRDS OF ADEN AND ITS VICINITY. 



232 



40. Argya, sp. inc. 

41. Pycnonotus arslnoe, Hemp and 

Ehr. 

42. Pycnonotus xanthopygus, Hemp 

and Ehr. 

43. Oriolus galbula, Linn. 

44. Saxicola oenanthe, Linn. 

45. Saxicola stapazina, Vieill 

46. Saxicola pleschanka, Lep. 

47. Myrmecocichla melanura 3 Tern.. 

48. Ruticilla, sp. inc. 

49. Prinia, sp. inc. 

50. Phylloscopus, sp. inc. 

51. Motacilla alba, Linn. 

52. Motacilla feldeggi, Michah 

53. Corvus culminatus, Sykes 

54. Corvus corax, Linn. 

55. Dilophus carunculatus, Gm. ... 

56. Hyphantornis galbula, Riipp. ... 

57. Estrelda rufibarba, Cab. 

58. Nuroloncha, sp. inc. 

59. Passer, sp. inc. 

60. Pyrrhulauda melanauchan, Cab.. 

61. Alauda cristata, Linn. 

62. Aloemon desertornm, Stan. 

63. Mirafra, sp. inc. 

64. Treron, sp. inc. 

65. Columba livia, Bonn. 

66. Turtur senegalensis, Linn. 

67. Turtur risorius, Linn. 

68. iEna capensis, Linn. 

69. Pterocles exustus, Tem. 

70. Pterocles lichtensteini, Tem. ... 

71. Caccabis melanocephala, Riipp... 

72. Caccabis chukar, J. E. Gray. ... 

73. Ammoperdix bonhami, Fraser... 

74. Coturnix communis, Bon. 

75. Coturnix delegorguei, Del eg. ... 

76. Turnix lepurana. Smith 

77. Eupodotis arabs, Linn. 

78. Houbara macqueeni, J. E. Gr... 

79. Cursorius, sp. inc. 

80. Squatarola nelvetica, Linn. .„ 

81. Charadrius pluvialis, Linn. 

82. (Edicnemus scolopax, S. G. Gm, 

83. iEgialitis mongolica, Pall. 

84. iEgialitis cantiana, Lath. 



Babbler, sp. 

Hemprich's Bulbul. 

Yellow- vented Bulbul. 
Golden Oriole. 
Wheatear. 
Chat. 

Siberian Chat. 
Black-tailed Rock-Chat. 
Redstart, sp. 
"Warbler, sp. 
Willow Warbler, sp. 
White Wagtail. 
Black-headed Wagtail. 
Jungle Crow. 
Raven. 

Wattled Starling, sp. 
Golden Weaver-Bird. 
Red-shafted Wax-bill. 
Munia, sp. 
Sparrow, sp. 

Black-crowned Finch-Lark. 
Crested Lark. 
Desert Lark. 
Bush Lark, sp. 
Green Pigeon, sp. 
Stock Dove. 
Little Brown Dove. 
Ring Dove. 
Long-tailed Dove. 
Common Sand- Grouse. 
Lichtenstein's Sand-Grouse. 
Large Black-headed Chukor. 
Chukor Partridge. 
Seesee Partridge. 
Common Quail. 
Quail, sp. 
Button Quail, sp. 
Arabian Bustard. 
Houbara Bustard. 
, Courser, sp. 
Grey Plover. 
Golden Plover. 
, Stone Curlew. 
Pallas' Shore Plover. 
Kentish Plover. 



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JOURN: BOMBAY NAT: HIST-. SOC: 




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NEW SPECIES OF "MARINE SHELLS FROM BOMBAY 
Drawn & L/'t/iO. Gov? Pfrotozthco-. Office foorta /893. 



234 

DESCRIPTION OF TWENTY-FIVE NEW SPECIES OF 

MARINE SHELLS FROM BOMBAY, COLLECTED BY 

MR. ALEXANDER ABERCROMB1E.* 

By James Cosmo Melvill, m.a., f.l.s. 

Murex (Ocivebra) bombayanus, sp. nm\ (PI. J, f. 1.) 

M. testa fusiform^ ochraceo-cinereri) spiamata, apice acto, (infract ihus 
septem vel octo, angulai o-ccstatis, ultimo anfractu varicibus veto, in 
medio trinis angulorum ordinibus tra n sversim succincto, aperlurd ovato~ 
oblongd, pallescente, labro intus den,ticulato } canali brevi. 

Long. spec. typ. '61 mill. 

Lat. 16 mill. 

Hab. Bombay, common along the coast (A. Abercrombie % Herford, 
W. T. Blanford) (in Mus. Brit.). Ratnagiri (A. Abercrombie). 

Evidently a very abundant species, and in all probability extending 
some way both North and South of Bombay. The largest of the many 
specimens I have seen measures 85 millimetres longitudinally. It is a 
very uniform species in all stages of its growth, and would appear to 
have been confounded with M. luculentus (Reeve). Its nearest ally, 
however, would seem to be M. cristatus (Brocchij from the Mediter- 
ranean, from which, however, it is quite distinct. Some specimens, are 
pale yellow, with faint brown transverse fascise. 

Pleueotoma (Clavus) pr^eclara, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 2.) 

P. testa pyramidato-fusiformi, percrassa^ pallidS ochracea, anfracti~ 
bus septem vel octo, ad suturas valide impressis, longitudinaliter obliqud 
pluricostatisj transversim regulariter liratis, apertura oblonga simph'ce, 
labro exteriore in medio crassiusculo^ canali brevissima, margine colli* 
mellari obliqui-planato. 

Long. 44 mill. 

Lat. 16 „ 

Hab. Bombay, up the coast (Abercrombie). 

A large, conspicuous species, of which all the specimens before us are 
somewhat worn : not sufficiently so, however, as to efface the sculpture. 

From P. at kinsoni (Smith), crenularis (ham.) } Jlavidula(La,m.) it is 
quite distinct, being more allied to the smaller sacra (Reeve) in my 
opinion, and a member of the sub-genus Clavus rather than Dnllia. 

* Reprinted from the Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society. 
10 



235 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIIL 

As Tryon, however, rightly observes, the subgenera allotted to the 
larger Pleurotomce are not always very well defined. 

Purpura (Stramonita) blanfordi, sp. nov. (PL 1, f. 3.) 
P. testa ovato-fioiformi, crassa, cinereo-carnea, anfradibus qainque, 
longhudin»Uter tub^rculato-costatis, undique transversim regidoritf.r et 
ixrcU liratosulcatis, cost is in medio conspicuti unangulatis, ultimo aufractu 
Una serie tvberculato, apertura oiata, earned, labro extus biangulato 
intus dentiadato, margine columellari recto, simplice. 
Long. 27 mill. 
Lat. 18 „ 

Hub. Bombay and Ratnagiri (A Abercrombie, Ilerford, and also 
W. T. Stanford) (in Brit, Mus.), Kurrachee (Brit. Mus.), {Bhnjord). 

This species would appear common upon the rocks of the West Coast 
of India. We have seen specimens from Kurrachee, and believe the 
small shell occurs in Ceylon. 

'J he two specimens collected by Mr. Abercrombie, one of which is 
fio-ured, are the only ones I have seen quite perfect as regards comple- 
tion of growth. In size it assimilates P. tissoti (Pet.), with which, also 
abundant on these shores, it has been confounded. It is easily to be 
differentiated, since it does not possess the deep bisulcate transverse 
grooving of P. tissoti, nor the revolving raised ridges with small 
nodules equi-distant thereupon. 

Eicinula (Sistrum) subnodulosa, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 6.) 
i?, testa turrita, fasiformi, solidd, apice acuto, anfradibus octo vel 
novem, in medio angulatis, transversim squamato-corrugatis ultimo an- 
fractu bino ordine noduhso, et infra, duobus minor ibus ordinibus nodulo- 
rum succincto, apertura oblovgd livida, labro extus anguluto, intus livido 
denlicuhtto, margine columellari recto. 

Hab. Bombay. {Abercrombie, Herford,) 
Long. spec. typ. 20 mill. 
Lat. 0*20 mill. 

Bearing a little resemblance to the West Indian R. nodulosa (C. B. 
Adams), but the black rows of nodules stand out more prominently 
upon a lighter ground, the interstices between which on the last whorl 
give a semblance of a fascia. The shell is also more elongate than R. 
nodulosa. One of Mr. Herford's specimens is larger than usual (23 
mill.), the smallest with lip perfect, only 11 mill., but the essential 
characters are preserved in each. 



NEW SPECIES OF MARINE SHELLS. 236 

Ricinula (Sistrum) konkanensis, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 5.) 

R. testa pyramidato-fusiformi, solidd, livido cinered, apice attenuate, 
acuto, anfractibus quinque-sex, longitudinaliter plicato-costatis, trans- 
versim nigro-fiodulosisj interstitiis transversim squamulosis, apertura 
ovatd cinered, lahro extus mariculato, intus denticulate), margine colu- 
mellari recto. 

Long. 29 mill. 

Lat. 15 „ 

Hah. Bombay (Blanford, Abercrombie, fyc.'). 

Not unfrequent, Has been hitherto confounded, judging from the 
specimens in the National collection, with R. affinis and R. {Sistrum) 
concatenata (Reeve). 

Ricinula (Sistrum) xuthedra, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 4.) 

R. testa fusiformi, solidd, Iceti flavida, anfractibus sex, longitudinaliter 
cosfatis, costis albonodulosis, transversim inter costas t*nuiliratis, 
aperturd alba, ovaid, labro intus denticulate, apud marginem columel- 
larem trinoduloso. 

Long. 15 mill. 

Lat. 8 „ 

H.ib. Ratnagiri (A. Abercrombie). 

A beautiful yellow-ochraceous species, with longitudinal white no- 
duled ribs, mouth ovate, white, outer lip denticulated within, and two 
or three nodules on the columellar margin. A form on the border- 
land between Sistrum and Engina. Four specimens. 
Engina zea, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 7.) 

E. Psta conico-p>/ramidali, solidiusculd, apice acuto, anfractibus oct, 
transversim nod id is nitidis variegatis arete accinctis, interstitiis duplici 
vA-triplici striatosulcatis, ultimo anfractu longitudinaliter costiplicalo 
in medio transversim albhonato, aperturd ovato-lrigonali, ad basin an- 
gust a, labro externa incmssatej variegate, intus Lirato, et apud marginem 
columAlarem crass i-striato. 

Long. 18 mill. 

Lat. 9-50 „ 

Hah. Bombay (.4. Abercrombie). There are also specimens in Mus. 
Brit., collected by Mr. W. T. Blanford, f.r.s., from the same locality. 

This species has apparently been confounded with E. armillata 
(Reeve), from which it differs both in form .and marking. I have had 



237 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

specimens for more than twenty years lying unnamed in my collection 
and there are others, likewise unnamed, in the British Museum. 

It is a conical, sharp-pointed little shell, acutely broad in the middle 
giving a quadrate appearance to its contour, becoming rapidly attenuate 
at both ends. Round the centre of the last whorl runs a conspicuous 
white median band, formed of white transverse nodules, the rest of the 
surface of the shell being nodulous, and variegated brown and white. 

The mouth is triangular-ovate, outer lip exteriorly variegated, inner 
with small white ridges, and on the columellar margin are several raised 
short white ridges. 

The similarity to grains of maize (^*) suggested the trivial name. 

COLUMBELLA (MiTRELLA) FLAVILINEA, sp. nOV. (Pi. 1, f. 8.) 

C. testa tenui, Icevi, anfractibus sex vel septem, ad suturas subcom- 
pressis, transversim lineis angustis fiavidis, hie illic speciminibus quibus- 
dam interruptis, in aliis continuis, conspicuS decoratis ; apertura oblonga, 
labro exteriore paidlum angulato, intus simplice, Icevi, 

Long. 5 mill. 

Lai 2-50 „ 

Hob. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

Not uncommon ; allied to C. marguesa (Gaskoin), of which one good 
specimen was also found in shell sand from the same locality. The 
shell is small, smooth, ornamented with painting of narrow, usually 
continuous, but in some specimens interrupted, yellow lines. Several 
examples. 

COLUMBELLA (MiTRELLA) EUTERPE, sp. nOV. (PL 1, f. 9.) 

C. testci attenuate, fusiformi, tenui, subpellucida, Icevi, anfractibus 
septem, infra suturas ocliraceo-fiammulatis et albomaculatis, ultimo 
anfractu in medio anguste albo-lineato infra arete brevibus flammis 
ochraceis decorato, aperturci anguste oblonga, labro simplice. 

Long. 6 mill. 

Lat. 2'50 „ 

Hob. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A very few specimens, and those mostly imperfect, have occurred of 
this little Mitrella. Its whorls, seven in number, and quite smooth, 
are ornamented with flame-like zigzag markings at the sutures, and 
extending over the whorls, also ornamented with opaque white marks 
and blotches. In the last whorl there is a pale median transverse line 



NEW SPECIES OF MARINE SHELLS. 238 

caused by the cessation of the above-mentioned flammulate markings, 
which recommence, however, below, towards the base, in many thin, 
almost straight, yellow lines. Mouth simple, narrowly oblong. 

Margin ella (Gibberula) mazagonica, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 10.) 

M. testa ovato-conica, parvct, subpellucida, Icevi, anfractibus quatuor, 
apice obtuso, ultimo anfractu rapidd accrescente, apertura angusta, ob- 
longd, labro exteriore intus denticulato, columella, quadriplicate!. 

Long. 3 mill. 

Lat. 2 „ 

Hab. Bombay. (A. Abercrombie). Very abundant. 

A short stout conical little species, of ivory whiteness, and quite 
smooth, lip denticulate within, and columellar four-plaited. Allied to 
M. minuta (Pfr.) and M. lavalleana (D'Orb.), with neither of which 
it seems exactly to correspond. 

SOLAEIUM (TORINIA) DELECTABILE, sp. HOV. (PI. 1, f. 11.) 

S. testa parva, profundi umbilicata, depresso cornea albescente, deli- 
catida, subpellucida, anfractibus quatuor, gradatulis, xdtimo rapide accre- 
scente, undique tvansversim arete 1 albo-gemmidatis, interstitiis sub lente 
obliquostriatis, circa umbilicum bino gemmularum ordine majorum, niten- 
tium, diposito apertura tenui, labro simplice, fimbriato, subrotundo, apud 
marginem columellarem reflexo. 

Long. 2*50 mill. 

Lat. 3 mill. 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

Two or three specimens of an unusually lovely little semi-transparent 
white species, occurring in shingle and shell sand from Bombay. The 
form is depresso-conical, white beaded, wonderfully closely obliquely 
striated at the interstices between the beading ; this is not distinguish- 
able without a lens. The umbilicus has two rows of beads around it 
one large with coarser gemmulse, very shining ; the other with smaller 
and more delicate granulation. Mouth thin, round, fimbriate, reflexed 
at the columellar margin. 

[N.B. — Another species of Solarium (Torinia), probably new, oc- 
curred with the above, allied to S. virgatum (Hinds). This species is 
white, very depressed, quadrate, with similar transverse raised beading ; 
at the periphery the gemmulse are larger and coarser, as also in the 
last row nearest the umbilicus at the base. Mouth simple, quadrate. 



239 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Apparently quite a young shell. I have provisionally named it 
S. homalaxis, but await further specimens before attempting a full 
description. 

Long. 1 mill. 

Lat. 2*50. „ 
= Hab. Bombay]. 

Amathis filia, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 14.) 

A. testa aciculato-fusiformi, albid&, turritti, semi-pellucente, nucleo apicis 
vitreo, anfractibus septern, Icevibus, ad suturas gradatulis, impressis, infra 
suturas interna lined plicarid circumambiente, apertura oblongd, labro 
simplicej columella s/jiraliter uniplicatd. 

Long. 4 mill. 

Lat. 1*20 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

An attenuate shining white fusiform little species, allied to A. virgo 
(Adams) from Japan ; the mouth is oblong, columella strong, spirally 
plaited. The whorls are turreted, smooth, semi-pellucid, with the 
internal plica showing through as a transverse clouded line just below 
the sutures. Two or three specimens only. 

OSCILLA TORNATA, sp. UOV. (PI. 1, f. 12.) 
[Oscilla tornata, Arthur Adams MSS. inedit.] 

0. testa fusiformi, albidd, anfractibus septem, apud suturas profundi 
canalictdatis, transversim tricostatis, costis binis infra suturas, parvo sul- 
cido intercepto, tertid costa ab his a canali profunda divisa, sicut apud 
suturas, apertura ovatd, albida, subpellucente, labro externo sulculoso , 
extus et intus, columellari conspicu4 et recte uniplicato, 

Long. 3*10 mill. {sp. major is). 

Lat. 1'50 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

This wonderful little transversely sulcate and grooved species has 
some external resemblance to Iraioadia trochlearis (W. T. Blanford), 
but can be at once distinguished by the plicate columella. There are 
four or five described species of this genus, mostly of Mr. Arthur 
Adams' naming, from Japan. In the British Museum is a specimen, 
also from Japanese seas, with the name as above, entirely comparable 
with our shell. He does not seem to have ever described it, as was, 



NEW SPECIES OF MARINE SHELLS 240 

unfortunately, often his practice in his later years, especially amongst 
these smaller and critical genera. The consequence has been to still 
further render unsolved and difficult the nomenclature of these extremely 
beautiful but very microscopic genera and species. 

In 0. tornata the transverse ribs are three in number, two below the 
deeply-channelled sutures, followed by a similar deep groove, and 
then a third transverse costa, just above the suture of the next whorl. 

Three specimens obtained in shell sand. Very rare. 

Pyrgulina callista. sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 13.) 

P. testa delicatula, subpellucida, attenuato-fusiformi, anfractibus sep= 
tern, ad suturas profnnde angulato-canalictdatis, longitudinaliter-costis 
regularibus mbobliqn4 decoratis, interstitiis Ijevibus, idtimo anfractu infra 
suturas tt-ansversim fortiter unilirato, ad dorsum bino lirarum ordine, 
apertura ovato-oblonga, labro quadratulo, ad marginem columellarem 
unipllcato. 

Long. 4 mill. 

Lat. 1-10 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

One of the most exquisite little shells, so far as sculpture is concern- 
ed, that it is possible to imagine. 'J he shell is seven-whorled, deeply 
angularly channelled at the sutures, with raised transverse border at 
either end of the whorl, the borders joined by slightly oblique lirse, 
smooth at the interstices, the last whorl having a conspicuous angular 
transverse border line, and at the back of the shell another parallel to 
this, the lip is subquadrate, and the columellar margin with a very 
conspicuous plait. 

Two or three specimens in shell sand. Very rare. 

Rissoina (Zebina) applanata. sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 16.) 

R. testa alba, nitida, sublcevi, fusiformi, apice obtuso, anfractibus sex, 
convexiusculis, longitudinallter obscurissime costulatis, apertura ovatd, 
abro paullum incrassato, simplice. 

Long. 5 mill. 

Lat. 1*75 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A small smooth white species, allied, no doubt, to R. (Zebina) sublcevt- 
gata of Nevill from the Andaman Islands, but apparently differino- in 



241 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

being indistinctly longitudinally costulate, whilst the R. sublcevigata is 
virtually smooth. 

RlSSOA VERSO VEEANA, Sp. nOV. (PI. 1, f. 15.) 
B. testa parvd, delicatuld, ovato- oblong a, semipellucente, anfractibus 
sex, ventricosis, ad suturas impresses, longitudinaUter subobliqui costatis, 
ad basem anfractus ultimi fere obliteratis, transversim tenuiliratis, aper- 
turd rotunda, labro tenui, simplice. 

Long. 2 mill. 

Lat. 1*20 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A small, very abundant species in shell sand that we cannot find has 
been characterized or described. The longitudinal costse at the base of 
the last whorl are in most specimens only faint or entirely obliterated. 
Alvania mahimensis, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 17.) 

A. testa oblong d, solidd, corrugatd, apice obtuso, anfractibus quinque vel 
sex, longitudinaUter costulatis, costis transversim cancellatis, infra suturas 
et ad basin ultimi anfractus rubrocoloratis, aperturd ovali, labro planu- 
lato, incrassato. 

Long. 2*75 mill. 

Lat. T50 ,, 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A pretty species of Alvania, being lightly longitudinally ribbed, with 
transverse cancellations. Below the sutures there is a red transverse 
band, which also shows near the base of the last whorl ; the lip is 
roundish-oval, solid, somewhat incrassate and flattened. Several speci- 
mens. 

Naticina pomatiella, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 18.) 

N. testd angusU sed profunda umbilicatd, elevato-conicd, subpellucidd, 
albidd, fere Icevi, anfractibus quinque, ad suturas canaliculatis, obscure 
transversim liratulis, aperturd ovatd, labro simplice, apud umbilicum 
paullum reflexo. 

Long. 17 mill. 

Lat. 12 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A curious species, and with the form of Amauropsis canaticulatd 
(Gould). It is narrowly but deeply umbilicated, and apparently 
smooth and white, but under a lens the surface is seen to be very 



NEW SPECIES OF MARINE SHELLS. 242 

delicately transversely grooved. This may be more apparent in a fresh 
specimen, ours being rather worn shells. At the sutures there is a deep 
channel ; the mouth is simple, white within. 

One or two specimens ; rare. 
Cerithtopsis (Seila) bandorensis, sp. nov. (PL 1, f. 19.) 

C. testa attenuatd, brunned, solidd, anfractibus duodecim, ad apicem 
pallidis, transversim quadriliratis, liris rotundis paullum diversis, majori- 
bus minoribus altemantibus, vel binis cequalibus, tertid minore, aperturd 
rotunda, labro simplice, margine columellari recto. 

Long. 7 mill. (sp. maj.). 

Lat. 2 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A plain brown transversely round-ribbed species, a little like Tele- 
scopium fuscum in miniature as regards sculpture, but not so broad 
proportionately as that species, being uniformly attenuate. The apex 
is whitish, whorls about 12, transverse ribs somewhat varying in size 
about four in a whorl. 

Rare. Two specimens only. 

Ctclosstrema solariellum, sp. nov. (PL 1, f. 20.) 

C. testa minutd, albescente, tenui, depressd, profundi umbilicata, an- 
fractibus quatuor, ultimo rapide accrescente, undique transversim tenui- 
liratis, infra suturas binis gemmularum ordinibus decoratis, et ad basin 
circa umbilicum simili modo bigemmulatis, aperturd rotundo-ovatd, labro 
simplice. 

Long. O50 mill. 

Lat. 1-50 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A very small shell, with some of the aspect of a small Torinia ; it 
also, to some extent, resembles C. tatei (Angas), from S. Australia, 
but the double row of gemmules on the lirse below the sutures, and at 
the base, around the umbilicus, distinguish it from that species. 

Not uncommon in shell sand. 

Surely Cyclosstrema is neuter, being instituted by the late Captain 
Marryat, R.N., the famous novelist (who added the study of the 
Mollusca to his many other accomplishments), in 1817, as derived from 
xix\os and t S y>p.*. It has been considered feminine by most writers 
and authors, including Captain Marryat himself. 
li 



243 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

SlPHONARIA BASSEINENSIS, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 21). 

S. testh subconica, oblongd, tenui, Icevi, nigrobrunnea, biradiata, intus 
brunned, ad marginem radiatd. 

Long. 9 mill. (sp. majoris). 

Lat. 6 „ 

Hob. Bombay {Abevcvombie). 

A small subcorneal plain smootbish brown species, with biradiate 
flames round the margin. I had thought this, of which very 
numerous examples occur in Mr. Abercrombie's collections, must be a 
young form of some perhaps well-known species, but I am assured this 
is not the case, Mr. Abercromble having had unusual facilities for 
studying the growth of the species, so very abundant all round the 
Bassein and Mahim coasts. Mr. Edgar Smith also concurs in this 
view, that it is a mature species, and different from the many already 
described, though it presents no very important salient features. 
ILeta abercrombiei, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 25). 

H. testa pertenui, hyalind, lacted, oblongo-ovatd, postice rostratd, 
antice ovatd, gibbosuld, concentfich confevtim undatoplicatd, tumescente, 
cordatel, umbonibus parvis. 

Long. 23 mill. 

Lat. 30 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A most beautiful, delicate, white papyraceous shell, concentrically 
closely wave-ribbed, belonging to a small genus which I do not find 
has hitherto been recorded from the shores of Hindostan, though a 
nearly allied species, i?. grayi (A. Adams), is reported from Borneo. 
From this shell R. abercrombiei differs in its more close and regular 
transverse plications, and the greater delicacy of the shell. It would 
be interesting if, in years to come, an intermediate form between the 
two were discovered on either the Eastern coast of India, or in the 
Malay Peninsula ; it is more than likely other species of this genus, 
hitherto so restricted, will reward the collector. The type, R. canali- 
culata (Gray), is extremely common on the sandy sea coasts of South 
Carolina, and another larger and coarser species, R. californica (Sowb.), 
is an inhabitant of the Western coasts of the United States. R. pid- 
chella (Ad. and Reeve), a very small and delicate form, occurs in the 



NEW SPECIES OF MARINE SHELLS. 244 

Eastern Islands, and a few other species have been described, but are 
hardly known, 

Tbllina kolabana, sp. nov. (PL 1, f. 23). 
T. testa ovatd, albescente, solidiuscula, convened, latere postico valde 
bicarinato, antico oblongo, transversim concentrice lirata, apud umbones 
fere lavi, flavo tinctd, postice aspertx, usque ad marginem ventralem. 
Lat. 27 mill. 
Long. 17 „ 

Hab. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A somewhat thickened shell, as T. balthica (L.) ; white, yellow, or 
orange-tinted at the umboes, convex, distinctly posteriorly bicarinated, 
the concentric lirse becoming very rough and distinct at the posterior 
angle. 

Rare ; only one or two specimens. 

Tellina (M^ra) lecheiogkamma, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 22). 
T. testa albida solidiuscula, donaciformi, postice abbreviata, subobliqua, 
antice elongata, undique concentric^ tenui-lirata, nitida. 
Long. .14 mill. 
Lat. 7 „ 

Hab. Bombay {Abercrombie). 

Apparently not uncommon, but mostly in imperfect condition, half 
valves only. It is like T. pygmcea (Phil.) in shape, but of thicker 
consistency, pure shining white, very finely concentrically lirate, 
posteriorly abbreviate, anteriorly elongate, with some of the appearance 
of a Mesodesma or Donacilla. 

Thracia salsettensis, sp. nov. (PI. 1, f. 24). 
T. testa pertenui, oblonga, alba, postice flexuo so- quadrat a et subrostrata, 
antice ovato-oblonga, valvd sinistra subplanata, dextra convexa, valvis 
ambabus, prossertim sinistra, plicis concentvicis undanter succinctis posticd 
fere applanatis. 
Long. 36 mill. 
Lat. 52 „ 

Hab. Bombay {Abercrombie). 

A remarkably delicate semi- trapezoid species, of which numerous 
single valves were found, but no quite perfect specimen. The left 
valve is almost flattened, with a broad longitudinal depression, inclining, 
posteriorly, almost down the centre of the left valve from the umbo, 



245 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

the right being convex. Posteriorly in both valves, the shell is 
quadratorostrate, anteriorly oblong, the transverse wavy plicae running 
concentrically show this species to belong to that section of the genus 
of which at present there are only, including this new species, four 
representatives known to me, viz. : T. magnified (Jonas), T. plicata 
(Desh.), and T. granulosa (Ad. and Reeve), the former of them being 
Californian, the latter Eastern species. 



N.B. — The types of all the abovementioned new species have been 
deposited in the Mus. Brit., South Kensington. 

REFERENCES TO PLATE. 



1. Murex (Ocinebra) bombayanus (Melv.). 

2. Pleuvotoma (Clavus) prosclara (Melv.). 

3. Purpura (Stramonita) blanfordi (Melv.). 

4. Ricinula {Sistrum) xuthedra (Melv.). 

5. „ ( „ ) konkanensis (Melv.). 

6. „ ( „ ) subnodulosa (Melv.). 

7. Engina zea (Melv.). 

8. Columbella {Mitrella) fiavilinea (Melv.). 

9. „ ( „ ) euterpe (Melv.). 

10. Marginella (Gibberula) mazagonica (Melv.). 

11. Solarium (Torinia) delectabile (Melv.). 

12. Oscilla tornata (A. Adams, sp. inedit) (Melv.). 

13. Pyrgulina callista (Melv.). 

14. Amathis filia (Melv.). 

15. Rissoa versoverana (Melv.). 

16. Rissoina (Zebina) applanata (Melv.). 

17. Alvania maliimensis (Melv.) 

18. Naticina pomatiella (Melv.). 

19. Cerithiopsis (Seila) bandorensis (Melv.). 

20. Cyclosstrema solariellum (Melv.). 

21. Siphonaria basseinensis (Melv.). 

22. Tellina (Maira) lechriogramma {Melv.). 

23. „ kolabana (Melv.). 

24. Thracia salsettensis (Melv.). 

25. Rceta abercrambiei (Melv). 



240 

REVIEW. 

* The Travels of Pietro Della Valle in India. 

Pietro Della Valle, a noble Roman, travelled much in Asia in 
the early sixteen hundreds and wrote log-letters to his friend Dr. 
Mario Schipano, of which he published those relating to the Ottoman 
Empire himself and his sons those about Persia and India. 

The present volumes contain only the eight letters about India, and 
induce one to hope that the Hakluyt Society will some day give 
us the others ; for these before us fully justify the high praise 
bestowed on the author by no less authorities than Gibbon, Southey, 
and (a more competent judge than either) Sir Henry Yule. 

In this place we can only deal with his remarks upon Natural His- 
tory, chiefly botany. 

Della Valle sailed from Gombroon, near what we now call Bandar 
Abbas, on the 19th January, 1623, aboard " the ship called The Whale," 
commanded by Captain Nicholas Woodcock, whose consort, as be- 
fitted, was called The Dolphin, Master Matthew Willis. Of these ships 
and their commanders it may be noted that they were cheerful and 
hospitable. Captain Woodcock had a pair of Persian greyhounds on 
board, and sometimes, when becalmed near land, took them ashore 
for sport. 

He had ranged as wide as his totem-bird, having sailed to Green- 
land, and Della Valle greatly praises him as a navigator. Woodcock 
showed him a " chart or draught of the whole straight of Ormuz made 
by himself with the highest exactness," including shoal soundings. 
And he held every day at noon a navigation class of " twenty or thirty 
mariners ; masters, boys (? masters' boys, which seems more likely), 
young men, and of all sorts:' The italics are the Reviewer's. Some of 
our sea-faring members may perhaps add a manuscript note of deserved 
admiration. Della Valle does not spare his, and contrasts the English 
practice strongly with the childish selfishness of the Portuguese pilots who 
made their art a mysterious monopoly. " This," says he, " is the reason 
that their ships frequently miscarry," and goes on to say worse of the 



The TrayeiB of Pietro Delia Valle in India from the old English translation 
ol 1M>4, by G. Havers ; in two volume?. Edited, with a life of the author, an intro- 
duction and notes, by Edward Grey, late B.O.B., London, Hakluyt Society, 1892. 



247 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

degenerate countrymen of Henry the Navigator. But he has already 
taken us too far out of our own province. 

On board The Whale, however, he saw one thing there and here 
appropriate — a bit of a narwhal's tusk — which the wandering Wood- 
cock had dug up in Greenland ; and we learn, casually, that Wood- 
cock's employers stood out for over £2,000 sterling for the whole tusk ; 
but were disappointed, and only got, in the end, about £1,200 — 
a good price, one would say now, for 100 such tusks. 

On the 24th of January " began to be seen in the sea abundance of 
things which I (Delia Valle) took to be snakes," and which probably 
were sea-snakes, although his shipmates and his Editor would not 
have it. 

On the 4th February they sighted land " which the English call 
Terra di San Giovanni," that is, they called it then, as now, the High- 
land of St. John. The Editor calls it a promontory, but it is a 
mountain six miles inland. The forest on the top is still very jealously 
preserved, lest the appearance of this important landmark be altered. 

On the 10th February, they cast anchor " in sight of the port of 
Surat," that is, as the subsequent text clearly shows, in " Swally 
Koads" off the mouth of the Tapti. 

As in many other cases, so in that of Surat, travellers and navi- 
gators used the name of marts far up shallow rivers or estuaries as 
if they were at the mouths ; and hence has arisen much of the lament- 
ation about the shoaling of Indian ports, which do not now, and 
never did, float a large vessel fairly laden. 

When our traveller got ashore, he and his friends in vain required 
" coaches" to carry them to Surat, and he observes that " the oxen 
which draw the same are fair, large, white, with two bunches like 
those of some camels." The Editor says that " two-humped oxen are 
occasionally found." But a better explanation is in Delia Valle's own 
next sentence, where he says, " To the seaside came no coach." The 
sentence is a diary-entry made from hearsay before he had seen a 
Gujarat bullock. 

After a day or two, he got " coaches" and went to Surat, where 
every one made a welcome guest of him. What he did for them if 
they called upon him at Rome on his return, some of us can conjecture 
from experience. 



REVIEW. 248 

The first thing in our way that he saw there was " a great and fair 
tree, of that kind which 1 (Delia Valle) saw in the sea coasts of 
Persia, called there Lul, but here Ber." Then follows a description of 
a Banyan tree, and of a little temple of " Parvete" (Parwati) under- 
neath it. Mr. Grey thinks that this was the famous " Kabir Bar," 
but that is not near Surat but near Broach. 

The tree Pietro had seen in Persia was probably the great Banyan 
of Gombroon, but without his earlier letters we can only guess at 
this. " Lul" or " Luli" is a Kolaba name for an imported Ficus 
resembling F. bengalensis in habit, but with paler and more acuminate 
leaves and bright orange fruit. There are one or two fine specimens 
on the Esplanade at Tanna, where the ways part for Calcutta and 
Madras. 

Our author's next botanism is as good a description of u Pan- 
supari" as any of us could give to-day, and a page or two further on 
he describes " Trees of this climate, namely, Ambe, or, as others speak, 
Manghe, before described by me in my last letters from Persia, in 
the maritime parts whereof I saw some trees of this kind." Are 
there Banyans and Mangoes in the hot coast-belt of Persia now ? 

Again, he notes that there is no flax in India, and is taken up by his 
Editor, because Linum usitatissinum is common. But the traveller 
was right, for he was talking only of the fibre, which is not yet 
used in India in spite of repeated experiments (quorum pars ego 
magna fui). From Surat Delia Valle went to Broach and did not see 
the great Banyan tree, but did drink " Tari, which is a liquor drawn 
from the nut-trees of India ; whitish and a little troubled ; of taste 
somewhat sourish and sweet too, not unpleasing to the palate * * 
yet it inebriates as wine doth if drunk immoderately." If you do not 
believe our traveller, ask the Commissioner of Customs or his 
dear friend Mr. Dantra. He noted (not Mr. Dantra, but Pietro) 
that in the neighbourhood was a mine of " calcidoines and agates," 
of which most went to " Cambaia," as they do to-day. 

Then he marched North " to an arm of the sea, or, to speak better, 
to the inmost part of the Gulph of Cambaia, directly where the Eiver 
Mahi falls into the sea, in which place the flux and reflux of the sea 
is more impetuous and violent," &c, &c. ; and then follows as good 
an account of the Bore of the Mahi and its fords as is in any modern 



249 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

work, and a correction of the contemporary geographers who would 
empty the Indus into the Gulf of Cambay. 

Passing the Mahi, Pietro got to Cambay, where his observations, 
though accurate and interesting, were outside of our province. 

Then he marched to Ahmedabad, and saw on the way, as he 
would to-day, " abundance of monkies " and " high hedges of a plant 
always green and unfruitful, not known in Europe, and having no 
leaves (this was in March), but instead thereof covered with certain 
long and slender branches, almost like our sparagus, but bigger, 
harder and thicker, of a very lively green ; being broken they send 
forth milk like that of immature figgs, which is very pernicious 
to the flesh wherever it touches. The Editor very modestly says, " Pro- 
bably a species of Euphorbia? Had he ridden in the Charotar, the 
" Garden of Gujarat," where Delia Valle saw the hedges, he would 
have had no doubt about Evphorbium veriifoh'um, the "prickly 
milk-bush," cultivated in those parts to a perfection that has twice 
called for British Artillery to batter down the living walls of predatory 
villages. 

Our traveller saw many things worth note in Ahmedabad, but 
chiefly in respect of " Homo sapiens " and without our present scope. 

On his return he marched to Cambay by Barejri and Sojitra, 
where he saw " Batts as large as crows." It seems a little odd that 
he had not noticed the " Flying Foxes " before. The Editor on this 
subject tells us that bat is derived from a (presumably Saxon or 
Danish) verb " blaka " = to flutter. At Cambay Delia Valle again 
observed the " bore " of the Gulf, and preserved a specimen of a 
flower, " very odoriferous, which they call CiompaV' There is nothing 
else to show which of all our " Champas " this was, but one would 
suppose that it was the " Hirwa Champa," an Uvaria, because it 
alone of them has no other merit than its scent. On the 7th of March 
the Kafila again passed the Mahi with some danger from the bore, 
which did not prevent Pietro from noticing many flamingoes ; " and" 
(says he) " I think they are those of whose beaks Mir Muhammad in 
Spahan (Ispahan) makes bowrings for the kings." The Editor has 
missed the point of this observation by supposing the " bowring " to be 
a part of the bow. It is, or rather was, a guard for the left thumb of the 
archer against the stroke of the bowstring, and could very well be 



REVIEW. 250 

made of a flamingo's " upper jaw." The Kafila got safe to Broach and 
Surat without further adventure or observation in our way of 
business. 

On the 26th of March, Delia Valle was at Daman ; and beginning 
to be puzzled by the creeks of the Konkan, but " Time and better 
observations " enabled him afterwards to interpolate in his log-letter 
a very good account of them. At Daman he "first tasted at the 
(Jesuit) father rector's table many strange Indian fruits * * and 
others which * * * were * * brought into East India from 
Brazil or New Spain, namely, Papaia, Casa or Cagiu, Giambo, Manga 
or Amba and Ananas. This list apparently refers to both the Indian 
and imported fruit, and the Editor rather unnecessarily remarks that 
the mango is a native of India, and identifies the Giambo with 
Eugenia jambolana, the common jambul tree of our forests and 
roadsides. 

Delia Valle's previous remarks about the mango show that he 
needed no correction about it, but his first tasting it in a Portuguese 
convent at Daman on the 26th of March is very natural. Nowhere 
north of that was he likely to get an eatable mango so early, if, indeed, 
there was at that time a tolerable mango in all Gujarat, which may be 
doubted. There are but few gardens there now that produce such. 

The Giambo was probably a rose-apple (E. jambos), for Delia Valle 
could not be expected to find the harsh sloes of E, jamholana even 
" passably good." The other three are all imported trees. 

Touching at almost every port on the coast, including the modern 
Bombay-Mahim, but not Bombay proper, our traveller got to Goa 
on the 8th of April, having made no observation on the way that 
can be noticed here, but a great many that would be very interesting 
matter for a more general review. 

Pietro Delia Valle sailed from Goa on the 14th October, 1623, and 
got out of the river the next evening, sailing south coastwise. At 
" Onor " he saw a spring which he calls " Ram tirt," and which is 
probably to be seen there still. " The water was hot, to wit not cold," 
and " within it are small fishes which use to bite such as come to swim 
there, yet without doing hurt because they are small." Little fishes in 
many Indian waters do the like, to the great discomfort of an occa- 
sional " Griffin." 
12 



251 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII 

On the 31st October our traveller left " Onor " (Honawar) and got 
to " Garsopa" (Gersappa) along with a Portuguese Envoy bound for 
the Court of (i Venktapa Naieka," a chief then important thereabouts. 
The country was, as usual at that season, looking its best, and " this 
journey was one of the most delightful passages that ever I (Delia Valle) 
made in my life." The next day they " began to climb up a mountain 
which the country people call Gat, and which divides the whole 
length of this part of India." They halted at a fort " sometimes 
called Garicota, but now Govarada Naghar," where the schoolmaster got 
Delia Valle to examine the school ; just what would probably happen 
to him there to-day. 

On the 4th they were ferried over the " river called Barenghi," 
which " they say is one of those which goes to Garsopa." It is very 
odd that no one seems to have told Delia Valle anything about the 
falls of Gersappa when he was so near them ; but his comrade, the 
Portuguese Envoy, does not seem to have been a very welcome guest ; 
and probably every one concerned wanted to keep the whole party as 
much to the shortest way as possible. Under this day's date our 
traveller records " many trees of myrobalanes ;" and gives an unmis- 
takable description of the emblic myrobalan. At least one would 
have thought it unmistakable if the Editor had not suggested an- 
other identification. The myrobalans, says Delia Valle, were " such 
as are brought into Italy, preserved in sugar. It hath leaves much like 
that plant which produces gum Arabick, by me formerly described " 
(an African Acacia), " different only in this, that in that of gum 
Arabick the branch, consisting of many leaves, is much less round or 
oval, and seems one leaf made up of many long and narrow ones ; but 
in this myrobalane tree the branch" (leaf) " is sufficiently long, and the 
small leaves composing it in two rows on each side are somewhat 
larger. Nor is the myrobalane tree prickly like that of gum Arabick. 
The fruit is round, hard, of a yellowish green, smooth, shining, of 
little pulp, and furrowed with six circular lines." 

On the 6th they got to Ikkeri, but Delia Valle's observations here 
are chiefly outside our province* He mentions that "Giacche" (Jack- 
fruit) were presented to the envoy as " a fruit very rare at this time " 
(November) and brought from far distant places. In Western India 



REVIEW, 252 

the height of the Jack-fruit season is in May and June, but this 
year the crop was late (1623). 

Our traveller made two observations for the latitude and found it 
at the second and best to be 13° 54' 20". The Editor gives it (from 
the Gazetteer) as 14° T 20". So Delia Valle's observation was not a 
bad one for an amateur of the 17th century. He got tired of the 
place before the Envoy's business was completed, and left it on the 
23rd November. He had procured by order " a little book written in 
the Canara language, * * * not of paper, which they seldom use, but 
of palm leaves, (to wit) of that palm which the Portugals call Palmum 
brama, ?'„ e., wild palm, and is of that sort which produces the Indian 
nut, for such are those commonly found in India, where palms that 
produce dates are very rare." The whole passage is very true, but has 
somewhat puzzled the Editor, not accustomed, as some of us are, to 
talk of " brab trees." The Portuguese term " Palmeira Brava" has 
got slightly corrupted in text and note, but the plant meant is cer- 
tainly Borassus flabelliformis, which does bear an edible Indian nut, 
though not so large or good as a cocoa-nut. 

On the 26th, Delia Valle arrived at " Lower Barselor of the 
Portugals," and on the 27th he " imbarqu'd" for Mangalor. 

On the way they landed a "party on St. Mary's Isles, still so 
called, to take wild pigeons, " wherewith we made a good supper." 
The Editor identifies these with the Primeira Rocks, but there seems 
to be no reason for doubting the correctness of the traveller's nomen- 
clature, nor the persistence of so simple a name which is on 
our Admiralty charts and sailing directions. (West Coast of Hindus- 
tan Pilot, 1891 ; page 163.) 

Pietro Delia Valle's great object at Mangalor was to visit Banghel 
and Olala, places now of no resort to globe-trotters, but important 
in the Portuguese local politics of the day. The latter was famous, 
indeed, for the spirit and wisdom of its ruler ; a lady whom he saw 
in a very informal way, and by no means in full dress. " In brief, her 
aspect and habit represented rather a dirty kitchen wench or 
laundress than a delicate and noble queen, whereupon I (Delia Valle) 
said within myself ' Behold, by whom are routed in India the armies 
of the King of Spain, which in Europe is so great a matter.' " He 
" imagined," however, that she had been handsome in her youth, and 



253 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII, 

she was certainly very frank and civil to him. Her son, whom she 
kept in tutelage, asked Pietro to pot-luck, which (as the dynasty was 
Hindu) he had to take alone, and gives the menu : — " Bice served on 
a plantain-leaf, ' very good butter melted ' (ghi), ' and a quantity 
of a certain red herb called by the Portuguese Bredo (which yet is 
the general appellation of all sorts of herbs)." 

The Editor supposes this to have been the tomato, but it was more 
probably a red amaranth. Several plants of this order are "lal baji" 
in Hindustani and " bredo " to the Goanese at this day. There were 
also pickled bamboo shoots and " several fruits " undescribed. There 
was not time to get up a good curry, but the traveller takes this oppor- 
tunity to describe it very well. On the 19th he sailed from Mangalor 
for Calicut and Cannanore and thence returned to Goa, without 
adventure in our line, except that they had to anchor amongst 
St. Mary's Isles, " whence some men that went ashore brought me 
some jasmen of a very goodly scarlet colour, but for smell it had 
little or none at all." The Editor supposes this to have been Bigno- 
nia venusta ; and quotes the remark " attributed to a late Financial 
Member of Council," that " India is a place where everything 
smells except the flowers ! ! " As for the flower, it was Ixora 
bandhuka* and as for the joke, its better known attribution is All 
Baba'sj viz. to " some jack-ass." 

After his return to Goa our traveller noted a Cannella " as big a 
tree as any" and exotic (pellegrino), which the Editor identifies with 
Canella Alba of the West Indies. It had a yellow flower " used by the 
country people instead of saffron" and the leaves had " a taste of 
cinnamon and (were) pleasant to masticate." He preserved some ; 
*' as also of the Arbor Tristo, with its odoriferous flowers ; which 
blow every day and night and fall off at the approach of day," — 
our well-known Parijataka (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis). " Moreover, 
I saw and observed in the Lake," says he, " two sorts of flowers, one 

* Now usually entered as J. coccinea. The synonym iandhuha is used here as 
more intelligible to many native members. The gardeners' trivial name is 
" Bakawli," but is shared with other plants. A bush with handsome bunches of 
bright red flowers, not a true jasmine, though the flowers are sufficiently like 
jasmine blossoms in shape to justify Pietro. Brandis, and Watt following him, call 
this bush " Flame of the Wood ;" but it is not a plant of the woods, rather of waste 
places and hedges. Our " Flame of the Forest" is Butea frondosa. 



REVIEW. 254 

great, the other very small, both white with something of yellow 
in the midst ; the lesser hath no green leaves on the stalk to be seen, 
and the inner part of the white leaves" (petals) " is full of thick and 
long down. The greater flower hath smooth, long and strait petals ; 
and grows on a plant whose leaves are large and almost perfectly 
round, floating on the surface of the water. Both these flowers have 
a strange property ; in the night they are always closed," &c, &c. 

" Evidently two kinds of Lotus," says the Editor ; and both plants 
are called lotus. He is less happy in identifying them as of genus 
Nelumbium, for the round floating leaves are evidence that the larger 
was Nymphcea lotus, those of Nelumbium stand, above the water ; on 
strong stalks well able to bear their weight. 

The little flower is the " Cotton-lotus," Limnanthemum indicum, 
which is not a lily or lotus at all, but a gentian. Delia Valle, we 
think, was wrong in supposing that it closed at night ; probably 
misinformed. However, he has in this, as in other cases, left to us 
from the early sixteen hundreds a specific description recognizable 
to-day. This is his last, as soon after writing it he sailed for Europe, 
where, though he did not exactly " live happily ever afterwards," he 
lived long enough to marry (being already a widower) and beget no 
less than fourteen sons. One would be very glad indeed of a little 
more of his correspondence. 



THE MANAGEMENT OF ANIMALS IN THE CALCUTTA 
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS.* 
The project of establishing a Zoological Garden in Calcutta was mooted as 
far back as 1842 by Dr. McClelland, the Curator of the Bengal Asiatic 
Society's Museum, who formulated a plea for its foundation in the pages of 
the " Calcutta Journal of Natural History " for that year. But this scheme 
as set forth in his article, did not attract any notice at the time. The subject 
was again taken up by an anonymous writer, and discussed in the pages of the 
" Calcutta Review " for 1866 in an article entitled " The Indian Museum and 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal." In this article the writer advocated the estab- 
lishment of a State-aided zoological collection in Calcutta, which would not only 
serve the purposes of a place of recreation to the public, but also be a scienti- 
fic institution where the habits and instincts of the brute creation might be 



* A hand-book of the Management of Animals in Captivity in lower Bengal by Ram Brarna 
Sanyal, Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, Calcutta, Published at the Bengal Secretariat 
Press, Price Rs, 5, 



255 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

observed and recorded, and exotic animals acclimatised. No notice, appear s 
to have been taken, at the time, of this admirable proposal. In 1867 
however, Dr. (now Sir) Joseph Fayrer, then President of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, formulated a scheme: for the foundation of a Zoological Garden 
in the British Indian metropolis, and his proposal seems to have met with a 
favorable response from the Calcutta public, who promptly came forward 
and raised a large amount of money by subscription ; but, as no suitable site 
for the location of the institution could be found at that time, the scheme 
was temporarily shelved. In 1873 Mr. Carl Louis Schwendler, electrician to 
the Government of India, and a gentleman well-known for his ardent love of 
natural history pursuits, again brought the subject forward and submitted a 
scheme for establishing a public vivarium, and for acclimatising foreign 
vertebrates in Calcutta, to the Bengal Government and the Council of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society. A sub-committee, composed of the members of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal and of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society 
of India, was formed to consider Mr. Schwendler's proposal ; but, as in 1 867, 
the scheme was once again placed in abeyance, as no suitable site could be 
found. Mr. Schwendler's suggestions were again taken up for consideration 
during the regime of Lord Northbrook ; and Sir Richard Temple, then 
Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, not only highly approved of the scheme, but 

adopted it. 

It was mainly through Sir Richard Temple's liberal assistance and Mr. 
Schwendler's warm advocacy, indomitable perseverance and determination, 
that the Calcutta Zoological Gardens became a fait accompli in 1875. The 
Government of Bengal liberally granted two tracts of land, situated on the 
sides of the Belvedere Road, south of the Zeerut Bridge, at Alipore, for the 
location of the institution, and sanctioned an annual grant of Rs. 20,000 for 
the purchase of animals and the maintenance of the gardens in a state of 
efficiency, and also appointed an Honorary Committee of Management to admin- 
ister the affairs of the institution. To the menagerie, then in a state of infancy, 
Mr. Schwendler presented his private collection of animals, birds and reptiles, 
and these formed the nucleus of the splendid display of indigenous and exotic 
vertebrates which now adorns the Calcutta Zoological Gardens. It was on 
the 1st January, 1876, that the first sod was turned by H. R. H. the Prince of 
Wales who was then in Calcutta ; and the Calcutta Zoological Gardens were 
formally opened to the public on the 1st of May of the same year. Thus this 
institution, which was established, as is stated in the original prospectus issued 
in 1875 under the sanction of Government, for the purpose of developing and 
displaying the zoological wealth of the country, and facilitating the acclima- 
tisation, domestication, and breeding of animals, and improving the indi- 
genous breed of cattle and farm-stock, has now been in existence for seventeen 
years. 

In the eyes of both God and civilised man, we owe a responsibility to the 
dumb creatures whom we bring from their native wilds and place in durance 



REVIEW. 256 

vile, in order to minister to our curiosity and instruction. It is our bounden 
duty not only to supply them -with food and shelter, but also to see that they 
are provided with proper accommodation for comfort ; that they get the diet 
which Nature has appointed for them, or, where that is difficult to procure, 
the nearest approach to it possible, and that they have ample space for exer- 
cise, and abundant air. The more complete the arrangements for their 
comfort, the roomier and airier the place in which they are confined, the more 
they are placed amidst surroundings resembling those of their native wilder- 
nesses, the happier and healthier they will be, the longer they will live, and 
the greater will be the amount of the amusement and instruction to be derived 
from inspecting them and observing their habits and instincts. 

Since the gardens were established, the Managing Committee of the institu- 
tion have not only tried, as far as lay in their power and their financial 
resources allowed, to discharge the duties above mentioned, but have also 
attempted to carry out the objects set forth in the original prospectus with 
more or less success. They have adopted and introduced the latest improve- 
ments in menagerie-architecture, in order that the animals under their charge 
may have commodious quarters, have called in the aid of medical science to 
cure them of the ills that brute-flesh is heir to, and, as far as practicable, 
have placed them amidst surroundings resembling those of their native haunts. 

During the period of seventeen years during which the Calcutta Zoological 
Gardens have been in existence, the Committee of Management has acquired 
a great deal of experience in managing, in health and sickness, the various 
animals, both indigenous and exotic, that have, from time to time, been exhi- 
bited. The work under review embodies this experience, and sets forth the 
methods by which dumb creatures in captivity should be treated in health and 
sickness, and the best ways of providing them with comfortable accommoda- 
tion and with the most suitable diet. The idea of writing the present work 
was suggested by His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, in his Reso- 
lution on the Report of the Honorary Committee for the Management of the 
Calcutta Zoological Gardens for the year 1888-89, published in the Calcutta 
Gazette of the 9th October, 1889, wherein he gave expression to the following 
opinion : "As the Zoological Gardens have now been in existence for 13 years 
(since 1875-76), it is presumable that many events have taken place among 
the large number of animals, birds, etc., exhibited from time to time, which 
would be of interest to the scientiflc world and to persons interested in 
zoology ; also, that considerable experience must have been gained in the 
management of animals, birds, etc., in confinement, and their treatment in 
sickness which would be of practical use to the managing bodies of other 
zoological gardens and to individuals who have private collections. Sir 
Steuart Bayley is strongly of opinion that it is incumbent on all persons who 
keep animals in captivity to avoid, as far as possible, anything like cruelty 
(such as want of space or air, proper food, or cleanliness) in their treatment, 



257 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VI II. 

and he recognises that the Zoological Gardens' Managing Committee set an 
excellent example in this respect. He would venture to suggest that from the 
records of the Committee and the recollections of their able Superintendent 
it would be possible for them to produce a hand-book, which might be of 
great use to the numerous nobles and other persons who, on a smaller scale, 
keep collections of animals or birds in captivity." 

A meeting of the Committee of Management was convened on the 2nd April, 
1890, for the purpose of considering the suggestion embodied in the Lieutenant- 
G-ovemor's Resolution ; and, as the result of its deliberations, it recommended 
the appointment of a Sub-Committee for the purpose of giving effect to it. 
A Sub-Committee was accordingly formed ; and, after mature consideration, 
it drew up a plan for writing the suggested work. It is on the lines adopted 
by the Sub-Committee that the present hand-book has accordingly been 
prepared by Babu Ram Bramha Sanya'l, the Superintendent of the Gardens, 
under the supervision of Mr. C. E. Buckland, as., one of the members of the 
Committee. For the purpose of writing this work, the author, as he informs us 
in the preface, has had to prosecute a good deal of original research in the 
shape of examining the collection of the vertebrata in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, for the purpose of identifying the little-known forms. 

The work consists of two parts, preceded by an admirably drawn up table 
of contents, containing a list of all the species of animals that have been 
exhibited in the Gardens up to the present time, classified under their re- 
spective orders, families, genera, and species. The first part treats of the 
mammalia, and the second of the aves, or birds. The reptilia, which would 
have formed the third part of the present work, could not be included in it ; 
for the author informs us that, " as a considerable portion of it was already 
in type when we commenced the New Reptile House, we did not, after all, 
think it worth while waiting longer to incorporate the reptiles in the present 

edition," 

The work has been drawn up on an admirable and exhaustive plan, for 
under the heading of each species of animal, its nomenclature, both scientific 
and vernacular, and habitat are first given ; in the next place the length of its 
life in captivity in the Gardens ; then its treatment in health ; then its 
treatment in sickness ; and, last of all, the observations made in the Gardens 
on its habits and instincts, supplemented, in some cases, by a list of the 
authorities who may be consulted for further information regarding it. 

Under the heading of treatment in health, suggestions, based upon ex- 
periences gained ia the Gardens, as to the best way of housing, feeding, and 
transporting animals in captivity, as well as remarks regarding their breeding in 
the Calcutta Zoo, are given. With reference to housing animals in captivity, it 
may be observed that the old idea of keeping captive wild animals in small 
cramped cages and dens still prevails in this country among Indian chiefs and 
nobles who maintain menageries on a miniature scale. Even in England, this 



REVIEW. 258 

idea, inherited from the Tower Menagerie and the various itinerant wild-beast 
shows, prevailed, even in such an excellent and well managed institution as the 
Zoological Society of London during its earlier years. 

This practice of keeping animals in dark, narrow and ill-ventilated cages 
remained in vogue in this country till May, 1876, when the Calcutta Zoological 
Gardens were opened to the general public. Since then, the Indian public 
have had ample opportunities for realising the inhumane character and the 
unhealthy effects of the practice, by comparing the emaciated and sickly looks 
of animals in private menageries with the sleek appearance and improved 
health of the inmates of the Calcutta Gardens, due no doubt to the improved 
method adopted by the Managing Committee of providing them with com- 
modious, airy, and substantial buildings, suited to the habits of particular 
groups of them. Among these may be mentioned the Gubboy House, with its 
arched Leslie patent roof, plate-glass doors and fan-lights, for excluding 
draught and cold and regulating the atmosphere, which has been found admi- 
rably suited to the gibbons (Hylobates), other varieties of monkeys {Semno- 
piiheci and Cercopitheci) and small and rare mammals of a delicate nature . The 
Dumraon House is adapted to the requirements of hoolocks {Hylobates lioolock) 
and monkeys peculiar to the Indo-Malayan fauna {Macaques). The Ezra 
House, with its lofty roof and minarets and enclosed airing-grounds on the 
east and the west sides, furnishes very comfortable accommodation to giraffes 
{Camelopardalis giraffa), zebras {Zebra burchelli), and other equine animals. 
It is needless to multiply examples ; suffice it to say that all of them are built 
on the latest approved principles, and are furnished in such a way as to 
present their inmates, as far as practicable, with the surroundings of their 
native wilds. 

As regards food, the experience gained in the Calcutta Zoo shows that 
wild animals in captivity thrive best if fed with articles of diet which Nature 
usually supplies to them while living in a wild state. In cases where these are 
difficult to procure, articles of similar character should be given them. A 
monotonous round of the same articles of diet, it has been found, brings on 
disease in menagerie animals. Changes from one sort of food to another 
should be frequently resorted to, and the animals are found to preserve health 
better when fed on varied diet each day than when fed with the same food 
all the year round. Animals which prey upon small mammals and birds 
should, in a state of captivity, be given small living birds, such as sparrows, 
live fowls, pigeons, or mice, guinea pigs or rabbits, for them to kill and eat • 
and this expedient has been found in the Zoological Gardens to be very 
effective in sharpening their appetites and reviving their drooping spirits. 

The larger carnivora often display an aversion to their ordinary diet ; and 
in such cases live kid, or fowls, and mutton are given. A sufficient quantity 
of food and clear water should always be provided, as the carnivora possess 
13 



259 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

the habits of drinking water after their meals. In the Alipore menagerie the 
larger Felidce are fed only once a day ; and once a week they are either 
starved or kept on half rations, and it has been uniformly found that this 
system proves beneficial to their health. Small quantities of doob grass ought 
to be given them almost daily, as it acts as an emetic, as also flower of sulphur 
which acts as a tonic to almost all animals in captivity— the latter to be given 
either in their food or in their drinking water.. All the bears in the collec- 
tion (with the exception of the Ursus maritimus) like sweets more or less, 
sugarcane and biscuits being a favourite food with them. They are usually 
fed on boiled rice, sugar, vegetables, fruits, eggs, bread, biscuits, and milk . 
The Polar bear (£/". maritimus) was given only 3 lbs. of fat mutton in the 
evening, with a change of fish and live pigeons occasionally. All the four 
species of Asiatic rhinoceri in the Gardens, Rhinoceros unicornis, R. sondaicus, 
R, lasiotis f' and R. sumatrensis, are fond of the leaves of the jack-fruit tree, 
but these being costly and not always procurable, they are fed on leaves of 
the gulher or doomoor (Ficus glomeratci) and other species of figs ; but the 
experience gained in the Gardens is that it is better to restrict them to jack 
and gulher as much as possible, supplemented by allowances of soaked gram 
and bran, together with salt and small quantities of goor, or country treacle 
occasionally. Both the species of tapirsf hitherto represented at Alipore, 
Tapirus malayanus and T. roulini, feed on vegetable substances, sucb as leaves, 
shoots, and roots, sweet potatoes, yams, bran, and boiled rice being occasionally 
given to them. The Equus burchelli and E. onager thrive best on crushed food 
consisting of grain, &c, hay, paddy, straw, and salt. The Bovidce, especially 
Bos frontalis, B. sondaicus and B. gaurus, are very fond of bamboo leaves ; but, 
as they become reconciled to their captivity, they imbibe a taste for such 
things as gram, bran, hay, &c, together with a few onions. Salt is very neces- 
sary to them, and should be given daily, either mixed with gram or in small 
lumps for licking, together with a large troughful of clear water. Other 
members of the same family have been found to thrive best on grass and 
grain, only the Wild Buffalo of the Celebes (Anoa depressicomis) being fond 
of the green stalks of paddy plants. Of the antelopes, the Eland (Oreas 
canna), the Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), the Beisas (Oryx beisa and 

* It is doubtful whether Rhinoceros lasiotis can be called a distinct species, Mr. W. T. 
Blanfordis of opinion that the several points of distinction in the external appearance of the 
rhinoceri from Chittagong and Malacca, which led Mr. P. L. Sclater to create a distinct 
species, lasiotis, for the reception of the Chittagong form, are scarcely of any specific value. 
He regards the two forms — one from Malacca (R. sumatrensis) and the other from Chittagong 
(R. lasiotis) — as varieties only. He says that, though the most remarkable difference between 
them is in the shape of the head, yet it is a variable one, as has been shown by Blyth. ( Vide 
The Fauna of India : Mammalia, p. 477.) The author of the work under review has, how- 
ever, after a careful examination of both the Chittagong and Malayan species now living in 
the Calcutta Zoo, noted the principal points of difference between the two, most of which are 
found to tally exactly with those observed by Sclater. ( Vide page 132 of the work under 
review.) 

t A pair of American tapirs {Tapirus americanus, Gmal.) have been recently added to the 
Calcutta Zoological Gardens. See Englishman of 6th June, 1892. 



REVIEW. 260 

0. leucoryx) thrive well on mixed food, consisting of gram, bran, Indian corn, 
wheat, paddy, &c, supplemented by hay and green grass — the last to be given 
sparingly. The gazelles (Gazella arabica, G. bennettii, and G.granti), the other 
Indian antelopes {Antelope, cervicapra and Tetraceros quadricornis) , and the 
North African form {Alcephalus bubalis) are fed on gram, bran, grass in small 
quantities, maize, paddy, wheat, &c, hay, onions and salt, the gazelles being 
very fond "of babul leaves {Acacia ai'abica). The Persian Ibex {Capra 
cegagrus) and the Uryal (Ovis cycloceros) thrive better on various kind of leaves 
and hay than on grain, and are extremely fond of rose-leaves. Two to 
three seers of grain (maize, gram, wheat, &c, with a pinch of salt twice daily, 
supplemented by a few bundles of hay, constitute capital food for the giraffes 
in the Calcutta Gardens. It has been found that here they much relish the 
leaves of the Acacia arabica and the Zizyphus jujuba. Of the Cervidce, the 
Ghevrotains (Cervulus muntjac and C. reevesi) and the various members of the 
genera Cervus and Rangifer {Cervus canadensis, C. tcevanus, C. duvaucelli, 
C. aristotelis, C. equinus, C. porcinus, C. 1iip>pelaphus, C. moluccensis , C. axis, and 
the reindeer {Rangifer tarandus), have been found to thrive best on grains, with 
salt and onions, taking care, at the same time, that the former be not newly- 
harvested, but at least three months old. Both the living species of camels 
which have been represented at Alipore were found to be fond of the leaves 
of the various species of neem {Melid) and babul {Mimosa) and hay, a change 
of crushed food being occasionaly given. The Suidce in the gardens have 
thriven well on grain, vegetables, and kitchen refuse, such as boiled meat, eggs, 
&c. Finely minced raw meat and eggs with milk constitute a capital diet for 
the Great Ant-eater {Myrmecophagajubata). The two species of the genus 
Pliascolomys hitherto exhibited, namely, P. wombat and P. latifrons, feed on 
grass and leaves — a small quantity of grain and sometimes biscuits being 
given every morning. The kangaroos* {Macropus giganteus and 31. Tufas') and 
the Wallabies {TIalmaturus ualabatus and H. bennetti) are strictly vegetarian 
feeders and forage for themselves, a small quantity of maize, wheat, and other 
grains being generally allowed to them. 

The orang-outang {Simia satyrus) has been found to thrive well on any one 
of the following three different courses of diet, viz., (1) plantains, boiled rice, 
biscuits, vegetables ; (2) soaked gram, milk, bread, fruits ; (3) plantains, raw 
eggs, sugarcane, &c, fruit of the sweet potato. The other anthropoid apes in the 
Gardens, viz., the hoolock and the gibbons {Hylobates hoolodc, H. leucogenys, 
H. lar, H. agilis, II. leuciscus, and II. syudactylus), have maintained very 
good health when fed on boiled rice, soaked gram, various kinds of fruit, and 

* Among the Marsupials, the unadorned-footed rock-kangaroo (Petrogale inornata) has 
not been noticed in this work, though it was at one time exhibited in the Gardens. I remem- 
ber having seen pretty specimens of this species in the Sonebursa House, some time in June 
or July, 1892. Among the other omissions is the European badger {Males taxus, Bodd.), 
which is also included in the collection at Alipore, and was, I believe, purchased at the sale 
of the King of Oudh's menagerie. 



261 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VI I L 

roots, bread, biscuits, eggs, and occasionally live sparrows and a few grass- 
hoppers, making allowances for individual tastes. Excluding animal food of 
all kinds whatever, the diet prescribed for the various species of Hylohates 
and for the orang will do well for the Semnopithecus entellus, with the addition 
of a sufficient quantity of leaves. The crested semnote (S. cristatus) and 
Phayre's leaf-monkey (S. phayri) live best on the diet prescribed for the 
orang. The Assam langur (S. pileatus) is less fond of leaves than the other 
Semnopiilieci. Several of them have exhibited a slight partiality for the leaves 
of a species of Amaranthus (natya sag). The proboscis (S. larvatus) and the 
red-haired monkeys (S. rubicundus) like the green stalks of paddy and wheat 
and young shoots of halmi {Convolvulus reptens). Experience gained in the 
Gardens has shown that the Cercopitheci — forms peculiar to the fauna of the 
Ethiopian region — hitherto exhibited there, viz., Cercopithecus cliana, C. cyno- 
surus, C. callitricus, C. talapoin, C, nictitans, C. pluto, C. petaurista, C. 
cephus, C. patas, C. mona, thrive well on the same kind of food as is ordinarily 
given to the hoolocks, hanumans and other semnotes. The monkeys of the genus 
Macacus are almost omnivorous : boiled rice, soaked gram, biscuits, pumpkins, 
cucumber, brinjals, and other vegetables constitute their ordinary food. Eggs 
are occasionally given to them as substitutes for the insects and spiders which, 
in their wild state, they are accustomed to eat, besides fruits and vegetables, 
minced meat being sometimes, but rarely, given. The Cynocephali,® or the 
baboons {Cynocephalus hamadryas and C. porcarius), do well when fed on a 
vegetable diet consisting of fruits, roots, grain, boiled rice, with a change of 
eggs and grasshoppers. The same diet as that on which the hoolock is fed has 
been found to constitute capital food for the mandrill {C. mormon). The 
lemurs (Lemur mongos, L. varius, and L. flavifrons) feed on fruit, eggs, 
bread, and milk. 

The feeding of the birds, however, is not so expensive as that of the mam- 
mals, for most of the articles of diet of which they are fond, such as maggots, 
berries, &c, are to be had in abundance in the Gardens themselves. The prin- 
cipal food of the majority of the birds are seeds, soft fleshed fruits, berries, 
maggots, satoo, and, occasionally, minced meat made into pellets. Some of the 
aquatic birds, .however, find their own food, such as fish, crustaceans, &c, 
from the tanks and jhils in the Gardens. Experience has shown that an early 
meal, consisting of maize, barley, wheat, or other grain, pounded together with 
a small quantity of egg-shell, green food later on, and grains and seeds and a 
few grasshoppers or meal worms in the evening, forms a capital diet for the 

* Another species of this genus, viz., the Guinea baboon (Cynocephalus sphinx, Linn.) has 
been represented in the Gardens ; and I distinctly remember having seen, in 1885, a speci- 
men of it in the Gubboy House, which was on deposit there. But I regret to find that this 
animal has not been noticed in the present work. There are many other omissions, which 
will be noticed in their respective places. A magnificent specimen of the drill {Cynocephalus 
leucophceus, F. Cuy.) has also been recently added to the collection — having been acquired in 
December last. 



REVIEW. 262 

Monauls {Lophophorus impeyamis and L. sclateri), the Gold and Amherst'a 
pheasants {Thaumalea picta and Th. amJierstice), six species of the genus 
Phasiams, twelve species of the genus Euplocamus, and other members of the 
order Gallium, hitherto represented in the Gardens. The Tragopans {Cerior- 
nis satyra, C. melanocepliala, C. temminofoi, C. caboti, and C. blytlii) and both 
the Indian and the Malayan species of the Polyplectrons, or the Peacock 
pheasants, require the same treatment as regards food as the other pheasants, 
except that the former are fonder of berries and fruits than of grain. 

Of the order Casuarii, the three species of Cassowaries in the Gardens have 
been found to thrive best on vegetables, fruits, and roots. In captivity the 
Emu is fed on biscuits, bread, crushed food, and vegetables. The Ostrich 
(Struthio camelus) and the Common Rhea {Rhea americana), belonging to the 
order Struthiones , are both treated in the same:way as the Emu, only with the 
difference that the former is given a pound of beef or mutton once a week 
during the cold and the rainy seasons. Of the order Grallce, family Gruidce, 
seven species of Cranes {Grus) and the two species of Crowned Cranes {Bcela- 
rica pavonina and B. chrysopelargus) have been found to maintain very good 
health when fed on grain of various kinds, soaked or dry, according to indi- 
vidual taste, and vegetables, but some of them find a great deal of their own 
food, such as frogs, lizards, shells, worms, &c, only the snow-wreath {Grus 
leucogeranus) and the Crowned Cranes not being partial to this latter kind of 
diet. Birds of the order Steganopodes (Cormorants, Snake-birds and Pelicans) 
live well on fish, but, in captivity, they readily take to meat-diet, being fed at 
Alipore on f to 1 seer of beef and fish. The various members of the orders 
A?iseres (Geese and Ducks), Gavidce (Gulls) and Limicolas (Snipes and Jacanas) 
thrive best on grain, vegetables, and grass, supplemented a good deal by 
aquatic insects, worms, larvae, &c, and are also very fond of the tender shoots 
of the halmi {Convolvulus reptens) and tolmpana {Pistia stratiotes), which are 
given to them in large quantities. Of the birds of the order Platalea, the 
Spoonbill {Platalea leucorodid) is fed on prawns, small fish, and occasionally 
minced meat. This food, it has been found, also forms excellent diet for the 
Black-headed {Ibis melanocephalus), Glossy {Plegadis falcinellus), and Scarlet 
Ibises {Eudocimus ruber). The Pelican Ibis {Tantalus leucocepJialus) picks out 
a great deal of its own food, such as crabs, frogs, and fish, by loosening, with 
its right foot, the mud near the edges of the tanks. This latter habit is also 
possessed by the Flamingo {Plmnicopterus anliquorum), belonging to the order 
Odontoglossce, which, in a state of captivity, feeds on bran and barley with 
water. Birds of the order Herodiones (Herons, Storks, and Adjutants) thrive 
well on fish and meat, but the Adjutants and the Black-necked Stork 
{Xenorhynehus asiatieus) mainly live on the latter article. 

The birds of prey, such as the Owls, Eagles, Falcons and Vultures (belong- 
ing to the orders Striges and Accipitres), are all of them carnivorous, and, as a 



263 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

rule, are fed on beef, frogs, fish, and live rats. Of the order Psittaci (Cocka- 
toos, Parrots, Parrakeets, Lories, &c), nine species of the genus Cacatua and 
other birds of the allied genera, Licmetis, Microglossa, and Calopsitta, have been 
found to maintain good health when fed on paddy, maize, gram, barley, hemp 
seed, chillies, and vegetables, all of them being extremly fond of sugarcane ; 
and this diet has also been found to answer well in the cases of the birds of 
the genus Palceomis, only the red-headed (P. cynocephalus) and the red- 
cheeked species (P. erythrogenys) being fond of fruits, especially papaya 
(Carica papaya). Lories of the genera Lorius, Eos, and Trichoglossus thrive 
well on a mixed diet of bread and milk, seeds, fruits and vegetables, with a 
change of boiled eggs for birds of the last -mentioned genus only. Grain seeds 
and vegetables, with crumbs of bread given occasionally, rock salt, and clean 
water, constitute a capital diet for five species of the Broadtail Parrots 
(Platycercus) and the New Zealand Parrakeet (Cyanoramphus novce-sealandai). 
Experience has shown that the same diet, only with the addition of fruits 
and biscuits, is admirably suited to the physical requirements of the Macaws 
(genus 4ra), the Yellow-headed Conure (Conurus jendaya), and the three species 
of Amazon Parrots (genus Chrysotis), all peculiar to the Neotropical region. 
The truly African psittacine forms, viz., the Vasa parrots (Coracopsis vasa and 
C. nigra) and the Grey Parrot (Psittacus erythacus) are fed like the Cockatoos. 
Of the order Bucerotes, hornbills of the various genera Buceros, Dichoceros, 
Anthracoceros, Ocyceros, Aceros, Rhytidoceros and Cranorrhinus, have been found 
to thrive on a diet comprising boiled rice, minced meat, figs, berries, and other 
fruits, with an occasional allowance of small birds and insects to sharpen their 
appetites. Of the sub-order Zygodactyly, the Ariel (Ramphastos ariel) and 
the Sulphur-breasted Toucans (P. carinatus) peculiar to the Neotropical 
avifauna, hitherto exhibited in the Gardens, have been fed on fruits, crumbs of 
bread, minced meat, and eggs. 

Pigeons and doves of various genera and species are fed on various sorts of 
grain, though, in captivity, they acquire an artificial taste for bread, biscuits, 
and boiled rice. 

Maize mixed with other grains, such as wheat, barley, and hemp-seed, 
constitutes a capital diet for the larger pigeons, only the blood-breasted 
{Phlogcenas cruentata) and the Australian crested species {Ocyphaps lophotes) 
being very fond of the moong pulse (Phaseolus mungd), other grains and fruits. 
The soft-billed pigeons evince a partiality for satoo mixed with macerated 
plantain. Other species, among them being the Wonga Wonga (Lencosarcia 
picta), like hard stones of fruits, while the fruit-eating ones thrive well on 
various figs and berries, such as those of the Peepul and the Banyan trees. 
To promote their health, they should also be allowed greens, such as cabbage, 
spinach, &c. Of the order Scansores, family Capitonidm, Barbets of the 
genera Megalcema, Oyanops, and Xantholcema, while in captivity, feed on 



REVIEW. 264 

satoo, plantains and other fruits and minced meat. Of the order Passeres, 
family Alaudidce, both the skylarks {Alauda arvensis and A, arborea) in the 
Calcutta Zoo thrive excellently on seeds of various kinds, fruits, berries and 
maggots, only the bush-larks {Mirafra assamica and M. cantiUans) liking satoo, 
fruits, insects and maggots. Of the family Stumidce (same order), Mynas of 
various genera and species, generally speaking, do well when fed on satoo, 
maggots, insects, fruits and grain of various kinds, making allowance for the 
tastes of particular species. Of the family Eulabetidce, the Grackles or Hill- 
Mynas (Eidabes reltgiosa and E. intermedia) require satoo, boiled rice, fruits, 
bread and milk. Of the family Oriolidce, the four species of Orioles in 
the collection thrive excellently on satoo, insects, fruits, berries of the Ficus 
religiosa, F. comosa and sweet Inga. Of the family Crateropodidce, sub-family 
Braehypodinwi three species of Bulbuls of the genus Ilolpastes, two of Oto- 
composa, one each of Hypsipetes and Picnonotus, do well on satoo paste, 
prepared with ghi, fruits, insects and maggots. Laughing Thrushes of the 
genera Dryonastes, Garrulax, lanthocincla and Grammatoptila thrive when fed 
on satoo, fruits, insects and worms, only the Dryonastes chinensis requiring 
minced meat. Of the family Corvidce, sub-family Corvince, order Passeres, 
the various Magpies of the genera Pica, Urocissa and Cissa, and the Indian 
tree-pies (Dendrocitta rufa, D. liimalayensis, and D. frontalis) have been 
found to thrive excellently on minced ieat, fruit, boiled rice, boiled eggs, 
satoo and various kinds of insects, only the Green Magpie {Cissa chinensis) is 
occasionally given live sparrows and other small birds, and the Tree-pies 
various kinds of insects to sharpen their appetites. Another useful feature 
of these remarks is, that the approximate daily cost of feeding the large 
animals and birds is given. 

The breeding of animals is set forth in the original prospectus as one of the 
objects for which the Calcutta Zoological Gardens were established. But the 
Committee's efforts to carry it out have been attended with but scant success, 
though hopes were at one time entertained that all the denizens of the 
Gardens would breed freely and multiply fast, so as to render it possible that 
additional examples of each species might be available for exchange with 
institutions of a similar kind, both in this country and elsewhere. The condi- 
tions which are most favorable to the breeding of animals in captivity are 
that they should be provided with (1) commodious quarters for their housing, 
grazing and open-air exercise ; (2) the diet which they are accustomed to feed 
upon in their wild state ; (3) that their quarters should be such as to suit their 
respective habits and should represent the surroundings of their native wilds ; 
(4) that, in the case of gregarious animals, a large number of both sexes, and, 
in that of the Carnivora and other species, a pair, each consisting of a male 
and a female, should be lodged together, so as to afford them opportunities for 
seeking each other's company. Experience has shown that the females of the 



265 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

larger carnivorous animals naturally seek seclusion and retirement when enceinte 
so that they may enjoy freedom from disturbance by others ; and the want of 
proper accommodation to meet such emergencies has on several occasions been 
keenly felt in the Gardens. In the same menagerie, it has been found that 
some species of birds every year make attempts at constructing nests, but are 
prevented from doing so by others which annoy them at this time. In some 
cases they "have even laid eggs, but could not incubate them, owing to the pre- 
sence of other birds, which (not unfrequently) destroy them by breaking them. 
Some species of mammals and birds are sure to breed in captivity, if left by 
themselves in separate cages, and undisturbed by other species. Hence seclu- 
sion is also very necessary to their successfully breeding in a state of captivity. 
Though, in comparison with the existing private and other public menageries 
throughout the country, the comforts and conveniences of wild animals in 
captivity are studied and attended to with far more care and greater regularity 
in the Calcutta Zoological Gardens, yet all the aforesaid conditions are not 
fulfllled there to the same extent as they ought to be. No doubt some animals 
breed and rear young ones successfully every year at Alipore, as will appear 
from the tabular statements of such births published annually in the Manag- 
ing Committee's Eeports ; but their number sinks into insignificance when 
compared with the long lists of animals bred every year, which are appended 
to the Annual Eeports of the London Zoological Society and the New 
York Central Park Menagerie. The reason why so much success in this 
direction has been achieved in the last two institutions is simply that the 
inmates thereof enjoy far greater comfort and convenience than at Alipore, 
for in London and New York far airier and roomier quarters, with extensive 
enclosures affording opportunities for exercise in the open air and the display 
of their natural habits, are allowed them than here. 

Experience gained in the Calcutta Zoological Gardens has clearly shown 
that only some of the mammals have every year successfully bred and reared 
young ones there. Of the birds, all, except a few species, have failed to 
propagate. Among the monkeys, the Hanuman (Semnopitheus entellus), several 
species of Macaques (Macacus rhesus, M. cynomolgus, and M. sinicus) of the 
Indian and Malayan faunas, and the Malbrouck (Cercqpithecus cynosurus), 
peculiar to the Ethiopic region, have successfully bred and cross-bred. The 
Mongoose Lemurs {Lemur mongoz) have also bred here, the female producing 
only one young at a birth. Of the Felicia, the lions in the collection have 
not been blessed with any offspring as yet, although the Committee have 
provided suitable accommodation, likely to favour the happening of the 
longed-for-event, by building a smaller and secluded den, as an annexe to their 
cages in the Burdwan House, and hopes are entertained that their efforts in 
this direction will ultimately be crowned with success. Tigers have thrice 
bred, viz., in May, 1880, May, 1886, and April, 1889. The Leopard and the 
Eishing-Cat (F. viverrind) are the only two other cats which have bred at 



REVIEW. 266 

Alipore, and the males of both species sometimes devour their young ones. 
Of the Ursidce, the Himalayan bear (Ursus torquatus) has bred only once, when 
the cub unfortunately proved a still-born one. Of the order Chiroptera, the 
Indian Fruit Bats (Pteropus medius) have several times produced young 
having only one at a birth. Of the Systricidce, only the Short-spined Porcu- 
pines (Hijstrix longicauda) have several times bred in the Gardens and reared 
young ones successfully, though sometimes the young are eaten by their 
male parents. Of the Dasyproctidce, the Agoutis* Dasyprocta isthmica and D. 
prymnolopha) and the Guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus) are very prolific and give 
birth to several broods in a year, the former, however, sometimes eating their 
young. Of the Rhinocerotidce, a hybrid rhino calf was born at Alipore, of the 
Rhinoceros lasiotis and R. sumatrensis, on the 30th January, 1889. Of the 
Tapiridce, female Malayan Tapirs {Tapirus malayanus) have twice bred, vis 
in May, 1877 and October, 1883. Of the Bovidce, the Gyals (Bos frontalis] 
have cross-bred with the domestic cattle and produced fine hybrids, and the 
Bantengs (B. sondaicus) have also bred. The Beisa antelopes (Oryxbeisa) have 
twice reared young ones in the gardens. The gazelles, blackbucks (Antelope 
cervicapra) and four-horned antelopes have also successfully bred at Alipore, 
as also various species of deer belonging to the family Cervidce. Of the' 
Tragulidv, only the Indian Chevrotain {Tragulus memmina) often produce 
young ones in the gardens, the female generally producing two at a birth Of 
the order Marsupialia, only the Black Wallaby (Halmaturus ualabatus) have 
on several occasions bred. 

Among the birds, the Common Myna or Salik (Acridotheres trzstis) breeds 
freely m the gardens both in captivity and in a wild state, often utilising the 
feathers cast by other birds in the construction of its nests. Of the order 
Columbce, the Indian Blue-rock Pigeon (Columba intermedia) is a regular 
breeder in the Alipore menagerie. One of the females of the Common Crown 
Pigeon (Goura coronota) twice laid eggs, but could not incubate them. 

The Nicobar Ground Pigeons (Calcenas nicobarica) have twice bred in the 
Gardens, laying a single egg on each occasion. The Emerald Doves (Chalco- 
phaps indica) have also succeeded in rearing broods. Of the order Psittaci, 
the great White-crested (Cacatua cristata), the Sulphur-crested (C. galerita and 
CL sulphured), and the long-billed cockatoos (Licmetis tenuirostris) have some- 
times laid in the gardens, but none could be induced to hatch their eggs 5 
although on such occasions they were removed to secluded spots. The 
Crested Ground (Calopsitta novm-hollandce) and the Bing-necked Parrakeets 
(Palceomis torquatus), as also a solitary female of a Purple-capped Lory (Lorius 
domicella), have occasionally laid eggs, but never succeeded in hatching out 

ayutl ulflndfi 3?WeSf 2&H5& rif* T? V** ^ Ag0Uti <*»W"*i 



267 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. Vlll. 

broods. The Undulated Grass Parrakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) have only 
once bred, when they succeeded in hatching two nestlings. Of the order 
Anseres a pair of Spotted bill Ducks {Anas pcecilorhyncha) bred during the 
latter part of 1885. Of the order Fulicarice, the Purple Coots (Porphijrio 
poliocephalus) have thrice bred at Alipore. Of the order Gallince, the Black 
(Rollulus niger) and the Grey Partridges {Caccalis chakar) in the collection 
have frequently laid eggs, but would not hatch them. Some of the pheasants, 
however, such as the Silver (Euplocamus nyctliemerus), the Lineated (E. Uneatus) 
and Cuvier's {E. cuvieri), have bred and reared their young at Alipore. Both 
the species of peafowls in the collection (Pavo cristatus and P. muticus) begin 
laying in spring and continue doing so till the end of the rains. Of the order 
Casuarii, the Emu (Dromanis novce-hollandce) bred and reared young ones in 
1885-86. Of the order Struthiones, only the Ostriches (Struihio camelus) have 
repeatedly laid, but have not yet succeeded in hatching out young. 

Animals are frequently imported from foreign countries to the Calcutta 
Zoological Gardens, and ifc has been found that, owing to the narrowness 
and dinginess of the cages in which they are confined during the voyage, to the 
want of precautions in the matter of providing them with the food and drink 
most suitable for them, and to the absence of arrangements for protecting 
them from draughts and cold during inclement weather, much injury is 
done to their health during transit. When they arrive in the Gardens, they 
are found to be either in a miserable condition or otherwise disabled. From 
these injuries they never recover in spite of the most careful nurture, and 
after pining for a few months, they die away. A notable instance of this 
happened in the case of three Tapirs which were purchased at Singapore in 
July, 1883, and shipped thence in battened cages with open tops ; " two of 
these animals arrived wounded and lame ; during the voyage they made 
frequent attempts to escape, by climbing over the sides and biting through 
the wood-work of the cage. All Tapirs do not, of course, behave in the same 
manner ; but the above facts indicate the kind of precaution necessary for 
their transport." Four specimens of the Blue-bearded Jay of Brazil (Cyano- 
corax cyanopogort) were received in the Calcutta Gardens in November, 1888, 
in the most miserable condition, and they never recovered from its ill-effects, 
and finally died in a month or two after their arrival. 

The Committee of the Calcutta Gardens have also instituted a system of 
exchange with similar institutions both here and abroad, under which they 
send away Indian animals to foreign gardens or societies, and obtain in return 
others not exhibited before at Alipore, In " packing" these animals for trans- 
mission to foreign countries, the Committee have gained a good deal of 
experience as to the best methods of doing so— as to what sort of cages 
minister to the comfort of particular kinds of animals during the journey or 
voyage, what arrangements should be made for protecting their inmates from 



REVIEW. m 

extremes of heat and cold during transit, and so forth. Instructions hased 
on this experience are given in this work under the sub-heading " Transport;' 
for the guidance of the managers of other menageries, and of those who deal 
in feres naturce, and have often to export and import them. It is advised that 
animals from the higher altitudes of the Himalayas should not be 
brought down to the plains except during the cold season, even for the purpose 
of sending them away to some other congenial climate. During a sea voyage 
animals peculiar to cold climates should, when passing warmer latitudes be' 
placed near the ice-house of the steamer, and the cages containing tropical 
animals should, on approaching cold latitudes or during rough weather, be 
kept near the engine-house, as severe cold kills them. Further, most elaborate 
directions for the constructing and furnishing of transport-cages and selection 
of animals to be exported are given. 

_ Under the heading of « Treatment in Sickness," detailed information is given 
in the work, regarding the various ailments from which animals in the Gardens 
have been found to suffer, the treatment adopted, and the remedies adminis- 
tered in each case, together with a short account of the results obtained 

The leases from which lions in the Calcutta Gardens have been observed 
to suffer are paralysis, congestion of the lungs, dysentery and diarrhoea. In 
cases of paralysis, anodines in the shape of camphor and soap liniment are 
freely rubbed over their limbs with a short mop, in order to alleviate their 
suffermgs. When the disease assumed serious proportions, strychnia in doses 
or ? gram was given morning and evening, but without effect. In a case of 
pulmonary congestion, the chest was alternately poulticed and fomented, while 
carbonate of ammonia and chloric ether, mixed with vinegar, were administer- 
ed internally every two hours, but to no purpose, as the animal succumbed to 
the disease. Festering wounds and injuries received accidentally or in 
fighting have been observed to heal up on constantly injecting into the sore 
parts a weak solution of corrosive sublimate with a garden syringe. Rheuma- 
tism, adiposity, intestinal worms, ingrowing nails, epilepsy are some among the 
various ailments that afflict tigers and leopards in the Gardens. Their liability 
to rheumatism has been minimised by giving each of them a wooden platform 
to sleep upon. Ingrown nails are removed by surgical operations, and a dose 
or two of santoninehas been found efficacious as a vermifuge. Dysentery 
and diarrhQ 3 a have been found to afflict the other members of the Felidce at 
Ahpore,as also the Hunting leopard {Cynalurus jubatus); only the Ocelot 
(FeUs partialis) suffered from severe cold and pulmonary inflammation. Some 
species of the Canities in the Gardens have been liable to attacks of paralysis 

t!stn7;f?/\T Ul "T S ' aDd Skin - disease ' *e later yielding to constant 
washing of the body with carbolic soap and tepid water and afterwards 
painting it with a solution of phenyle. Bears in the collection have been 
found to suffer from diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatic disorders, convulsions 
ulcers, teething, an d pulmonary inflammation. Ulcers yielded to the 



169 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y V i TUBAL HISTOBY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

application, to the affected parts, of n solution of corrosive sublimate, 
diarrhoea and dysentery are got under by giving them various prepara- 
tions of the bael frail A Dover's powder and aromatic 
powder of chalk. The Rhinoom have been observed to suffer from tetanus, 
pulmonary inflammation and tuberculosis of the lungs and liver. Obstruction 
of the bowels and galloping consumption, respectively, were the causes of the 
deaths of two Tapirs (Tapirus malayamts). The Soindian Wild Asa (Equus 
onager) and Burobell's Zebra {!■:, burcMli) have been observed to suffer from 
rheumatism, brought on by the dampness of the floor of their habitation ; but 
liability to it has been much diminished by providing them with wooden 
platforms 18 inches high to stand upon. The former is also very much 
troubled by sores and wounds, which are got under by applying to them a 
dressing composed of tar, soap, sulphur and carbolic acid. The Bovithr 
and three species of African antelopes (Orix besia, 0, leacori/x, and 0. rea- 
:) are very liable to attacks of rinderpest, parasites and diarrhoea, the 
latter being cured by restricting the patients to a diet of bamboo leaves. 
Inflammation of the lungs is a common ailment among gazelles during the 
the rains and winter. They as well as the sheep and the goats in the Gardens 
also frequently suffer from diarrhoea. A giraffe in the collection died, it was 
surmised, of colic, or pulmonary inflammation. Experience has shown that 
the various speoies of deer are liable to all the ailments which afflict other 
members of the Ruminantia. The camels are subject to various kinds of 
cutaneous affeotion abscess of the liver, paralysis, hernia, prolapsus ani, and 
superficial ulcers : the last can be got under only by the application of sulphur 
dust to the skin, as it prevents insects from lodging within the hair. The 
Marsupials in the Gardens have been found to suffer from paralysis of the 
lower limbs, pulmonary inflammation, diarrhoea and scrofula. Orang-outangs 
(& \ia satt/rus) in the collection are very liable to diarrhoea, dysentery, bron- 
chitis, pulmonary inflammation and paralysis. Various preparations of bael 
and ipecacuanha have been found efficacious in checking diarrhoea and dysentery. 
Bronchitis yields to the administration of 5 drops of ipecacuanha wine mixed 
with honey or liquorice, the chest and the throat being alternately fomented 
and rubbed over with ammonia liniment. The hoolocks and gibbons (Ht/lo- 
*\ the semnotes (Semnopithecus), and the macaques [Macacos) suffer from 
diarrhoea, bronchitis and consumption. Bael overcomes diarrhoea, while in 
bronchitis cases 10 grains of chlorate of potash in an ounce of simple syrup, 
with fomentation and chicken soup, afford great relief to the patient. If 
symptoms of consumption are discovered, the animal, if tame, should either 
be allowed to run about during the day, especially when the weather is fine, or 
otherwise should be removed from the monkey-house and confined in a spacious 
and airy cage; and it should be given a teaspoonful of syrup of hypophosphate 
of lime twice or thrice a day and a tea spoonful of glycerine with milk twice 
daily. The African -monkeys, of the genus Cercopithecu< are very liable to 



REVIEW. 270 

fcuberoulosis of tho liver, flatulent colic, paralysis, and, occasionally, diarrhoea. 
Flatulent oolio baa been Bound bo yield to the administration of a beaspoonful 
of oastor-oil with an equal quantity of ttoney. [n oases of paralysis the 
animal is removed toaplaoefree from draughts and oold and provided with 
ii blanket, whilo tho affoctod parts are cubbed over with belladonna liniment 
morning and ovening. 

Among bhe birds, tho Cassowaries and tho Kmus have heon ohsorvod to 
suffer Erom pulmonary inflammation, bronohial oatarrh, inflammation of the 
ontiro mucous lining of the mouth, and diarrhoea. Ostriches suffer Prom 
obsoure diseases, of which the true natures have not yet been determined. 
They have, however, boen known to catch colds of winter nights. Birds of 
bhe genera Lophophorua, Phaaimus, Thaumalea, Euplocamaa, Qallua, Ceriornia 
Pavo, Polypleotronm argue, as well as the partridges in the collection, are 
most subject to attacks of cold, eatarrh, rheumatism, gape, opthalmio inlluni 
mation, diarrhoea, tuberoulosis of the lungs and liver, and leprosy tubercles. 
Birds suffering from cold recover from it on being given a small quantity of 
raw ginger with treacle. Cases of gape are treated either by the application, 
with a feather, of spirits of turpentine to the wind-pipos of the a Hod, ,1 I, mis. 
which, in this state, toom with the offending parasites, or by fumigating thorn 
with carbolic acid vapour. Opthalmio inflammation has been found to yield 
to ablution of tho eyes with alum water and subsequent painting of thorn with 
caustic solution. Birds suffering from diarrhoea are given, by way of medicine, 
a few drops of the tincture of opium with milk and egg food, and also a 
little rum in their drinking water. The partrdiges also suffer from abnormal 
and misshapen growths of beaks and nails. Almost all the Pallases (Syr- 
rhaptea paradoxus) and Thibetan Sand-grouses (S. tibetanua) in tho gardens 
died of hepatic or pulmonary affections. Birds of the orders Steganopodea, 
Anaerea, Gavhhv, and Limicol* are subject to thread worms induced by a 
purely fish diet, invagination of the intestines, fungoid growths in the gullets, 
tuberculosis of the lungs and liver, hepatic leprosy, and disease of the oil- 
glands -the latter being removed by washing the affected glands with tepid 
water, so as to cleanse them from the sticking dirt, and by keeping the sick 
birds in a dry place. Cockatoos of the genera Cacatva, Liometia, and Micro- 
gloaaa are liable to attacks of diarrhoea, cold, and apoplexy brought on by 
adiposity. In cases of cold, the birds are treated by giving them chlorate of 
potash with liquorice and honey. Cold and pulmonary inflammation arc com- 
monly mot with in parrakeets of tho genus Palceornia. Birds belonging to the 
sub-family Lorunw are most subject to fits, inflammation of tho chest, and 
diarrhoea. The Trichogloaai, or Broadtails, often sudor from diarrhoea 
and cold. Pulmonary inflammation, rheumatism, severe cold, worms and 
diarrhoea are some of the ailments which are commonly met with among the 
Ilornbills. Diarrhoea and cold are treated by giving the suffering birds one 



271 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

drachm of rum with 10 drops of the syrup of lactate of iron. If difficulty 
of breathing supervenes, 5 to 8 grs. of chlorate of potash in water internally 
given relieves them instantly. The diseases from which birds of the order 
Columbce suffer are cold, catarrh, diarrhoea, vertigo, rheumatism and other 
obscure ailments, which frequently break out among them in an epidemic 
form. The Shamas (Cittocincla macrourd) are most liable to debility and 
emaciation, bad moulting, and warty growths in the legs and feet, the latter 
being removed by painting them with tincture of iodine. The Saliks {Acrido- 
theres tristis), while young, suffer much from glandular swellings round the 
aperture of the cloaca. The Picarine birds have been known to die suddenly 
of apoplexy or rupture of some blood-vessel in all probabilty. Diarrhoea 
also sometimes troubles them, but is got under by administering 15 drops of 
eastor-oil with 2 of the tincture of opium. The Laughing Thrushes of the 
genera Dryonastes and Garrulax have been observed to suffer from diarrhoea 
and recover therefrom on being treated in the same way as the Picarine birds. 
Chronic cold and overgrown beaks are also met with among them. The Gold- 
f ronted Ohloropsis (Chloropsis aurifrons) is subject to a kind of horny fila- 
mentous growth at the tip of the tongue. The Bhimraj (Dissemurus para- 
diseus) suffers from bad moult. The Grackles (Euldbes) are subject to an 
obscure form of eye disease, which is treated by washing the eyes with 
sulphate of zinc lotion twice daily and by keeping the birds in a warm place. 
The young of these species also suffer from tumours or abscesses, which 
appear to have a close connection with the growth of their wattles and lappets, 
and generally show themselves during the period when these processes are in 
course of development. They yield to an application of poultices composed of 
burnt turmeric. 

No portion of a work on zoology affords greater delight to the ordinary 
lover of natural history than that which treats of the habits and instincts of 
wild animals. As they are difficult of access in their wild state these habits 
and instincts cannot be observed in their native haunts with the same degree 
of facility as in vivaria. One of the main objects for which the Calcutta 
Zoological Gardens were established is, the observation and recording of such 
habits and instincts ; and it would appear from the present work that the Com- 
mittee of Management have been in no way negligent in giving effect to this 
portion of the prospectus of the institution. Most careful observations have 
been made, and voluminous notes recorded, of the temper, propensities, 
amusements and other occupations, moods,calls and other habits of the various 
mammals and birds that have from time to time, been kept in the Gardens. 
These notes have been utilised in the preparation of the work under review, 
and it is upon the materials furnished by them that the exhaustive and 
interesting remarks under the heading of "Observations on the habits of Animals" 
have been based. 



REVIEW. 272 

The success of an institution like the Calcutta Zoological Gardens can be 
judged of only by the number of species exhibited in it, the services it renders 
to the advancement of zoological knowledge, and the measure of patronage 
extended to it by the public. We can most confidently assert that the Com- 
mittee's efforts to develop the Gardens agreeably to the terms of the original 
prospectus and their management of the animals in it have been eminently 
successful. We are agreeably surprised to find that the work under review 
contains notices of 10 orders, 46 families, 106 genera and 241 species of 
mammals* and 24 orders, 52 families, 242 genera and 402 species of birds,f 
that had been exhibited in the Gardens up to 1891. Considering that the 
Gardens are only in the sixteenth year of their existence, they rival in 
respect of the number of species many European and American institutions of 
a similar kind, among which may be mentioned .the older establishment in 
the London Regent's Park, which, according to the first edition, published 
in 1862, of the " List of Vertebrates in the London Zoological Gardens" had 
up to that year exhibited in them only 188 species of mammals and 409 of 
birds. 

The work has been admirably got up, printed and bound in the usually 
excellent style of the Bengal Secretariat Press, and contains 351 large octavo 
pages of closely printed matter. Its value has further been enhanced by the 
addition of three excellent full-page photo-etchings, executed in the Survey of 
India Offices, respectively delineating views of the Carnivora-house, the Deer- 
sheds and the Water-fowl enclosure. 

We are convinced from a perusal of the work that it would not only make 
a capital hand-book, which would " be of great use to the numerous nobles 
and other persons who on a smaller scale keep collections of animals or birds 
in captivity," but would also form an admirable text-book of zoology for those 
of our schools and colleges in which natural history is taught. 

Saeat Chandra Mitea, m.a., b.l. 

* Besides the omissions noted above, the following mammals, which have already been 
exhibited rn the Gardens, have not been included in the present work : the Black-crested 
Ape of Celebes {Cynopithecus niger, Desm.) Egyptian Fox (Cant* cerdo, Gmel.); the Markhor 
tfaprafalconeri, Hugel), and a flying-squirrel from Burma, named Sciuropterus phayrei 

S£W; ?' % n f f0 -l' o 11 ^ 1S WOrk 0n Mammalia > * th e Fauna of British India sYries! 
page 367, has identified with Sciuropterus sargitta. ' 

+ P e ^f^ntioned birds, though at one time exhibited in the collection, have been 
most probably through oversight, omitted from this work: Yellow Troupial Ixanthosomul 
navus,dmel.y, the Himalayan Jay (Garrulus Uspecularis) ; the Neck-lace throated Lau°-hinsr- 
tnrusn (Garrulax monihger) ; Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linn ; the Bahama Duck (Daiila bahn- 
mensis, Linn) ;thePrioniturus setarius of Celebes ; the Greater Bird of Paradisf fparadisea 
apoda, Linn.); the Long-tailed Glossy Starling of West Africa (Lamprotornisa^eusL^n)- 
tfieVanegated Sheldrake of New Zealand glioma varieg.ata); Lli^BSJSSSSl 
{Scops lemipiji), and the Carpophaga chalybura, Bp. of the Phillipine Islands. 



273 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 
NOTES ON INDIAN APHIDES.* 

By Gr. B. Buckton, F.R.S. 

But little attention hitherto has been given to the tropical Aphides 
of the old world. Any addition to our knowledge of the species which in- 
habit British India doubtless will prove of interest, both as being connected 
with scientific entomology and with agricultural economy. 

Hitherto these Ilomoptera have been regarded as chiefly inhabiting the 
temperate regions of the world, but there are reasons for believing that observ- 
ation only is needed to prove the existence of diverse species which control 
the vegetation which flourishes under the equator. 

The Aphis which attacks the bamboo {Bambusa arundinacea) of Dehra Dun 
hardly accords with any described European species or even genus. Amongst 
many hundred specimens sent to me by Mr. Cotes, I was unable to find a single 
winged individual — a circumstance which, for the present, prevents a complete 
diagnosis of the species, since the wing venation is of high importance for 
classical grouping. The characters of the bamboo Aphis, however, are 
sufficiently distinct to justify, in my opinion, the erection of a new genus, 
notwithstanding that the diagnosis at present can refer only to the apterous 
viviparous female. 

Genus Oregma (from 'opiytw to protrude), Buckton. Body globose. Vertex 
conspicuous from the projection of two straight horn-like processes. Corni- 
cles small and conical. Cauda inconspicuous, often tufted with numerous 
setse. Bostrum exceedingly short and rising from between the first coxfe. 

Oregma Iambuses, Buckton. Body globose, less so in the immature forms. 
Corrugated and constricted into segments. Vertex with two cornua. Eyes 
very small. Notum narrow. Rostrum very difficult to see, rising from the 
underside of the thorax, much as in Coccus. Antennse about half the length 
of the body, obscurely five- jointed and ending with a nail-like process as in 
Lachnus. Legs short. Tarsi with two articulations. Colour greenish-brown, 
more or less mottled with black. Many of the specimens preserved in weak 
spirit were quite black. 

Size 0-070 X 0-050 inch. 

Clusters on the upper surfaces of the bamboo at Dehra covering the foliage 
of the plants with its sooty-black excretion, thereby doing some injury. 

The winged female and the (apterous ?) male are undescribed. 

The general appearance of this insect may suggest some affinities both with 
the genus Lachnus and the genus Chaitophorus ; but the small size of the 
insect, the short legs, the peculiar front, and the position of the very short 
rostrum will eliminate it from the first genus, whilst the non-tuberculose and 
slightly hirsute characters of the abdomen, &c, will separate it from the 
latter. 

* Reprinted from Indian Museum Notes with the permission of the Trustees. 



274 

THE LOCUST INVASION OF 1889—92.* 
By E. C. Cotes. 
In the early part of 1891 a report was issued on the subject of the migratory 

locust, Acridium peregrinum, Oliv., which has recently 

Contents. , . , - _ ,. , . _.. . J 

invaded India.f This report gave a summary of the 

information obtained up to the beginning of December, 1890. The notes since 
collected on the subject of the invasion of Northern Africa, Persia and 
Turkish Arabia by the same insect appeared in Vol. III., No. 1, of these Notes, 
where details are also given of what has been ascertained on the subject of 
the parasites and natural enemies which attack it in India. In the present 
report it is proposed to give a short sketch of the general features of the 
invasion in India, together with such fresh information as has been obtained 
on the subject of the habits of the insect and the methods adopted for deal- 
ing with it. 
The locusts were first noticed in June, 1889, when flights were reported 

from Sind and Western Eajputana. These flights, 
in T indS St ° ryoftlieillVaSi011 no doubt, originated in the sand-hills of the desert, 

where the insect is said to breed each year in larger 
or smaller numbers. They began laying their eggs as usual in June, when 
the rains of the south-west monsoon broke. During the remainder of the 
rainy season of 1889 the flights gradually spread throughout Eastern Eajpu- 
tana, the Punjab, and Sind, egg-laying going on at intervals in various parts 
of Eajputana and the Punjab. The young locusts, which were born from the 
eggs laid in the beginning of the rains, acquired wings towards the latter part 
of August. In the beginning of the cold weather, owing to the extensive 
breeding which had taken place, the locusts seem to have become very numer- 
ous in Eajputana and the Punjab, and in November and December flights 
from these areas found their way throughout the North- West Provinces and 
Central India, and penetrated even as far as the Yizagapatam, Kistna, and 
G-odavari Districts in the Madras Presidency. They were also reported from 
British Baluchistan. During January and February, 1890, stray flights were 
reported from various parts of India, but the cold seems to have told upon 
them, and they were not very active. As the hot weather of 1890 approached, 
however, and the soil, moistened by the winter rain, began to grow warm the 
locusts again became active and commenced egg-laying. Eggs were laid 
throughout the north-western districts of the Punjab in March ; also in the 
Shikarpur District of Sind in April. By June the young locusts hatched from 
these eggs had acquired wings, and the flights spread in all directions. They 
penetrated throughout the whole of the North-West Provinces, besides over- 



* Reprinted from Indian Museum Notes with the permission of the Trustees, 
t See Journal, Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. VI., page 242. 
15 



275 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

running Sind and Eajputana, and making their way into Kathiawar. Eggs 
were laid towards the latter part of June, 1890, when the rains had well started, 
throughout the whole of Western Eajputana and in the Gurgaon District of 
the Punjab. The young locusts hatched out in countless numbers in July, 
and in the case of Western Eajputana they were reported as doing much 
damage in August. During August and September the flights that were still 
wandering about laid more eggs in parts of the Punjab. About September 
the young locusts that had been born in the beginning of the rains seem to 
have acquired wings, and from September on through the cold weather of 
1890-91 the flights spread in all directions in the most remarkable manner. 
They made their way throughout Sind, the Punjab, and the North- West Pro- 
vinces. Vast flights also moved through Central India into the Central Pro- 
vinces, and thence eastwards into Bengal and Assam, southwards through Berar 
and Hyderabad into the Madras Presidency, and westwards into the Bombay 
Deccan. The flights did a good deal of injury in the restricted areas where 
they settled, but the people were so industrious iu driving them off their crops 
and the birds destroyed such large numbers that the damage inflicted was 
small considering the vastness of the invasion. Through December, January, 
and February flights were still reported from all parts of India, but the cold 
and damp, combined with the relentless persecution of the birds and the people, 
had thinned their numbers and reduced them to so miserable a state that they 
were able to do little or no damage. 

In March, 1891, some of the locusts obtained from the flight which passed 
over Calcutta in November, 1890, began to lay eggs in their cages in the Indian 
Museum. About the same time, owing, no doubt, to the increasing warmth 
at the close of the winter rains, the flights in the Punjab became more active, 
and egg-laying took place at first in the north-west of the Punjab and Sind 
and afterwards in Baluchistan. In May the young locusts hatched from these 
eggs became extremely numerous in the Punjab. 

The rabi crops were generally too far advanced in growth to be much 
damaged by them, but the extra rabi and the early sown kharif crops— especi- 
ally cotton — suffered severely. The grass in some tracts was completely eaten 
down, and almost every bush and tree was stripped of its leaves. Some idea 
may be formed of the numbers in which the insects appeared from the fact 
that railway trains were said to have often found it difficult to proceed, owing 
to the rails being made slippery by the crushed bodies of the young locusts. 
A regular warfare was waged against the insects, under the leadership of the 
district officials, who organized the people for the purpose of collecting the eggs 
and destroying the young locusts systematically. The military also rendered 
useful service in destroying the swarms that invaded cantonments. 

The method that was most generally adopted was that of driving the young 
locusts into trenches, but the Cyprus screens described in the previous report 



LOCUSTS. 276 

were also used to a small extent, and useful work was done by driving the 
young into heaps of straw and bushes which were then set on fire. In this 
way many thousands of maunds of young locusts were destroyed, and the 
actual crops were in many places protected. The numbers of the locusts 
however, that bred in waste places in the Punjab was so enormous that success 
was only partial, and vast hordes became full grown and acquired wings. 
Towards the latter part of May large flights of these young locusts began to 
pass over Central India and the North-West Provinces into the Central Pro- 
vinces and Bengal, at the same time penetrating into Kathiawar. During the 
months of June, July, and August these flights seem to have flown about from 
district to district, descending at intervals to devour the young kharif crops 
and doing a good deal of damage over restricted areas, especially in Bengal. 
They did not lay any eggs, however, and little was heard of them after 
August, the supposition being that by this time they had been pretty com- 
pletely destroyed by the birds and unfavourable climatic condition of the 
damp regions into which they had penetrated. 

The immediate result of the departure of these flights seems to have been 
to clear the Punjab of locusts, but the insect was still prevalent in Sind and 
Eajputana, and soon after the commencement of the rains of the south-west 
monsoon flights began to be again reported from the Punjab, During the 
rainy season of 1 891 egg-laying went on as usual in Sind and Rajputana, while 
in the Punjab eggs were reported in comparatively small numbers, at first from 
the south-eastern districts and afterwards throughout the whole area, thus 
pointing to the supposition that the eggs were laid by flights from Eajputana. 
Breeding seems to have gone on at intervals throughout the rainy season of 
1891, young locusts being still reported in the Punjab Salt Range in November. 
But they were very much fewer than before, and the birds— especially the 
Rosy-pastor {Pastor roseus)— -destroyed them in vast numbers. The locusts 
themselves also were so much parasitised and diseased that the work of the 
people in destroying them was very much lightened, and by the close of the 
year the pest seems to have been pretty completely wiped out. 

In March, 1892, a few locusts again appeared in Sind and the western frontier 
of the Punjab and laid eggs in Dera Ismail Khan, while in May some stray 
flights penetrated into the North- West Provinces and Bengal. Little damage, 
however, has been reported, and the insects seem to have been too few to 
cause any anxiety. 

It will be remembered that the only important points in the life history 

of the insect on which any serious doubts were indi- 
Notes on the life history of „ j. j • iV . 
the insects. cate( i m the previous report were upon the subject of 

the number of generation in the year and the relation- 
ship borne by the young locusts which hatch out in the spring to those which 
hatch out in the autumn. An attempt has since been made to settle these 



277 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

points by rearing the insect upon a considerable scale in large cages which 
were specially constructed for the purpose in the Indian Museum. The cages 
were placed under somewhat different conditions of sunlight and moisture, but 
in each case the insects, though reared from the egg to the imago stage without 
difficulty, died off before any ovipositing took place. 

Considerable quantities of eggs were received from Rawalpindi and Pesha- 
war in the spring of 1891. The first sets dried up without hatching in spite 
of the attempts that were made to keep them moist by watering the earth in 
which they were placed ( J ). Eggs received in the end of March, however, 
hatched out freely, though a large proportion are believed to have been 
destroyed by the parasitic flies that also emerged in large numbers ( 2 ). These 
young locusts were reared through all their stages without difficulty, though 
there was considerably greater mortality amongst them than had been the case 
with the ones that were reared in the Museum the previous year, and this in 
spite of the fact that the rearing cages were larger than before, and were kept 
some in the Museum and others in the open air, with a view to testing the 
conditions most favourable to the development of the insect. The young 
locusts acquired wings by the middle of May, but died off so rapidly that there 
was hardly any of them left by the end of the month. It was not possible, 
therefore, to make any observations as to the time at which they would lay 
their eggs. 

On the 19th June, 1891, Captain C. G-. Parsons wrote from Kohat that up to 
a few days previously locusts had been obtainable in the western portion of 
the district in every phase of development from eggs to fully-winged insects. 
He concluded that the process of egg-hatching had continued from the beginning 
of April until the beginning of June in tracts of country where the difference in 
elevation caused only a slight change of climate. We have seen that the locusts 
that were hatched from the earlier batches of eggs acquired wings in May, 
but there is evidence to show that these young locusts were not the parents 
of the eggs found by Captain Parsons in the middle of June, and probably not 
of any of the eggs laid during the rains. The flights which overran the North- 
West Provinces and other parts of India during the rains of 1891 were com- 
posed, as we have seen, of the young locusts in question. Large numbers of speci- 
mens from these flights were sent to the Museum from various places, but the 
numerous females that were dissected invariably had their ovaries far too un- 
developed for egg-laying. It is clear, therefore, that these young locusts could 
not have been the parents of the later broods of eggs. The case of the locusts 
sent to the Museum from flights which visited Singbhoom in the end of June 

( x ) This would seem to indicate that breaking up the land to expose the eggs to the air 
would be useful, provided it were done soon after the eggs were laid. Later on ploughing up 
the land becomes almost useless as the eggs hatch out whether exposed to the air or not. 

( 2 ) Noticed more fully in No. I. of this volume, pages 34 and 35. 



LOCUSTS. 278 

and beginning of July has been recorded as a typical one. The first specimens 
from this district were received in the Museum on the 30th June. The 
females were found on dissection to have their ovaries in an altogether rudi- 
mentary condition. On 7th July a number of living specimens were forwarded 
from the same locality. These were carefully fed in a cage in the Museum, 
and from time to time a specimen was dissected ; but up to the 7th of August, 
when the last specimen died and was dissected, though the growth which had 
taken place in the ova was very distinctly perceptible, yet there did not appear 
to be the slightest probability of the insects being ready :to oviposit for a 
long time to come. The impossibility of keeping the locusts in a healthy con- 
dition in confinement renders the deductions drawn from caged specimens 
necessarily unreliable. So far, however, as the evidence can be depended 
upon, it goes to show that the later broods are not the offspring of the young 
locusts hatched in the early part of the year. The question would be an easy 
one to solve for any one who lived on the borders of the deserts of Western 
Rajputana, where the insect is constantly to be found. All that would be 
necessary would be to dissect the insects present from day to day, and to trace 
the growth of the ovaries throughout the year. It may be suggested that the 
matter is one that might reasonably be taken up by some of the medical 
officers who are resident in the areas concerned. 

With regard to the parentage of the eggs which are so often laid in the 
Punjab towards the close of the winter rains, it has been ascertained that eggs 
can be laid at this time by locusts which were themselves hatched in the pre- 
ceding rains. Winged locusts from a flight which passed over Calcutta in 
November, 1890, and which had almost certainly originated in eggs laid in 
Rajputana in the previous rains, were kept in a cage in the Museum and 
regularly fed. In the latter part of March, 1891, they began copulating, and 
on the 26th March a number of eggs were laid. The earth in the cage had 
been previously saturated with water, in imitation of the conditions that have 
been shown to be favourable to egg-laying ; but the insects seemed to be too 
sickly to dig holes in the ground and simply deposited them on the surface. 
Some of the locusts lived on after laying their eggs through a great part of 
April ; but by the 4th of May they were all found to have died, while the eggs 
they had laid dried up and came to nothing. Very much the same experience 
is detailed by Colonel Powlett, Resident, Western Rajputana States, who 
writes in a report, dated 24th April, 1891, received from the Agent to the Gov- 
ernor-General, Rajputana, through the Government of India : — 

" At and about Jodhpore most of the young brood of locusts appeared early in August. 
When this brood got wings in September, I caught some hundreds and put them in cages 
and had them regularly fed ; they died off, and by February there were less than twenty 
left, but two pairs of these were observed to copulate. On the 24th and 25th February two 
females laid eggs. They were not healthy masses of eggs, and the females did not succeed 
in depositing them under the soil placed in the cages, nor have they hatched. But it is 



279 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

evidently difficult to keep locusts healthy in cages, and the oviposits heing poor is not 
wondered at. It would appear, however, to be proved that the common locusts of Northern 
India can copulate and lay eggs sis or seven months after birth, and that in all probability 
the eggs lately laid in the Punjab were those of insects hatched last August. The locusts 
which copulated round Jodhpore last July were of a bright yellow ; the survivors of their 
offspring, which were pink when put into the cages in September, were in February a dirty 
purple colour, and to the best of my recollection that was the colour of the locusts the eggs 
of which many years ago I helped to destroy during the month of March in the Punjab." 

The habitual disappearance of locusts throughout the greater portion of the 
winter months in North- Western India is explained by the fact that they 
require little or no food during this period, and probably hybernate in a dor- 
mant condition. On 28th February, 1891, Mr. J. Oleghorn wrote that locusts 
had been hybernating without food in a cage kept in his house in Peshin, 
Baluchistan, since the 15th September, 1890, though he had found that similar 
insects in the summer required to be fed constantly to keep them alive. 

There is little to add to what has already been recorded upon the subject 
of the methods adopted in fighting the locusts, but it 

th?K»! ad ° Pted agalDSt ma y be useful to notice what was actually done during 
the year 1891 in carrying on the campaign in 
different districts. The reports which have been received upon this subject 
are very fragmentary, but the measures they describe are probably typical of 
what went on over the greater portion of the areas invaded. ( 2 ) 

In the cold weather of 1890-91 numbers of the winged locusts which swarmed 
into the Rawalpindi District were killed in the early mornings, when they 
were numb with cold, by the people ; and as the spring of 1891 advanced, a 
regular campaign was organized throughout the Punjab by the district officials 
for the destruction of the young locusts. 

In Dera Ismail Khan, a naib-tahsildar and kanungo, with six or seven chapra- 
sis under them, were put in charge of each tappa, and lambardars and zilladars 
were warned to render every assistance in their power. Five hundred rupees 
were spent in rewards. The wells and water-courses were kept clean to avert 
epidemic disease, but the people were very apathetic, and little impression 
was made on the vast swarms which crowded into the district. 

In Eawalpindi the district was divided into circles with an officer in charge 
of each, whose main duty it was to look after the destruction of the locusts and 
their eggs. All tahsil officials were employed in the work of destruction, and a 
thousand rupees were spent from district funds. Millions of eggs and young 
locusts were destroyed, but the impression made was small, as the insects laid 
their eggs largely in the extensive and sparsely peopled Kala Chitta Range, 
where it was most difficult to get at them, 

( J ) The following notices are mostly taken from a report by the Director of Land Records 
and Agriculture, Punjab, supplemented by the information collected from crop and other 
reports sent to the Museum. 



LOCUSTS. 28 

In Hazara some four hundred maunds of young locusts were destroyed in 
April in the Mansahra Tahsil under the direction of the tahsildar. 

In Peshawar the villagers were turned out at once whenever younw locusts 
showed themselves, and by the 20th April some ten thousand people* were at 
work. When the rabi harvest began the villagers were dismissed, and five 
thousand hired labourers were employed until about the 3rd of May, when the 
barley was half reaped and the ears of wheat were too hard to be attacked by 
the young locusts. At a low estimate, over eighty millions of young locusts 
were destroyed, the cost being about eight thousand rupees. The myriads of 
locusts, however, which poured into the district from independent territory 
made it impossible to deal at all completely with the invasion. 

In Kohat orders were issued to turn out the people when the locusts 
hatched, and the greatest exertions were made to deal with the pest. In the 
Kohat station itself, Captain Parsons wrote that the chief invasion lasted 
about ten days. During this time vast numbers of locusts were destroyed 
each day, the quantity amounting on one occasion to six hundred maunds. 
One rupee was paid for each maund weighed. Nearly all the undetained 
inhabitants of the city laboured, and the troops and the boys of the large High 
School assisted. The collection of the insects was very simple, as they could 
be shaken off the trees by thousands into sheets held below. Four men could 
collect a maund in a very short time. There were ten weighing stations 
established, and the district funds were freely drawn upon. According to a 
crop report published in June, 1891, numbers of young locusts in the Hangu 
Tahsil of Kohat were also destroyed by firing the dwarf palms through which 
they were crawling, while in the Barak ilaqua the destruction is noticed in the 
same report of some three thousand maunds of young locusts. 

In Jhelum the destruction of eggs began early in March. From five 
hundred to six hundred maunds of eggs were destroyed in one tahsil. At first 
one anna, and later half-an-anna, a seer was paid for the eggs, while gur and 
atta were distributed to the people engaged in destroying the young locusts. 
Some Es. 3,000 was noticed as spent from district funds in the early part of 
the spring upon the. destruction of eggs and young locusts. But the Deputy 
Commissioner states that the people were inclined to be apathetic, as, from the 
dimensions of the plague, it seemed hopeless to cope with it. 

In Shahpur the naib-tahsildar of Khushab was put in special charge, and 
large numbers of young locusts were destroyed, though little real impression 
was made upon the pest. 

In Gujranwalla in March many of the winged locusts were killed in the 
mornings and evenings when they were inactive. Every patwari, lambardar, 
and policeman was made responsible for reporting at the tahsil whenever eggs 
were laid or young appeared. Land in which eggs had been deposited, if not 
under crop, was ploughed three or four times so as to expose them.' Eggs 



281 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

also were collected in great numbers, the usual plan being to make each house 
in a village furnish daily a " tind " or well-pot full of eggs. 

In Sialkot bands of villagers were organised to kill the young locusts. The 
methods adopted were, driving them into trenches and burying them, and 
surrounding them with a circle of men armed with branches, who gradually 
drove them into straw which was then burnt. 

An interesting account is given by Colonel Lance, the Officer Commanding 
at Ferozepur, of the methods adopted in fighting the young locusts which in- 
vaded that cantonment in May, 1891. Both British and native troops were 
employed in the work, and Colonel Lance writes : — 

" Bach corps and detachment was given certain limits within which it was to work and to 
do its best to destroy any swarms that came within them ; corps, however, were employed 
at other places that were heavily threatened, as required. 

" With the exception of one heavy swarm that came on the 17th Bengal Cavalry lines, the 
swarms came on the south-west corner of the station, and on the south-east and north-east 
as far as the cemetery, near the Sudder Bazar. In the Commissariat Transport lines they 
were in countless numbers, and for days it seemed as if they would succeed in getting into 
the station from that direction. 

" The method principally adopted to destroy the locusts was by burning them with 
dry grass. When swarming in trees or bushes this seems to be the only effective method. 
When in open ground it is easy to drive them to lines or clumps of dry grass in which they 
swarm, and which is lighted when the whole swarm has collected. The objection to this 
method, however, is the enormous expenditure of grass, even when used economically 
as was done when the men became experienced in the work. Large quantities of grass were 
bought, but the Executive Engineer placed at my disposal a large quantity of old thatch 
without which it would have been impossible to have.provided the quantity of grass required. 
Kerosine was tried with the grass. It was used chiefly to burn the locusts out of trees 
and bushes, but it was found after trial that in most cases the grass was nearly as effective 
without kerosine, a great deal of which was required to produce auy result. 

" It was found that grass could be much economised by digging a small trench about 
a foot deep and a foot wide, filling the bottom with a little grass and laying the same lightly 
on the earth thrown upon the side opposite to that towards which the locusts were being 
driven. A little more grass sprinkled round the trench after the swarm had been driven 
into it, and set fire to, effectively secured the destruction of the swarm with but little 
expenditure of grass. 

" Pits were also dug into which the locusts were driven and then buried. This plan 
is said to answer well when the insects are small, but when, as in the present case, they 
are large and active, it is found that they could not be kept in the pits unless they were 
dug very deep, and even then many succeeded in getting away. 

" 1 had the opportunity of trying the method said to have been used with great success 
in Cyprus. Low canvas screens were made from condemned tents supplied from the arsenal, 
and strips of American cloth, over which the locusts cannot crawl, were sewn to their upper 
edge. In front of these screens, which were set up in the path of the locusts, pits were dug, 
round which an edging of tin was placed, up which the locusts could not crawl. Driven 
against these screens the locusts either hopped into the pit themselves or were driven 
in by men, who eventually surrounded them. The advantages of this plan are the extent 
of ground that is covered, the comparatively few men that are required, and the completeness 



IRIDESCENT COLOURS. 282 

of the operation, as if the screens are sound and the drive conducted with skill and patience 
scarcely any locusts can escape being driven into the pits. The tin rim obviates the necessity 
of the pits being dug deep, 2 or at more 3 feet being sufficient. The rims used were 4 feet by 
2 feet, an edging of 2J inches of tin on the ground surface round the pit, and the same width 
on the inside edge of it. 

" I regret that I knew of this plan too late to provide sufficient screens for general use? 
I believe that this system will be found most efficacious, and feel confident that had we been 
prepared with this apparatus, the work of destruction would have been carried on with less 
trouble and with better results." 

In Jhang, according to a crop report issued in June, 1891, twenty thousand 
maunds of locusts had up to that time been destroyed. 

The above comprises all detailed information which has reached the Museum 
on the subject of what was done in the Punjab in the Spring of 1891/ but 
numerous incidental notices have been received of the work of destruction 
which seems to have gone on systematically in all districts where young 
locusts hatched out. 

With regard to what was done in Sind and Rajputana, where egg-laying 
also went on, little fresh information has been obtained, but the people seem, 
as usual, to have done what they could in the way of destroying the young 
locusts by driving them into trenches. 

In the case of the measures taken in districts that were only visited by 
flights, no fresh information has been received, but the system which has proved 
so successful of driving the insects off the crops is believed to have been 
universally adopted by the cultivators. 

E. C. Cotes, 
Deputy Superintendent, 

Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
8th June, 1892. 



ON IRIDESCENT COLOURS AND A METHOD OF EXAMINING 

IRIDESCENT OBJECTS, BIRDS, INSECTS, MINERALS, &c, SO 

AS TO ENSURE UNIFORMITY IN THEIR DESCRIPTION. 

By Alex. Hodgkinsox, m.b., b.sc. s 

On taking a general survey of coloured objects, whether natural or artificial, 
we become aware of the fact that whilst the colours of some remain unchanged 
as regards tint, whatever their position in relation to the incident light, the 
tint of others varies with every alteration in their relationship to such light 
source. "We thus see that, so far as their colours are concerned, all bodies may 
be arranged in two groups according as their colours change or do not change 
in tint as their angular relationship to the light varies. Nor is this classifica- 
tion entirely an artificial one, since, as will shortly be seen, though this change 

* This Paper appeared originally in the Memoirs and Proceedings of the" Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, Vol. V, Part IT, 

16 



283 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

in tint with variation in the light source is an essential difference, it is not the 
only difference, even in the colour manifestations of the two groups, for it is 
also characteristic of the nature of the colour-producing structure. It is to 
the above-mentioned varying colours that we apply the term " iridescent," from 
the resemblance they have in the sequence or play of colours to the tints of 
the rainbow. The unvarying group of colours, having no equivalent term to 
" iridescence" to express the nature of their colour production, are spoken of 
as "pigmentary," or absorption colours. In naming examples of objects, 
natural and artificial, grouped as above in accordance with the nature of their 
colours, it is difficult to make a selection where all are so varied and charac- 
teristic. I have preferred, therefore, to cite only such instances as I myself 
possess, and am, therefore, able to show you. As examples of pigmentary 
colours, I need only name one or two for the sake of comparison, since the 
colours of most objects ordinarily met with are pigmentary. Leaves, flowers, 
dyes, birds, fish, insects, minerals, &c, exhibit these colours, some almost 
entirely, and all, excepting fish, in far the majority of instances. Of objects 
displaying iridescent colours we have also examples in the various divisions of 
the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. Amongst birds the most striking 
examples are found amongst the Humming Birds, Sun Birds, Birds of Para- 
dise, &c. Insects, again, furnish numerous examples, more especially 
amongst tropical species, though not, perhaps, proportionally in greater 
numbers than amongst those belonging to our own more temperate regions. 
The colours of fish are almost entirely iridescent, since their very whiteness, or 
silvery sheen, is due to the admixture of the iridescent colours of innumerable 
minute thin lamellse, too small to be seen individually with the naked eye, but 
plainly perceptible under the microscope. In the vegetable kingdom irides- 
cent colours are far more numerous than is ordinarily recognized, since the 
surfaces of the cell-walls produce interference colours which are more or less 
obscured by the pigmentary colours of leaves and coloured flowers, but may 
be readily seen in the case of white flowers by the aid of a lens and sunlight. 
Under these conditions each cell may be seen to sparkle with its own iridescent 
colour, forming, by admixture of the interference tints of neighbouring cells, 
the varying shades of white seen in numerous flowers which are devoid of 
pigmentary colour. Mineral bodies displaying iridescent colours are also 
numerous ; opals, sunstone, fire-marble, felspar, mica films, tarnish on various 
metallic crystals, certain crystals of chlorate of potash, &c, are examples. 

In describing the various natural objects for purposes of identification, or 
mere description, no account can be considered complete which omits all re- 
ference to their colours, and more especially is this the case where the colours 
constitute such a striking feature, as in the case of iridescent bodies. In in- 
numerable instances, more especially amongst birds and insects, their specific 
names are taken from some conspicuous colour they possess. It thus becomes 
evident that a correct description of the colours of bodies is of importance, 



IRIDESCENT COLOURS. 284 

and where these colours are of the pigmentary or unchanging kind this is a 
matter of no difficulty. How different, however, in the case of objects, the 
colours of which not only vary with every change of position, but disappear 
altogether, unless viewed with special relation to the light source. Nor can 
it be wondered at that descriptions of these objects, even by observers of 
undoubted repute, vary according to the different angles from which they 
have been viewed, or are vague and profuse, owing to fruitless attempts to 
describe their changing tints produced by every movement. The fact is, no 
words can convey an adequate impression of the gorgeous effects produced by 
most of such objects, whether birds, insects, or fish, when in motion in bril- 
liant sunshine. Some notion of the difficulties to contend with in describing 
the colours of humming birds, for example, may be gathered from the 
remarks of Wallace in his work on " Tropical Nature," when speaking of 
humming birds :— " In some species they must be looked at from above in 
others from below ; in some from the front, in others from behind, in order to 
catch the full glow of the metallic lustre ; hence, when the birds are seen m 
their native haunts, the colours come and go and change with their motion, so 
as to produce a startling and beautiful effect." Most observers, in describing 
the colours of iridescent bodies, do so by attempting to depict the varied 
effects produced by casually changing the position of the object in relation to 
the light, omitting to mention the exact sequence of the play of colours, or the 
relation of these colours to the direction of the iridescent light, i.e. wheth© 
produced by perpendicular or oblique illumination. Here is a description of 
the tufted neck humming bird, Trochilus ornatus, taken haphazard from a 
well-known work :— " The throat is of a fine green colour, variable in differ- 
ent lights to a golden hue with a yellow or brown metallic lustre, and below 
that the whole of the belly is a rich brown, .glossed with green, and golden." 
Such descriptions as the above, which happen to be the first I met with in 
seeking for an instance, are vague, and fail to give a definite idea of the 
appearance of the object. But vagueness in the description of these objects 
is not the only result of the changing character of their colours. As might be 
expected, where such variation in appearance exists, the descriptions of differ- 
ent authors are almost as variable as the colours. Few attempt descriptions 
without acknowledging the hopelessness of the task. Thus Jardine after 
describing this humming bird, Chryslampis mosquitus, remarks : " It is impos- 
sible to convey by words the idea of these tints, and having mentioned those 
substances to which they approach nearest, imagination must be left to con- 
ceive the rest." And I adduce this quotation as fairly expressing the feeling 
of naturalists in reference to the description of iridescent objects general- 
ly. Eecognizing the admitted inability of observers to convey by description 
an idea of the appearance of these iridescent objects, and having myself for 
many years, constantly experienced the same difficulty, I have been led to 
adopt a method for the examination of such objects, which, whilst extremely 



285 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. Till. 

simple and available in its application, yields unvarying results with different 
observers — results, moreover, which admit of the simplest description. 

Before describing this method, I may say that long experience in the 
examination of iridescent objects has proved to me that, almost without 
exception, the colours of natural iridescent objects are due to interference 
produced by thin plates. In order, therefore, to render clear the principles 
on which the method I propose is founded, I will briefly refer to certain 
fundamental facts in connection with colour production by thin plates, and 
for this purpose will select a thin film of mica, which, with light at 
perpendicular incidence, appears red, iridescent red. If, now, this plate be 
inclined so that the light falls on it at a more oblique angle, it is, of course, 
reflected at the same angle, and now appears orange, and if the plate be still 
further inclined, the reflected light appears yellow, then yellowish-green, 
green, and bluish-green ; and if the light were not too copiously reflected from 
the first surface to allow of perceptible interference by further inclination of 
the plate, all the colours of the spectrum in their proper sequence might be 
observed. The same results, but much more vividly, may be seen in these 
crystals of chlorate of potash. Thus we see that by rendering the incident 
light more and more oblique, the reflected light changes from a lower to a 
higher tint, that is, from the red towards the violet end of the spectrum. And 
this is what occurs in the case of all iridescent bodies ; as the incident light 
becomes more oblique, the colour changes to the tint above it in the spectral 
order, so that, if we know what colour any such object appears when seen at a 
certain angle, we can infer what colour it will change to on varying the 
incidence. This beetle (Sagra purpurea), for instance, is red at perpendicular 
incidence ; it will, therefore, appear orange-yellow and green when examined 
by successively increased obliquity of light. And the same is true of all other 
iridescent red objects. If the object at perpendicular incidence be green, as 
in the case of this beetle (Buprestis), it will become blue and then violet as the 
incidence is increased. We thus see that an iridescent object varies in colour 
simply because it is examined by light incident, and therefore reflected, at 
different angles. Thus, different observers see the same iridescent object of a 
different colour, when they view it illuminated by light at a different angle of 
incidence. If, however, the object is seen by all at the same angle of the 
incident light, it will present the same colour ; and this is, in fact, what the 
method I propose ensures, i.e., that iridescent objects shall always be seen by 
light at one and the same angle of incidence. The angle I select is one of 90°, 
so that the incidence and reflection are normal or perpendicular to the reflect- 
ing surface. By selecting this angle, all trouble of measuring angles is 
avoided since we know that the incidence is perpendicular when it coincides 
with reflection. Now the reflected light may be made to coincide with the 
incident light by reflecting it on to the object by means of a mirror, and so 
adjusting the object that the light reflected from it passes to the eye through 



IRIDESCENT COLOURS. 286 

a perforation in the mirror. When examined in this way, iridescent objects 
are marvellously altered in appearance, their changing colours are replaced by 
one fixed tint, visible only in one position — a fact which serves at once to dis- 
tinguish them from bodies coloured by absorption, which remain coloured, 
whatever the relation to the incident light. Such methods of examining bodies 
scarcely takes more time than by the eye alone. The mirror may be attached 
to a spectacle frame so as to leave both hands free, such as the one I show, or 
may be a simple hand mirror. For objects too small to be seen by the un- 
aided eye, I have so arranged the microscope that light is made to pass down 
the tube of the instrument, through the object glass on to the objects, and by 
a special arrangement, so adjusted the position of the object that the light is 
reflected back again through the instrument to the eye. The method is thus 
available for macroscopic as well as microscopic objects. 

To illustrate the practical value of this plan of examination, I have here 
a few objects exhibiting iridescent colours, which, by trial, will be found to 
give the following results : — 

The crest of this humming bird, Chrysolampis mosquitus, which, to the 
unaided eye, appears resplendent with all shades of red, orange, yellow, or 
green, according to the angle of the incidence light, appears, when examined by 
the mirror, of one unvarying red tint, disappearing when the object is moved, 
but absolutely unchanging in tint. Such an object, therefore, I should 
describe as " iridescent red," all else regarding its colour may be inferred. 
Again, the breast, or gorget, of the same bird reflects all shades of orange, 
yellow, or green to the eye alone ; with the mirror it is seen of a deep orange, 
which, as before, is unchanged in tints by any variation in position. Such an 
object I would describe as " iridescent orange." The gorget of another 
humming bird, Calliphlox amethystiua, to the eye alone, appears crimson, orange, 
yellow, or green ; with the mirror it is iridescent crimson only, spectroscopically 
a red of the 2nd order. Amongst insects, instances of iridescent species are 
numberless, the results of examination are just the same as in other iridescent 
bodies. This butterfly, Morpho, to the eye alone appears either greenish-blue, 
blue, or violet, as its inclination to the light varies ; examined with the 
mirror it appears green, and should be described as iridescent green, or iride- 
scent bluish-green. This beetle, Poropleura bacca, appears any shade of red, 
yellow, or green to the eye alone ; with the mirror only iridescent red. In 
this extraordinary beetle, Chrysochroa fulminans, we have all the colours of 
the spectrum in their natural sequence, beginning with red at the tip of the 
wing case, and ending with violet higher up the elytron, These colours 
vary in an indescribable manner when attentively examined at different angles 
of incident light with the eye alone ; with the mirror the wing cases are seen 
to be coloured successively from base to tip iridescent green, yellow, orange, 
and red, and these tints remain unaltered by change of position of the object. 
This piece of Haliotis shell exhibits indescribable changes of colour with every 



287 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

movement, but the difficulty of description, though by no means removed, is 
immeasurably lessened by the use of the mirror. And the same with this 
specimen of iridescent iron ore ; its colours, which vary to the unaided eye, 
remain unchanged when examined by the mirror. To simplify the description 
of iridescent objects, therefore, I would advocate the above method, and 
would describe the result of such examination by recording the colour 
observed by aid of the mirror, and prefixing the term " iridescent" to express 
the changing properties of the colour. Bearing in mind the unvarying nature 
of these changes, a far clearer idea may be formed of the appearance of these 
objects than from any attempted description of what is admittedly indescrib- 
able. Time and space are also economised by the omission of lengthy 
descriptions. The accuracy, and therefore the value, of any description of 
colour, is always enhanced by mapping its spectrum ; more especially is this 
true in the case of iridescent colours. This is easily done, and by applying 
such map to a spectral chart, the order of the colour, and therefore its tint, is 
apparent. In examining many objects, chiefly birds or insects, by means of 
the mirror as above described, apparent exceptions are repeatedly met with 
to the fact stated above that the colour is invariable in tint and disappears by 
inclination of the body. Such instances are no real exceptions, but are due to 
the reflecting plates being curved, or having pigmentary matter beneath them, 
or an opalescent medium above them. In this way some of the most extra- 
ordinary and beautiful colour effects, it seems possible to conceive, are produced. 
Some of them I hope to bring before your notice on a future occasion. 

In examining objects with the perforated mirror a single light is necessary. 
The sun is of course the best, and the electric light probably almost as good. 
I frequently employ the lime-light, but a good paraffin lamp may be used as a 
substitute. Ordinary gas is unsuitable. The light should be placed in front 
of the observer, its direct rays being prevented from falling on the objects by 
means of a book or partition of some kind resting on the table, and of such a 
height that the light can be seen above it. On placing the mirror to the eye 
the light may be reflected from the mirror on to the object, and the latter 
manipulated so as to reflect the ray back through the perforation in the mirror 
to the eye. The incidence is thus known to be normal, and the colour 
observed is the one to be recorded. 



NOTES ON THE HABITS OF SOME LIVING SCORPIONS, 
By B. I. Pocock. 
The literature which treats of the habits of living scorpions is not volu- 
minous, but it labours under the disadvantages of being based largely upon 
undetermined species, and of being often of questionable trustworthiness 
with regard to the statements that are made. Even accounts that have been 
given of late years of the same species of scorpion differ widely as to facts 



SCORPIONS. 288 

of no small importance. Mons. L. Becker, for instance, asserts that the senses 
of hearing and seeing are highly developed in Prionurus australis, the 
thick-tailed yellow scorpion of Algeria and Egypt ; Prof. Lankester, on the 
contrary, declares exactly the opposite to be the case. Discrepancies' such as 
these and the deficiencies above mentioned show the need for fresh obser- 
vations upon the subject, and no further excuse need be offered for publishing 
the following notes upon the habits of some specimens of two species of scor- 
pions, Parabuthus capensis and Euscorpius carpathicus, which I was fortunate 
enough to keep for some months in captivity. 

For the specimens of Parabuthus I gladly take this opportunity of express- 
ing my thanks to my friend, Mr. H. A. Spencer, of Cape Town, who kindly 
collected them for me at Port Elizabeth while acting as medical officer on 
board the Union Steam Ship Company's S.S. "Mexican;" while for the Euscor- 
pius I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Gestro, of the Natural History 
Museum at Genoa. This last genus of scorpion Prof. Lankester has also 
written about ; many of my observations, therefore, merely confirm those of 
this author. No description, however, has to my knowledge ever been 
published upon the habits of any species of Parabuthus. This genus, how- 
ever, belongs to the same family as Prionurus, and the behaviour of the two 
in captivity seems to be very similar. 

There is an abundance of evidence that scorpions are nocturnal, and mine 
were no exception to the rule. They would spend the daytime huddled 
together in corners of their box or under pieces of wood ; at night they 
would wander about, presumably in search of food. It was easy, however, 
at any time during the day to rouse them from their sluggishness by applying 
a little artificial warmth to the box. One end of the box containing the 
Parabuthus was closed with a plate of perforated zinc. If this box was 
placed in the fender at a distance of about a couple of feet from a moderate 
fire, with the zinc end turned towards the grate, the scorpions would climb 
upon the metal plate and bask in the warmth. But immediately the box 
was brought near the bars of the grate they would all clamber or tumble from 
their position with ludicrous haste. It must not be supposed, however that 
the amount of heat required to make them retreat was at all great. *Asa 
matter of fact warmth that I could without inconvenience bear for several 
minutes upon my hand would throw these animals at once into a state of 
the greatest consternation. 

When walking both Parabuthus and Euscorpius carry the large pincers or 
chelae well in advance of the head ; these appendages thus fulfil the office of 
antennas or feelers. In Parabuthus the body, however distended and heavy 
with food, is raised high upon the legs exactly as Prof. Lankester has de- 
scribed in Prionurus, and the tail is usually carried, curled in a vertical plane, 
over the hinder part of the back. In Euscorpius, on the contrary, as has also 
been pointed out by Prof. Lankester, the ventral surface of the body is 



289 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

scarcely raised from the ground during progression, and the tail, which is 
very slender and relatively much lighter than in Prionurus or Parabuthus 
is dragged along, extended, and with a slight curl only at its hinder end. 
This difference in the carriage of the tail depends possibly upon the differ- 
ence in its size and weight. For it seems reasonable to suppose that the 
heavy, robust tail of a Parabuthus or Prionurus is carried with less muscular 
effort when curled over the back than when stretched out behind as is 
Euscorpius. 

When attempting to climb up the smooth sides of their box the Parabuthus 
would raise themselves upon the extremity of the fifth segment of the tail, and 
by keeping this organ perfectly rigid and in the same straight line as the body 
they could maintain themselves in a nearly vertical position, thus reaching 
considerably higher than if supported upon the hind legs alone. 

The method of digging shallow pits or holes in sand, which Mons. Becker 
and Prof. Lankester have described in the case of Prionurus, is also practised 
by Parabuthus. Standing upon the first and fourth pairs of legs, and using 
the tips of the chelae and the end of the tail as additional props, with the 
disengaged legs, a scorpion rapidly kicks the sand backwards between the 
legs of the last pair, very much as a rabbit or rat does when burrowing. 
Then with the apparent intention of removing what would prove an obstacle 
to its vision when crouching in the hole, it sweeps aside with its tail the heap 
of sand that has been thro-wn up, until the area surrounding its lurking place 
is tolerably level. 

I never saw a Euscorpius digging in the sand. They were usually to be 
found during the daytime under pieces of wood, to which they were nearly 
always clinging belly uppermost. It is difficult to explain why this attitude 
should be assumed. Many terricolous arthropods, however, have the same 
habit, and I see no reason for thinking that in the case of Euscorpius it has 
any connection with the copulation of these animals as Prof. Lankester 
suggests. 

All scorpions appear to be carnivorous, and there seems to be little doubt 
that they live principally upon insects or other articulated animals. My 
specimens of Euscorpius would eat blue-bottles and small flies, small cock- 
roaches (E. germanicus), wood-lice, small spiders, and centipedes (Lithobius 
and Geophilus). The Parabuthus were fed principally upon the common 
house-cockroach and upon blue-bottles. It is interesting to note in connec- 
tion with this last fact that Prof. Lankester's examples of Prionurus would 
not eat this common cockroach, nor did they seem to care for blue-bottle 
flies. This difference of instinct in the choice of food is remarkable, seeing 
how similar these two scorpions are in other particulars, both of habit and 
structure. 

No one acquainted with the agility of a cockroach and the usual sluggish- 
ness of a scorpion would think that the latter would often succeed in cap- 



SCORPIONS. 290 

turing the former. Yet in truth, when placed in the same box, the insect 
seldom has a long lease of life. Its ultimate fate is always due to its ignorance 
of the scorpion's nature, and to the latter's adroitness in seizing anything 
that comes within reach. Wandering round the box, and exploring every 
inch of its new quarters with its antennae, the cockroach soon discovers the 
presence of the scorpion by touching it with the tips of these organs. The 
scorpion's sense of touch, however, is as delicate as the insect's, and the 
latter's antenna?, or any part of it that happens to be near, is quickly seized 
by the pincers of the scorpion. Should the latter be disinclined for food and 
take no notice of the cockroach s first approach, the insect, continuing its 
wanderings, will fearlessly creep over the scorpion, just as a rabbit will over 
a python. Obviously this fearlessness must prove its destruction in the end, 
if not immediately. By means of its agility and strength, a cockroach some- 
times eludes the scorpion's first clutch, and sometimes, but not often, breaks 
away from the latter's hold. But it does not readily learn from its narrow 
escape the advisability of giving its enemy a wide berth the next time they 
meet. 

Although usually trusting to their heels for escape, cockroaches occasion- 
ally resort to a method of self-defence which is sufficiently curious to be 
described. Advancing upon an adversary rear end foremost, and at the same 
time wagging from side to side this region of the body, they deliver vigorous 
backward kicks with their spinny hind-legs, ihis novel and humiliating 
mode of fighting, although not likely to prevail long against jaws and stings, 
is sufficient, nevertheless, to gain sometimes for the insects a temporary 
reprieve. I have indeed seen a fine female Madeira tarantula spider retreat 
in discomfiture before a big cockroach of the same sex, which assaulted her 
in the way described. 

As soon as a cockroach is seized the use of the- scorpion's tail is seen ; for 
this organ is brought rapidly over the latter's back, and the point of the 
sting is thrust into the insect. The poison instilled into the wound thus 
made, although not causing immediate death, has a paralysing effect upon 
the muscles, and quickly deprives the insect of struggling powers, and con- 
sequently of all chance of escape. If the insect, however, is a small one— one 
in fact that can be easily held in the pincers and eaten without trouble while 
alive — a scorpion does not always waste poison upon it. Thus I have seen a 
Parahuthus seize a blue-bottle fly, transfer it straight to its mandibles, and 
pick it to pieces with them when still kicking. Prof. Lankester only rarely 
saw his scorpions feed. I was more fortunate and repeatedly watched the 
operation, which is always performed exactly as this author has described. 
An insect is literally picked to pieces by the small chelate mandibles, these 
two jaws being thrust out and retracted alternately, first one and then the 
other being used. The soft juices and tissues thus exposed are drawn into 
17 



291 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

the minute mouth by the sucking action of the stomach. It would seem, 
however, that some hard chitinous pieces are also introduced into the alimen- 
tary canal, for the entire exoskeleton of a cockroach is rarely, if ever, left 
after the meal is finished. 

Feeding is a slow process ; a good-sized cockroach will last a Parabuthus for 
upwards of two hours or more. But although voracious eaters when the 
chance presents itself, they are able to endure with impunity starvation of 
several weeks' duration. Unlike spiders, which are notoriously thirsty crea- 
tures, scorpions never seem to need anything to drink. At least none of mine 
were ever seen to touch water, although a supply of it was at first always kept 
in their box. 

"With regard to the higher senses, the only one that seems to be highly deve- 
loped is that of touch. Mons. L. Becker declares that sight and hearing are 
excessively developed ; but I cannot substantiate this statement in either 
particular. With regard to hearing, my observations agree entirely with those 
of Prof. Lankester, who could not detect the existence of any sense of this 
nature. None of my scorpions ever gave the slightest response to any kind of 
sound, although they were tried with tuning forks of varying tone and with 
shouts of both high and low pitch. These animals, in fact, resemble the 
hunting spiders in being apparently devoid of auditory organs. They further, 
resemble them in the development of their visual powers, being able to see 
a moving body, like a living cockroach, at a distance of only about three or 
four inches. Even at a distance less than this they do not seem able to 
distinguish form. Thus a specimen of Parabuthus, excited by the presence 
of cockroaches in the box, was seen to rush at one of its fellows that crossed 
its line of vision about two inches off, evidently not recognising by sight a 
member of its own species, for directly the pincers came in contact with the 
latter the mistake was discovered, the pugnacious attitude dropped, and no 
further notice was taken. This last observation shows that more is learnt 
from the sense of touch than from that of sight — an inference which is further 
supported by the habit, above referred to, of carrying the pincers well in 
front of the head as if to feel the way. There is no doubt that the external 
organs of touch in scorpions are the hairs which thickly or sparingly cover 
various parts of the body. The tail is often very thickly studded with setse, 
and the poison vesicle always has some upon it. Their use upon this latter 
organ is very plainly seen during the act of stinging. For this act is not by 
any means a random thrust delivered indiscriminately at any part of a cap- 
tured insect. On the contrary, a scorpion generally feels carefully for a 
soft spot, and then with an air of great deliberation delicately inserts its sting 
into it. There can be little doubt that this care is taken that there may be 
no risk of damaging the point of the sting against a substance too hard for it. 
A reckless stab against the resisting chitinous exoskeleton of a beetle, for 
instance, might easily chip this point, and thus deprive the scorpion of its 



SCORPIONS. 292 

most efficient weapon of attack and defence. The same care of this sting is 
shown in the carriage of the tail, this organ being curled in such a way that 
the point cannot come into contact with any foreign bodies. Even when 
teased with a piece of stick or irritated by being crawled upon by a cockcroach, 
a scorpion is not often sufficiently provoked as to use the sting. The tail is 
certainly used to knock aside the instrument or sweep off the insect, but the 
sides or lower surface of the organ are employed, the vesicle being carefully 
tucked down. Upon one occasion a Parabuthus was seen to kill a cockroach 
and retire to a corner to eat it in peace, beginning at the tail end. Presently 
a smaller example of the same species coming along and finding the opposite 
extremity of the insect disengaged, started feeding on its own account. So 
quietly was the process carried on by the two, that not until nothing but a 
few shreds remained did the larger discover the presence of its messmate. 
Thereupon it quickly brought its tail into use, and by beating off its unwel- 
come guest secured for itself the remains of the meal. But although the 
provocation was great the defrauded one never attempted to use its sting to 
punish the intruder. 

In connection with the organs of touch, the pectine or ventral combs must 
not be forgotten. Of the function of these appendages something is known, 
though, no doubt, much remains to be learnt. Their situation near the gene- 
rative aperture, their larger size in the males, and the modification of their 
basal portion in the females of some species, e.g., Parabuthus, suggest that 
they are tactile sexual organs of some importance, and Gaubert's discovery 
of the nervous terminations in the teeth is a satisfactory confirmation of this 
supposition. But apart from sexual functions it is highly probable that they 
are useful organs of touch in other relations of life, enabling their possessor 
to learn the nature of the surface over which it is walking. In favour of 
this view may be adduced the fact that these animals have been seen to touch 
the ground with their combs. Moreover, it is a very noticeable circumstance 
that scorpions which, like Euscorpius, creep along with their bellies close to 
the ground, have very short combs ; while in others which, like Parabuthus, 
stand high upon their legs, the combs are exceedingly long. I once noticed 
a Parabuthus marching over a piece of a dead cockroach. When she had 
half crossed it, instead of going straight ahead, as was expected, she halted 
abruptly, backed a little, and, stooping down, started to devour the fragment. 
From the height at which the body was being carried, I am persuaded that 
no portion of its lower surface, except the combs, could have come into 
contact with the piece of food ; so there can be little doubt that its presence 
was detected by means of the organs in question. 

Creatures which, like snakes, are both carnivorous and venomous, and present 
at the same time an appearance which is by no means reassuring, are always held 
in bad repute by mankind in general, and suffer in accordance with the 
principle laid down in the adage, " Give a dog a bad name and hang him." 



293 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII, 

But amongst creatures of this description it is probable that scorpions qualify 
for first place with respect to the number and enormity of the vices with 
which they have been charged. Those that are most frequently alleged 
against them are general ferocity, murder, cannibalism, infanticide, and 
suicide. And yet, in spite of this serious charge-sheet, there is no doubt that 
they are much-maligned animals. For in defence of the accusation of fero- 
city I can say that I never saw a scorpion use its destructive weapons except 
with the legitimate object of killing prey for purposes of nutrition, or as a 
reasonable means of defence when molested. Naturally enough they will not 
tolerate handling, but when allowed to crawl upon the hand they make no 
attempt to sting it, and merely evince a desire to escape to surroundings more 
natural and congenial than human skin. From the charges of cannibalism 
and murder, however, these animals cannot be so easily cleared. For there is 
an abundance of evidence that they do sometimes, when in captivity, both 
kill and eat each other. Nevertheless, so far as my experience goes, members 
of the same species do for the most part live together in perfect harmony. 
Once only, did I see a large Euscorpius eating a small one. But since the 
latter showed no signs of violence, there are no reasons for supposing that 
it had died other than a natural death. Like many other animals, scorpions 
may be made to fight by artificial means, and when roused to a high pitch of 
excitement by too much heat, they will clutch and grab at each other with 
the appearance of the greatest ferocity. But I never saw any evil result from 
these tussels. The combatants always seemed to prefer to part company 
without bloodshed. 

As for the accusation of infanticide, it appears to be quite groundless. For 
it is well known that a mother-scorpion protects her young by carrying them 
about on her back until they are able to shift for themselves. 

The question as to whether scorpions do or do not commit suicide by sting- 
ing themselves to death, when plaoed in a circle of fire, or otherwise tortured 
by that element, is one which has excited considerable amount of discussion. 
The belief that they do do so, with the object of escaping from the pains of 
burning, is of long standing, and probably has many adherents at the present 
time. But the experiments of Mr. Bourne upon some Madras species have 
shown (firstly) that the poison has no effect upon the scorpion that possesses 
it, nor yet upon a member of the same or of a closely allied species, and 
(secondly) that these animals are easily and quickly killed by a moderately 
warm temperature (50° C). Moreover, when distressed by a too warm 
atmosphere, or, according to Lankester, by chloroform vapour, these animals 
have a habit of waving their tails in the air and of thrusting the sting for- 
wards over the head, as if to punish some unseen enemy. And if the sun's 
rays be f ocussed with a lens upon the back of a scorpion, the animal imme- 
diately brings its tail over, and attempts to remove with it the cause of 



SCORPIONS. 294 

irritation. So that the true account of at least some of the so-called cases of 
suicide by scorpions seems to be this : the animals in reality have died from 
the heat to which they were exposed, and the observers have erroneously 
inferred that the thrusts of the tail were intended to put an end to the 
animal's sufferings. My own experiments are all in favour of this conclusion- 
I held a specimen of Euscorpius in a corked test-tube over a low fire. As 
soon as the air in the tube began to grow warm the animal, apparently in 
great distress, struggled about the confined space for a few seconds, brandish- 
ing its tail the while, then lapsed into insensibility. The glass of the tube 
at this period was only slightly warm to my hand. Taken out of the tube and 
placed near an open window, the animal quickly revived ; but it died the 
third time the experiment was tried. On no occasion, however, did it attempt 
to sting itself. I also experimented upon Euscorpius and Parabuthus by 
focussing the sun's rays upon them, and by placing mustard upon the mem- 
brane between the plates of the back. Both the species attempted to remove 
the cause of irritation by scraping at the burning spot with the sting of the 
tail ; but they seemed particularly careful not to sting themselves. 

There seems, however, to be sufficient evidence to prove that some scorpions 
have been seen to sting themselves during the course of experiments of a 
nature similar to those described above. One observer indeed mentions, in 
the case of an Indian scorpion, that blood issued from the wound made by 
the sting — a piece of corroborative detail which enhances the probability of 
the accuracy of the observation. But it is a priori improbable that the 
scorpion has any intention of killing itself. It seems, however, not improbable 
that a random blow meant for an unseen enemy might accidentally strike 
and pierce the deliverer ; or that when the irritation is localised, as in the 
cases of burning with a lens, acid, whisky,™ or mustard, the scorpion, failing 
to remove the substance by the ordinary means of scraping with the tail, 
might thrust its sting into the spot affected, with the intention not of 
killing itself, but of destroying the agent that is causing the pain. Or, indeed, 
it is conceivable that the mental faculties are so deranged by torture and the 
approach of death, that the scorpion does not recognise its own body by its 
sense of touch, and stings it as it would sting any other object within reach 
of its tail. If a blow inflicted in either of these ways were to pierce the brains 
or were to seriously lacerate the great dorsal blood-vessel, it might, one can 
suppose, cause death of itself, independently of the burning. 

So that if it be admitted that scorpions have sometimes killed themselves, 
our verdict, it would seem, must be — accidental suicide, or suicide while of 
unsound mind. {The above appeared in Nature, 1st June, 1893.) 

* It is stated that in some parts of N. America scorpions sting themselves to death if a 
drop or two of whisky he placed upon their backs ; and that from this manifestation of their 
dislike of alcohol, these animals are known to the natives as teetotallers. 



295 JO URNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VII I 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 
No. I.— A DAY'S SPORT IN BERAB. 

The following account of a day's sport in Berar, some few years ago, when 
game was more plentiful than it is now, may be of interest to some of the 
readers of our Society's Journal. 

The writer's duty, as a District Officer, led him one day to the neighbour- 
hood of a deserted village— Dharur— situated on the banks of a mountain stream 
which, coming down from the Satpurahs, sweeps the base of the hill on which 
stands the fort of Naruallha, one of those forts taken in 1803 by Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, subsequently Duke of Wellington, after he had defeated Scindiah 
and the Bhansla at Assaye and Argaon and had captured Gawilghur. Dharur, 
in fact, is only a few miles distant from the field of Argaon, and in the days I 
am about to write of was just lovely in its solitude. Mixed jungle clothed 
the small valley down which ran the stream on the banks of which the ruins 
of the village stood, and for about 3 miles of its course both banks of this 
stream were densely clothed with " Sendi," or the date palm, with here and 
there small open patches of grass. 

On the day of my arrival a " kill " was reported by a herdsman who grazed 
cattle in the vicinity. The marks on the " kill "—a large female buffalo- 
indicated that one, if not two tigers had their home in the date palm. As it 
was impossible for a single gun to command the jungle, a message sent in to 
Ellichpur soon fetched out two friends- General (now Sir Harry) Lumsden 
of Punjab Frontier fame, at the time commanding the Hyderabad Contin- 
gent, and his Brigade-Major, the late Colonel Hugh Watson. With them came 
as escort officer Resaidar Beg Mahomed, a typical specimen of our splendid 
irregular cavalry. After a careful reconnaissance, we selected a position on a 
mound of earth at the foot of a big mohwa tree, which stood about the centre 
of one of the larger aforesaid patches of grass in the centre of the Sendi-bund, 
about two miles up stream. Here the General, Colonel Watson, Beg 
Mahomed, and the writer stood shoulder to shoulder, with a servant behind 
each carrying a spare rifle. Up the mohwa tree, in the shade of which we 
gratefully stood, was posted a Shikari of Colonel Watson's as look-out. The 
troopers of the escort were placed at intervals along either bank, outside the 
denser jungle, as stops, falling in with the beat as it came along. The beat 
itself, mainly composed of hill-men villagers, with a forest elephant in the 
centre to give direction, formed line at the village, and, provided with tom- 
toms, horns and rattles, started about noon. It was the 8th of March, and 
the sun was tolerably hot. It seemed an age before anything showed up. 
Presently, putting us on the qui vive, well in advance of the approaching 
beaters, came a hare or two ; then some jungle cat ; and finally peafowl. 
After all these had passed, there was another seemingly endless interval of 
suspense — that interval during which, as all shikaris know, strung to the 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 296 

highest pitch of expectancy and excitement, one hears and feels the beatings 
of one's own heart, just as a steamer quivers to the pulsations of its screw. 
But the feeling passes away in a second, as the expected quarry comes into 
view. In our case the view was five full-grown tigers " mooning " along close 
together almost in line, unconscious that their way was barred by man. 
" Mooning " is the only suitable expression, for they came along quite slowly, 
heads down, with a bored expression of countenance, as if they felt the heat, 
and thought the hustling of them by the beat behind most inconsiderate and 
unkind. 

When they first broke into view, about 30 to 35 yards separated us. It was 
a beautiful and never-to-be-forgotten sight, but the position was in a way 
critical. There was no time for counsel, but the G-eneral, without a moment's 
hesitation, whispered " Take the big fellow," expressing the necessity we each 
had instinctively felt of concentrating, not scattering, our fire. "Let them come 
on " was Watson's immediate reply. He probably felt that we required a 
brief moment for selection. As a matter of fact, when the General spoke, the 
tigers seemed much of a size, and it required some fineness of discrimination 
to say on the spur of the moment which was the biggest. But the matter was 
settled for us. Watson's voice evidently reached foe as well as friend, for one 
of the tigers stopped dead and looked up at us in a startled and surprised 
fashion. Instinctively we all banged at her (her sex, of course, we only subse- 
quently discovered), and then there was a sight for the gods. It is really 
impossible accurately to describe, and it was all over in a second or two. 
But as the sound of our rifles and the roar of the wounded tigress woke the 
other four tigers up — so to speak— they just raised their heads, looked at us, 
jumped on one side, and roared in concert. The untouched tigers were 
evidently momentarily quite undecided what to do — whether to try and get 
past us, or to face the din and row behind them, which had very appreciably 
increased as the sound of our shots reached the beaters. While these tigers 
were thus seemingly debating what to do, the female we had fired at made 
a bound towards us as if to charge home ; but her heart failed her, and she 
turned sharp to her left and to our right, making for the shelter of the jungle. 
As she went across us, we gave her the contents of our second barrels, and she 
fell out of sight into a small nallah. As she did so, the rest turned back in the 
direction of the beaters. We reloaded rapidly, knowing they would soon be 
headed and return, but this time prepared for us. Presently I saw a tiger 
trying to sneak paBt to our left, and called out " there goes one." I raised my 
rifle at the same time to indicate the direction to my companions. " Fire if 
you see him" shouted the General. Our voices had the effect of making this 
tiger stop and take a good look at us ; as she was doing so, I fired. She 
instantly responded with a roar and charged straight down on to us. I call 
her <( she," as subsequently we discovered that she too was a female, and a very 
lively and determined female. I failed to stop her with my second barrel, and 
it seemed to me that my three companions had emptied both theirs equally 



297 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

ineffectively. At this critical moment, when she was within a few yards of 
us— near enough for us to see her ears back, teeth showing, a savage gleam 
in her eyes, and blood streaming down one fore shoulder,— when it 
looked as if one of us in her next bound must be knocked over, our gun- 
bearers from behind jumped up the mound on which we stood to hand 
us our second rifles. In their excitement they shoved Eesaidar Beg 
Mahomed and the writer over the crest of the mound, and we, losing our 
footing, slid down the mound in a sitting posture with our rifles in our hands. 
For a moment it seemed as if one of us two must be seized, for the tigress 
was now quite close to us ; but in that moment Watson, who was a very 
steady and cool shot, fired, hit her between the eyes, and in fact brained her. 
Instead of continuing to come on, she spun round and round twice or thrice 
and fell dead close in front of us. Had she come on, instead of spinning round, 
some of us might, possibly would, have been clawed. While this little scene 
was being enacted, the other three tigers had, it seems, come into view and again 
turned back. But they could not face the row the beaters were making, and 
again they turned towards us to force a passage through. One was passing to 
our left, two to the right ; we fired at and wounded the former, and he dou- 
bled back on the beaters. As he did so, the other two tigers faced the stop and 
broke past us to the hills behind. We at once stopped and withdrew the 
beaters and sent for the elephant to look the wounded tiger up. It would 
have risked an accident to let the beaters come on with a wounded tiger in 
their front. The elephant was a very unsteady one ; if he saw a tiger, he 
invariably charged it, and it was difficult to shoot off him. In such jungle, how- 
ever, we had no choice but to mount him, and we went first to look up tiger 
number one. As we approached the nallah, where the look-out indicated she 
had fallen, we heard a growl, followed by a faint attempt at a charge ; she 
was put out of pain immediately. Number three gave us a lot of trouble. 
He was a cowardly sneak. Nothing would draw him ; he kept retreating from 
one thick and almost impenetrable patch of " Sendi " to another, and dodged 
about, till eventually he dodged us altogether ; and we had to return to camp 
with two tigers only, which the General photographed. This ended for us a 
very eventful day. As to excitement, the day has doubtless been often 
matched in the annals of shikar of earlier times, but it is not readily to be 
matched in these more prosaic days, which is my excuse for presenting an 
account of it to the pages of the Society's Journal. As to tiger number three, 
subsequent information led me to believe that he died under a thick bush 
while we were hustling him. As it was impossible to put in men on foot and 
we had no dogs, and the elephant could not penetrate everywhere, we did not 
unfortunately know it in time. 

The place I speak of is no longer a home for tigers ; the jungle has given 
place to fields with cover barely sufficient for a hare. 

KENNETH MACKENZIE, Colonel. 

Chikaldah, Berar, 28th April, 1893. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 298 

No. II.— THE FLOWERING OP BAMBOOS. 

Given an Indian witness wishing to tell the truth regarding what should be 
within his knowledge, let him be without training in the ways of accurate 
observation, failure is almost certain. In our law courts endless absurdities 
arise from the initial question "What is your age ? " Time has but little 
value or meaning to the common villager. He has no fixed standard whereby 
to measure it. He is quite as inaccurate in his estimate of distances. A 
generation ago, in parts now almost within hearing of the railway whistle, 
one might hear a cart journey described as of so many axles, meaning that 
a prudent man, setting out on that adventure, would take so many spare axles 
on his cart to provide against the ordinary contingencies of the way. To a 
much later date a Bilaspur villager would naturally answer that his home lay 
four chungis away, thereby indicating that, before beginning the march, he 
ought to have rolled four cigarettes in the fresh leaf of the sal tree and have 
fixed them in his pugree as provision for so long or so short a journey. If 
pressed to be more definite, he would admit that his village was so many coss 
away. " But, my Peikoo, how long is your coss ? " " Well, Sir, a coss is 
everywhere the same ; it always equals two dhabs." " Quite true, friend 
Peikoo, but I am not quite sure that I am acquainted with the length of your 
dhab ; how long is it ? " "A dhab, Lord of Earth, is a dhab : the distance 
at which a voice can be heard on a still night, that is a dhab." " But, Peikoo, 
suppose it be a mother-in-law's voice. " " Then, Personation of Virtue, 
there will be a difference ! The coss will be longer. " 

If Peikoo be so unsettled as to hear things of the visible world, how shall he 
now give us assurance regarding his memories of years long gone by as to the 
distant and silent foldings of the wings of time ? 

Is there, then, any hope of determining, on native evidence, what is the life- 
period of our mutual friend -the Katang bamboo ? We may expect nothing 
better than vague traditions of the last time when in any given locality the 
Katang seeded. Such events are not recorded save by the pale-faced strangers 
who are ever crazy after facts and figures. And they stay too short a time in 
the country to see the seedling attain maturity and pass away in the course of 
nature. Still these traditions are not without interest, ana they may corrobo- 
rate or correct stray observations of those of our own people who have gone 
before us. 

The widest personal observation will convince no one, and trustworthy 
evidence is not forthcoming. It is in the hope that others, while pardoning 
my mistakes, will help towards solving this puzzle that I venture to accept a 
kind invitation to put together the following rough notes on the rlowerino- of 
the Bamhusa arwidinacea, the most beautiful and one of the most useful of 
the Bamboo family. At any rate I may hope to indicate directions in which 
further enquiry promises success. 
18 



299 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

My first recollection of the Katang bamboo is derived from Jubbulpore 
when Sleeman's Park was still the pride of the station. And the pride of the 
Park lay in the luxuriance of its bamboos. Next, at the Nagpur Exhibition 
at Christmas time, 1865, the finest poles of the BalagMt district were shown. 
I can well remember their extraordinary length, but am too cautious to 
hazard figures. Any one curious on this point had better hunt up an old cata- 
logue of the exhibition or apply to Colonel Bloomfield— an excellent authority 
on bamboos — who was the first Deputy Commissioner of the Balaghat district. 

The extreme length of those poles was accounted for in this way : the 
bamboo clumps grew on deep soil, in a moist valley, very close to one another ; 
having no room for lateral expansion, they could live only by growing very 
tall. 

There were at that time, namely at the end of 1865, one or two enormous 
clumps of Katang in the Maharaj Bagh, the public garden at Nagpur, and on 
its outskirts a great number of young ones, all apparently of the same age , 
not more than about ten years, possibly less. 

The Jubbulpore Exhibition was held at Christmas, 1866. I believe there 
Were no Balaghat bamboos exhibited there, and for this reason, that meanwhile 
there had been a general flowering of the Katang bamboos in the Upper 
Weinganga Valley, that is, in the Bhandara and Balaghat districts. 
But on this point I have no personal knowledge ; I have, at best, a faint 
recollection of what I heard long ago. It may be that the seeding in the 
Weinganga Valley did not occur till 1870. 

The rainfall of 1868 was a disastrous failure in the old Saugor and 
Narbadda territories, and this followed on poor harvests in 1867 and the Spring 
of 1868, severe famine ensued. In May of 1869 I was transferred from 
Nagpur to Jubbulpore. Passing Seoni, two or three miles of projected bamboo 
avenue were met. Small clusters of roots had been divided off from the parent 
clumps, and these roots with four or five feet of stem had been planted, 
fenced, and well watered. 

In Jubbulpore the rains of 1869 commenced very late, but were not parti- 
cularly short in quantity. In the Spring of 1870 about four-fifths of the 
bamboos in Sleeman's Park and throughout the station burst into flower, 
seeded, and died. The seed would have been all used as food but for the care 
of the District Officers. Seed nurseries were formed, and a vast number of 
young plants were reared, and the surplus distributed far and wide. 

Early in 1881 I was a second time Deputy Commissioner of Narsinghpur, 
living in the house which had once been that of Sir William Sleeman, uncle 
of Colonel Sleeman, the last owner of the Park at Jubbulpore. In my com- 
pound stood two superb clumps of the Bambusa arundinacea. These burst 
into flower, seeded, and died in the hot weather of 1882. From their seed was 
raised a considerable supply of young trees, which were distributed in great 
part along the Great Indian Peninsula Line of Railway. It was, to the beat 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 300 

of my belief , in the same year that the remaining portion of the old clumps 
in Sleeman's Park at Jubbulpore and the old bamboos of the Maharaj Bagh 
at Nagpur seeded and died. 

Possibly I am wrong about the Nagpur Katangs. I remember that in or 
before 1879 the Forest Department, under the immediate care of Colonel 
Doveton, began to cultivate these bamboos at Telin Kerry, two miles west 
of Nagpur, for profit. The supply of Nagpur and Kamptee was aimed at. 
Possibly the seeds for this interesting experiment came from the old bamboos 
of the Maharaj Bagh. 

I learn that the general seeding of the Katang bamboos at Dehra, in the 
Doon, occurred in the Spring of 1882. 

In the hot weather of 1885 I visited the upper valley of the (Outtack) 
Mahanadi river and the Jeypore Zamindari of Madras. Returning by way 
of Dhamtari and of Rajim (where the Pairi river falls into the Mahanadi), 
I found a large number of bamboo clumps coming into seed. The Zamindars 
and Government officials promised to save all the spare seed for me, and this 
they kindly did. Two sacks of well-ripened seed reached me at Ghazipur, and 
thence it was distributed throughout India ; some was sent to Australia, to 
Cyprus, to China, and even to Cornwall. The Secretary to the Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society of India took the rest for their corresponding 
societies. Be also kindly brought to my notice writings of Sir William 
Sleeman in the printed proceedings of some society, possibly of the Asiatic 
Society, in which was noticed a general seeding of the bamboos at Dehra 
Doon in or about the year 1832. 

In 1886 I revisited Rajim to find that all the clumps had died off. Here 
and there was to be seen an exceptional stalk, and a few attenuated and al- 
most abortive shoots had sprung up from moribund roots. These were striv- 
ing to flower and seed. 

This season I visited the Malkna hills, about thirty-five miles south-east 
of Rajim. Here also were dead clumps ; around them young seedlings 
struggling for life — the outcome of the seeding of 1885. 

From several sources reports were heard that all the Katang bamboos in 
that mass of Vindhyan sandstone hills from amid which the Jouk river 
begins its northward course had seeded in the previous year (1885). This 
mass of hills lies about thirty miles south-east of the Malkna hills, south 
of an imaginary village named as Tarnot on the Government maps cf the 
Chhattisgarh Feudatory States. 

It was in this year (1886) that, with a well-known member of this society, 
I saw the waters of the Udanti, a branch of the Tel, which again is an eastern 
affluent of the Mahanadi. The Udanti rises on the western side of the 
same mass of hills whence the Jouk runs northwards. The Udanti first 
runs southwards, then turns to the east. We had occasion to visit the 
favourite mud-bath of an old solitary bull buffalo on the banks of the 



301 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Udanti, not a dozen miles from its source. This spring was in the centre of 
a large thicket of Katang bamboo, said to have all grown from the seed of an 
isolated clump. I can only give a guess at the age of the young trees. My 
own reconsidered impression is that the parent clump must have seeded after 
1870, but before 1882. I hope the friend who put an end to the bull's career 
will be able to give a better estimate of the age of the young thicket. 

In 1878 I saw the beautiful bamboos of the Indore Eesidency. I know 
nothing of their history or pedigree, but imagine them to be of the same age 
as the young clumps I saw at Nagpur in 1865. 

In 1886 I saw a number of mature clumps at Gorukpur. These must now 
be very near the end of their life-period. 

In the Spring of the current year, 1893, we had bamboo clumps flowering 
in the gardens of Queen's College at Benares and in the Civil Lines at 
Cawnpore. It is said (this is being verified) that the fine clumps at Dhariwal 
in the valley of the Eavee near Gurdaspur in the Punjab seeded last year. 

The building of Queen's College, Benares, dates from 1841—1843. It does 
not follow that the gardens were laid out at the same time. Indeed it is 
believed that this was done by Mr. Griffiths. The present Principal, 
Mr. Wright, believes, on parole evidence or tradition, that the bamboos now 
seeding have been in the garden for forty-five years. But granting this, 
it does not follow that they are only forty-five years old. They may be older. 
They may have been transplanted forty-five years ago from a nursery, or they 
may have been then raised from roots partitioned off from a clump of some 
years' growth. 

Pass on to our native beliefs. First of all, to the Bambusa arundinacea 
is attributed a life period of fifty to fifty- five years. Next, natives tell one that 
its seeding is not gregarious ; on the contrary, that, however widely distri- 
buted may be the progeny or the off-sets deriving from any one general 
seeding, all the progeny and all the off-sets must flower, seed, and die simul- 
taneously. Thirdly, they profess to believe that a general seeding coincides 
with drought or with scarcity after drought. 

It has been asserted that coincident with such scarcity will be found an 
unusual abundance of the edible seeds of forest trees, such as of the Sal tree 
(Shorea robusta), of the Nimar Anjan (Hardwickia binata), or the common 
Shisham (Dalbergia latifolia), and the like, a provision of nature for such 
a time of want. To this it has been objected that whereas coincidence attracts 
attention, the opposite condition passes unnoticed. This is a theoretical objec- 
tion of no great weight. 

Beyond question the flowering of the common male bamboo is rightly 
described as gregarious. Its life-period seems to be about fourteen years. On 
the same hills I have seen large patches seeding in different years — in 1 870 and 
again in 1879, 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 302 

In the year 1874 I passed through the Pandooah jungle between Maldah 
and Dinagepore, in Lower Bengal, on so-called famine duty. Returning in 
May, 1 875, I found all the thick, thorny bamboos of that large tract — a variety 
strongly resembling, but smaller than, the Katang— had lately seeded. 

The general seeding at Jubbulpore in 1870 followed the Bundelkand famine. 

I have heard mention of bamboos seeding at the time of the Madras famine, 
but cannot vouch for the accuracy of the information. 

I know of no noteworthy scarcity following on drought in or previous to 
1882 or 1885 or 1893. 

On the second topic of belief all the evidence I have to offer is this. In 
Seoni strenuous efforts were made to raise an avenue by laying down off-sets 
from old clumps taken from the nearest source of supply, the station of 
Jubbulpore and Sleeman's Park. I saw these full of promise in 1869. By 
the following May they had prematurely budded from the stem and were 
withering away with their abortive seeds. 

Although there may be no more evidence available, it would be rash to 
reject this native theory. At any rate it is pretty and is not disproved. 

I cannot now refer to Sir William Sleeman's writings, but I cannot resist 
a belief that some of the clumps in his park at Jubbulpore and those in his 
garden at Narsinghpur came from the seeding in the Doon, about which he 
wrote. That seeding was about 1832. Moreover, there was a general 
seeding in the Doon in 1882. This gives an interval or life-period of fifty 
years. 

Some late enquiries in the Doon elicited the curious answer that between 
two consecutive flowerings of this bamboo " a child will grow to be a man 
and his son will reach manhood." Nothing more definite could be learnt. 

Were I an interviewer, no doubt the words of a conversation of about 
1879 in the Bhandara or Balaghat district would be forthcoming. Though 
they cannot be given, their substance is clearly remembered. Speaking of 
another old man, my informant declared his friend to be old beyond com- 
putation — a hundred years old or more. Well, if the sahib was not content 
with that, surely it was enough to say that his friend had twice in his life- 
time eaten the seed of the great bamboo. Gently pressed to try to fix the 
earlier time, the old man at last gave a clear clue to it. He had often heard 
his absent friend speak of having had to eat the seed of the Katang bamboo 
in the year when the Raja, Appa Sahib Bhonsleh, lost his kingdom. " All 
the villages were burnt by the gods, who rose in rebellion for the king's 
sake, and but for the seeds and roots of the forest, people had died of 
hunger." 

There is no valid reason for disbeliving this unpremeditated story. It 
may then be concluded that there was a general seeding in the Upper Wein- 
ganga Valley in 1818, and another between 1865 and 1870— an interval of 
some fifty years. 



303 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Further information might be obtained from the Deputy Commissioner 
of Balaghat ; from the Secretary to the Horticultural Society at Nagpur ; 
from Colonel Doveton, Conservator of Forests, C. P., who knows most about 
their cultivation for profit ; and from Sir William Sleeman's writings. 
Colonel Doveton could correct me on many points. 

I see that Mr. Gamble, Conservator of Forests, North-Western Provinces, 
advises propagation by division of roots rather than from seed. If the 
native theory that off-sets partake in the appointed life-period of the parent 
clump be correct, this plan might lead to great disappointment. 

And it rarely happens that a private person is willing to afford the cost 
of propagation in this way, even if he can find a source of supply. It cost 
close on a hundred rupees to start a dozen clumps (from seedlings brought 
from Narsinghpur, C. P.) in the Cawnpore Memorial Gardens, although 
the roots were obtained gratis. 

For any one trying that plan of propagation it is recommended that the 
roots to be removed be dug up before sunrise and the stems cut off about 
four feet above the roots All but the tops of the stems should then be 
immersed in water in a shady place for a whole day. Pack in damp black 
cotton soil or in damp moss for transport. Plant in thoroughly wetted 
holes. The bamboo loves a gentle slope on all sides with good drainage. It 
abhors stagnant water. 

I have often enquired about the seeding of the large bamboo, which is 
carefully cultivated in the eastern districts of the North- Western Provinces 
and throughout Bengal. Apparently natives have no traditions of its ever 
seeding. They say that it pines away and dies — " Udas hokar mar jata hai " — 
if the human habitations it has sheltered become abandoned. 

We have it on the authority of an old song that " Cats don't know when 
it's half-past eight." Are bamboos more intelligent ? Can they tell when 
time is up ? Do they respond to the wants of humanity in times of drought 
and scarcity ? Do they obey a special and individual law of nature by 
which they must flower and die at a particular age ? Or is their life-period 
as variable as his whose days are three score years and ten ? 

G. JASPER NICHOLLS, I.C.S. 

Off Aden, Qth May, 1893. 



No. III.-JUNGLE NOTES. 

I am sending you by rail a single horn of a bison {Bos gaurus), which I picked 
up in this district in March while in camp in the forest. 

The remarkable point about it is that it has been broken off the skull, core 
and all ; and since I have never heard of such an instance, I thought it might 
be worth while sending you the horn for inspection. 



.MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 304 

It was found in a small glade in the forest, but, owing to the rain we have 
been having throughout the season, no tracks were traceable. At first I 
thought some bison must have died, but, on searching all round, not a trace of 
bones could be found, although the jungle was open. Moreover, on second 
thoughts it seemed to me that, even if the bison had died, no animal would have 
any object, granted that it had the strength, to tear the horn and core from the 
skull. The horn and bone of the fracture were in good condition, only some- 
what dirty, and the horn was quite unattacked by insects, which fact testified 
clearly that the horn had come there since the last rainy season. Hence the 
only conclusion I can arrive at is that two bulls in fighting got their horns 
locked and thus one got broken off. This seems most probable, as I do not 
think it could have been broken off in a charge without some damaging marks 
on the horn being visible. It is just possible that the bull got his horn caught 
in a tree and thus broke it, the skin around the -base of the horn supporting it 
for a short time. The horn may then have been dropped anywhere. No tree 
was noticeable near where this would have been possible. Also, if the horn 
was so caught in the tree that the bison could not get free without breaking 
the horn, it is unlikely that after breaking it he would be able to disentangle 
it, and then the horn would have been found near the tree. So, on the whole 
the conclusion to be arrived at seems to me to be that it was broken off in 
fighting with another bull. The strength required to do this must have been 
enormous, and I certainly do not believe any other animal in these forests, 
except a bison, would have sufficient strength. Anyhow, if a tiger had done it 
(and even he would have had no object except in a fight), he must have left 
some marks of his claws or teeth on the horn. The horn is not large, only 
measuring 24" in length (round the outer curve) and 13f" girth at the base in 
the dry state, which would mean about 14" when alive. 

I shall be very interested to hear whether horns so torn off have been found 
before and as to what cause you attribute the tearing off. Also as to whether 
you think the bison could possibly have lived after thus losing his horn. If so 
I will be on the look-out for him. 

The only other case that I have heard of in which a horn was thus com- 
pletely torn off was in the Chanda district. The late Mr. G. H. Foster, 
Deputy Conservator of Forests, having wounded a buffalo (Bzibalus arm', 
Jerdon) from his elephant and thinking it dead, approached it on the elephant,' 
whereupon it charged. The elephant, not knowing what to make of this beast' 
which had made a huge wound in his foreleg with its horn, wound his trunk 
around the horn and tore it clean off core and all. Both elephant and buffalo 
then bolted off in opposite directions, the mahout having lost his head com- 
pletely. The buffalo was tracked up by two Gonds, who found it dead two or 
three days after, no doubt partly from the effect of the bullet-wound and 
partly from the shock of losing its horn. 



305 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

On or about the 5th of February, at a small tank in the village forest about 
a mile from the village of Thoyapar, in the Nagpur district, a large boar was 
killed by a tiger ; such, however, was my information, and so on the 15th 
I inspected the spot. The tank was to a great extent dried up, but the bed 
was just moist enough to show tracks in an ideal manner. 

This is the story the tracks distinctly related : — 

A huge boar was feeding in the tank by grubbing up the roots of the 
various aquatic plants, when a tiger stalked him along the edge of the tank. 
The boar becoming suspicious, the tiger bounded towards him and was met 
by the former a few yards from where he had been grubbing. Then ensued 
a tremendous scuffle, and the tiger was evidently having a bad time of it, as 
several handfuls of tiger hair scattered about testified to the boar having two 
or three times charged home. At this point of the combat two other tigers 
joined in from different directions, and of course this triple combination was 
too much for the boar, who succumbed. The latter tigers were a tigress and a 
nearly full-grown cub, called here a " pata." 

This must have happened when day was breaking, for some villagers, passing 
along the cart-track early, saw one tiger in the open. They raised a shout, and 
the tiger disappeared. They then found the boar which the tigers had not 
commenced to eat, and, having called some comrades, carried it off to the village. 
This was apparently a very large boar, but unluckily the tushes were carried 
off by a jackal or dog after having been set aside for me. 

Later on, about the end of April, another boar was killed not more than ten 
or twenty miles from there; this time apparently by a single tiger, but its tushes 
only measured 7". 

About the end of February, along the Pench River, on the borders of Seoni 
and Chindwara, there was a fight between two huge tigers. One killed the 
other and, after having half eaten him himself, went off lame and bleeding, 
evidently badly wounded, as was shown by his track on the sand. The tiger 
killed and partly eaten was discovered by some fire-guards, who had no doubt 
as to the fight from the condition of the ground where the battle took place. 
The victorious tiger succumbed also a few days afterwards, but the skin was 
nearly rotten when discovered. It is curious to know that tigers will eat each 
other in a full-grown state, although it is well known that tigers greedily 
devour young cubs when they can get the chance in the mother's absence. 

On tour in camp I was joined by two companions, who, only just out from 
England, had never killed anything in the shape of big game, and so, knowing 
of a place where a panther's presence had frequently been reported to me, 
I tied up a goat and got a kill on May 21st. My two companions sat up at 
about 3-30 p.m., and on the panther turning up at sunset, it was killed. 

On skinning her we found her milk glands greatly developed, and hence 
suspected she must have cubs near. So on the morrow, having sent out five 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 306 

Gonds to investigate, I was rejoiced at about 4 P.M. to hear them come in and 
say they had found the cubs, whereupon we at once started to get them. 

Coming on a small nala, a few feet broad, not more than a mile away from 
where the panther had been shot, we were at once able to see that this was the 
place where the panther had fed and exercised her young, and on looking 
about carefully (of course we had it pointed out to us by the Gonds), we saw 
a small hole, not more than 5" in diameter, in the side of a white-ant hill on 
the bank of the nala. In this were the cubs. It was interesting to see how 
the panther had evidently been in the habit of hiding her cubs in this hole in 
safety while she went out to shikar her food. The hole inside was very 
small and not nearly large enough for the old panther to get into, but just 
large enough to hold the two cubs, which were probably nearly a month okL 
It was difficult to tell whether the panther had discovered this hole or 
made it herself, but possibly there was some sort of hole there and she 
enlarged it as required. There were claw marks on the ant-hill inside the 
hole, but this might have been made in the ordinary quarrels of the cubs. We 
had to cut the ant-hill away to enlarge the hole before getting the cubs out. 
They were taken to camp and are still alive and well. The panther had evidently 
been hard pressed for a place to put her young, and she must have been driven 
to think of making a hole for the cubs — a thing she would never have done, 
I imagine, had there been any rocky hills near. 

P. H. CLUTTERBUCK, 

A. C. of Forests. 
Naghpur, 6th June, 1893. 



No. IV.— THE JACKAL OR LION-PROVIDER. 

I believe it has not been clearly demonstrated how the jackal came to be 
called the lion or tiger provider. Few but the most credulous would believe 
that the jackal is in the habit of seeking game for the larger animals and 
taking them to where it can be found, &c. ; still there must be some reason for 
assigning the name " lion-provider," which is not a modern term, as it is 
found in some of the oldest books on wild animals. The following coin- 
cidence, which happened before my eyes, may perhaps serve to throw some 
light on the mystery. Some time ago I happened to be in camp alongside 
a small rocky hill with many caves, which, I was informed, contained a small 
colony of hyasnas. Partly to pass a dull hour and partly to try and obtain a 
good specimen, I made up my mind to sit up with my gun one evening. 
There was a creek close by, and on the banks a small hamlet of fishermen ; 
and knowing the hyaena's partiality to fish, especially when a little stale, I 
obtained a basket full, which had been caught the day previous, and placed 
them in what I thought a good spot and sat up at sunset on a high rock 
about 12 yards from them. After a little time I heard a rustling amongst the 
19 



307 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

leaves and undergrowth, and presently a jackal appeared and went straight 
to the fish, looked at them and smelt them, and then sat down beside them. 
After a few moments I heard another slight rustling in the same direction, 
and the jackal, who was sitting by the fish, must also have heard it, for he 
looked up and gave one slight bark, not unlike the faint call of a cheetul, and 
almost immediately afterwards a second jackal appeared and joined him. The 
two now stood by the fish, not attempting to eat any, but looking about them 
in anxious expectation. After five or ten minutes they suddenly ran away 
on one side to a distance of about ten yards, stopped, turned round and 
looked in the direction of the fish. In about a quarter of a minute an hyasna 
appeared from a direction at right angles with the line taken by the jackals ; 
he was walking straight to the fish, and on coming in view of the jackals, he 
turned his head and glanced at them and at once proceeded to inspect the 
food laid out for him. The jackals now ran up to the hyaena and, on approach- 
ing him, wriggled their bodies with their bellies close to the ground, much like 
the attitude that a puppy often assumes when making up to a big dog. They 
seemed to express delight at the arrival of the hysena, and so close did they 
come to him that I think they must have rubbed themselves against his sides, 
and here they remained whilst their lord and master, without taking any 
notice of them, was selecting the most dainty of the fish. The jackals made 
no attempt to even put their noses near the food. Darkness coming on 
prevented my seeing any longer, so I carried out the object for which I sat 
up. The jackals in this case may be said to have provided food for the 
hyaena, inasmuch as they did not eat it themselves, and their presence was 
sufficient to keep smaller animals away. In the absence of any other reliable 
theory, it seems probable that the term "lion-provider" has been applied to 
the jackal from experiences similar to what I have related, the only difference 
being that the lion has taken the part played in this instance by the hyaena. 

F. J. A. HILL. 
12th June, 1893. 



No. V— AN AGGRESSIVE COBRA. 
On the 28th June last a number of the convicts nf the Kolhapore Jail were 
employed in cleaning up the compound of the State Hospital, and the sepoy 
in charge, Husain Bux, sat, watching the party, on the flight of nine broad 
stone steps which leads from the corner of the hospital compound up to the 
quarters of Mr. McGill, the Darbar Veterinary Officer. It was about mid-day 
and the sepoy was sitting at the end of one of the steps, half way up the 
flight, with the entrance to Mr. McGill's little garden above and rather 
behind him to the left, when he felt a sharp smack, as from a flat object, 
on his back just above his waist-belt, and, as he says, thought at the moment 
that some one had thrown something at him. Luckily, indeed, he did not 
put his hand behind to feel what the object was, for on looking round under 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 308 

his arm, without shifting Ms seat, he was horrified— and no wonder — to see a 
large cobra on the same steps just behind him, with hood expanded and 
ready to strike again. 

Sidling off on to the ground, he shouted to his convicts, who with others 
ran up and pursued the snake, which now ascended the steps into the garden 
and took refuge behind some flower pots in Mr. McGill's compound. 

Calming down from his fright, Husain Bux was for leaving it alone, saying 
that as Allah had spared him, so he would spare the snake, and no doubt, 
though a Musalman, he had something of the Hindu superstitious belief 
in the divinity of the cobra, and thought that such a peculiar visitation from 
the God would bring him luck. So. too, tbought many natives, and when 
I talked over the occurrence afterwards with an old jail warder, he shook 
his head ominously and said, " He ought not to have killed that snake." 
However, killed the cobra was, and the men took it to Dr. G. Sinclair, who 
found it to measure 4 ft. 7 in. The snake, I fancy, must have been coming 
down from the garden above, when it saw the sepoy sitting on the steps, and 
that it should not have retreated or passed behind him, as there was plenty 
of room for it to do unnoticed, is curious, and such an instance of a cobra, 
when unalarmed, going out of its way to attack a man is perhaps worthy of 
record. 

S. M. FKASER, I. 0. S. 

KOLHAPORE. 



No. VI.— NOTES ON INDIAN DOGS. 

In No. 4, Vol. VII, Mr. Sinclair discourses pleasantly on various " pies" and 
traces them up to the frontier. It may be interesting to supply a few notes 
of other " pies " met with in my wanderings. 

In the villages lying at the foot of the Nari and Bolan Passes the dogs are 
decidedly bigger and more ferocious than the usual " pie," but it is not till the 
passes are entered that the " Afghan mastiff,'' so called, is met with. It need 
hardly be said that the dog is not a mastiff, and really only resembles one 
approximately in size and slightly in colour. Head, general build, coat are all 
different. This is only an instance of " heimweh " which leads us to bestow 
old familiar names on whatever reminds us of our Western home. This 
" Afghan mastiff " stands as high as a large greyhound and is built generally 
like the ordinary " pie," except that he is much heavier and more massive in 
every measurement and does not possess a wasp waist. His main peculiarity is 
his ruff, or " mane " as it is generally called. This ruff consists of deep thick 
soft fur, nearly three inches long, and covers and protects the neck, chest, and 
shoulders. The colour varies very little, being generally rufous. Like the wasp 
and red ant, he is invariably in a bad temper, and it is advisable to have some 
lethal weapon with one, as a threatening gesture is at once resented by action, 
which is apt to result in discomfiture. My first introduction to this dog was 



309 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

in the Nari Pass. It was brought about by my bull-dog, who had a difference 
of opinion with one. The result was speedy and to us very unsatisfactory. 
With my aid the Afghan made off eventually with his ruff, somewhat dis- 
arranged ; my dog was lacerated with long deep cuts, and his mouth was very 
unsatisfactorily filled with fur. An English bull-dog was never intended by 
Providence to bite through three inches of fur before getting to flesh. The 
Afghan dog is, very like his master, truculent, ferocious, and untrustworthy. 

Still further north a very large and heavy dog is found standing nearly as big, 
if I remember right, as a St. Bernard. The only one I saw was snow-white 
with an enormous jowl and an array of glistering white which I shuddered at. 
This dog was tethered by a cable to a walking six-foot Pathan, whom he 
dragged about with perfect ease, without even going through the formality of 
ascertaining his wishes. 

The next breed I have on my list is found among the nomad fishing popula- 
tion of the Irrawaddy delta. This dog lives on fish, and, like his master, is 
almost amphibious. It looks something like an Irish terrier run to seed. 
There are two breeds, differing only in size. Their colour is much greyer than 
the usual "pie " fawn. The dog's body is covered with ragged tufts of hair, 
which form on his face a most imposing moustache. The smaller breed re- 
minds me irresistibly of a very mongrel terrier at home. 

It may be noted in passing that a very large number of " pies " in Burma are 
either black or white. 

On the Chin frontier a breed like a large Esquimaux terrier is met with. 
I have seen several which looked exactly like collies, bushy manes and all, till 
one noticed the lightly curled-up tail. The colour varies greatly— black, black 
and white, lemon and white, white, and tawny. The fur is long, soft, and 
silky and very thick, nose and ears very pointed, the latter sometimes almost 
buried in the fur. They are very good-tempered as a rule, but dreadful cow- 
ards, and generally flee precipitate at the sight of a white face. The Shan dog 
is very like this breed, but is much larger and heavier. The manes are not so 
bushy, nor is his tail quite so curly. 

A very interesting paper could be compiled on Indian dogs, and it is to be 
hoped that some member with zoological knowledge will give us an authorita- 
tive description of the various indigenous breeds. The differences among 
them are very great, but yet to the English eye all seem stamped with the same 
hall-mark, generally called " pie." This may possibly be due to the fact, as 
noted by Phil Robinson, that their " food is rubbish." 

F. E. DEMPSTER. 
Rangoon, 21st June, 1893. 

No. VII.— A FRIENDLY BULBUL. 
The common bulbul is notoriously bold and friendly. Residents of the 
Western India Club in 1890 will perhaps remember a nest being built on a 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 310 

pair of iron bars supporting the weather-boards near the door leading out of 
the bar lounge. It was within reach of every passer-by and not concealed by 
any bush or creeper. The writer has a nest now near his front door and the 
birds are even more confiding. It is built in a small croton within a couple of 
feet of the door frame. Care was taken not to disturb the hen-bird while she 
was sitting on her eggs, and the first advances were made when she had hatched 
them out. A hand was brought close to her when she was sitting in her nest 
and bits of soaked gram offered. She did not seem to care for this food and 
pecked viciously, but she would not leave her post, and there can be little 
doubt she was bravely defending her chicks. Worms were offered to her and 
she took them greedily, but still she seemed, by her pecking, to resent the intru- 
sion into her home. Bread crumbs were then tried, and she took them without 
hesitation. After she had been repeatedly fed in this way, she ceased all hos- 
tile demontrations while she was on her nest, but if she happened to return 
from an outing and found any one too near the nest, handling the protecting 
croton leaves, she would charge boldly home. Once she even struck the 
offending hand, and then made a rapid retreat and dodged into her nest from 
the opposite side. She has hopped along the rim of the pot in which the 
croton stands and taken food held out to her in the hand. She has so far only 
shown such confidence in the immediate neighbourhood of her nest but she 
may be open to more general friendship. Some wretched vermin carried off 
two of her chicks at night, but up to this evening there was still one gaping 
mouth in the nest. The coch-bird has still his natural amount of shyness. 
It was curious to watch the process of feeding the newly-hatched birds. The 
hen rarely left the nest. The cock would come with a morsel in his bill and 
she would clear out to let him administer it, but go no further away than a 
rosebush which stands in a pot within 10 feet. The cock never stayed after 
he had done this pretty domestic office, and directly he left, the hen would 
return and take her family under her wings for another spell. 

The exhibition is still on view, and a gentleman from Bombay went this 
morning away hugely surprised and pleased with it. 

H. T. OMMANNEY, I.C.S. 

Panch Mahals, 10th July, 1893 



No. VIII.— NOTES ON THE ECCENTRICITIES OF A DOC. 
There are many still in Bombay who will remember " Bodger," for he had 
a good many friends as well as enemies, the former chiefly bipeds, the latter 
mostly quadrupeds. Bodger started in life, as many other dogs have done, born 
of poor but honest parents (this is but supposition, for I was never able to 
find out who or what his father or mother were and very little clue could be 
gained by looking at Bodger). I called him a bull-terrier, as that was the 
nearest breed that he had any resemblance to. He was, however, a strong 
active, and fairly well-shaped dog, rather long in the legs and a tail so long 



311 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII, 

that when he was angry it would curl over until the point seemed to dig into 
the centre of his back. His colour was white, or, to speak truly, a dirty white. 
Bodger was about four years old when given to me by some friends on 
Malabar Hill in 1878. Their reason for getting rid of him was that he raised 
his voice too much during the night when tied up, and if allowed to be loose, 
he used to retire to a neighbouring bungalow and pass the night on the sofas and 
chairs. This led to remonstrances on the part of the tenants, who threatened 
to shoot the dog if it is was found there again. Before accepting Bodger, I took 
him out for a walk on trial. Yery quickly he showed his fighting propensities by 
attacking a dog half as large as himself and scored a victory. He then met a cat, 
which he killed in first-rate style. So Bodger became my property. When I say 
" my property," I mean I became his owner o? master, at least as I understood 
it. But Bodger had quite a different opinion, and allowed no one to interfere 
With his ways and doings. He certainly made my rooms in the Fort his home 
when he was at home, and would at times take his meals there and allowed me to 
have a little more influence over him than other people, but that was all. 

Why he was named Bodgsr I could not find out, but it was a capital name, for 
he looked it all over, so 1 let it remain. When Bodger came to reside with me 
in the Fort, I contemplated keeping a dog-boy to look after him, but he soon 
showed me that he could take care of himself without putting me to any extra 
expense, and his habits at first were more or less methodical. In the early 
morning he was generally missing ; during the day-time he would lie under my 
desk until the sun was off the street, when he would get up, shake himself, look 
up at me, and then walk deliberately down to the Frere Fountain and wait 
there for any strong dog that might turn up. In a short time there was a row, 
and on looking out, Bodger was sure to be in the thick of it. After an hour or so 
of this amussment he would come back (generally with marks about him showing 
that he had not had it all his own way) to see if I or anybody else was going 
for a ride when he would accompany us. This went on for some time, until 
one day he saw his old master going into the Bombay Club and followed him 
only to be ejected. For several days he used to wait outside, watch his oppor- 
tunity to sneak inside, and be driven out again at the run. Failing to get a 
permanent footing in the Ciub, he took up with a gentleman, Mr. Arbuthnot, 
the Collector of Bombay, in the Secretariat, and for nearly six weeks 
went every afternoon about 4 o'clock and laid down under his desk and 
remained about half an hour and then left. This gentleman never knew 
until afterwards to whom the dog belonged, and told me that the dog 
hardly ever took any notice of or attempted to follow him, simply stayed about 
half an hour and then walked off. Bodger tried the same game at Wat- 
son's Hotel, but this did not last long, as the Volunteers took up his attention 
and regularly every Saturday, when they turned out and Bodger heard the band 
comino- out of Church-gate Street, he went out and marched at their head until 
it was all over. This led to some of the fellows in the office taking to painting 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 312 

Bodger up, sometimes like a clown, or glueing a paper hat, with feathers, on his 
head with B. V. R. printed on his ribs, for these special occasions, and many a 
time Bodger was seen in all his glory, whilst the firing was going on, flying about 
in front and having a good time. Late' on the dog would go out to Colaba of 
his own accord in the early morning to witness the rifle shooting and come back 
again after it was over. He was very fond of the gun, and accompanied me on 
several shooting trips, and would go the whole day if allowed. He was, however, 
of not much use except to retrieving duck, and that he was very good at and sel- 
dom lost one in rushes. He was, however, a little hard on them if they were only 
wounded, but did not maul them when dead. One evening, coming back from 
Thana, I put him loose in the guard's van. He, however, got out at Bhandup 
Station, and was not missed until I looked for him at Byculla. The guard, not 
seeing the dog in the van when he left Bhandup, thought I had taken him in the 
carriage with me. I was living then at the Chummery, Mahaluxmi, and although 
he had not been over the ground before, he turned up about 1 o'clock in the 
morning. Bodger had a most retentive memory. He was always open to fight 
any dog when set on, but when left to himself he took stock of his adversary and 
seldom attacked unless he felt sure in his own mind that he would get the best 
of it. At times his judgment was wrong and he accepted his punishment, but 
he never forgot the dog or forgave the man to whom the dog belonged, and 
whenever he met either, his whole attitude altered, the hair on his back stood 
up, the point of his tail dug deeper into his spine, and he would growl and 
walk past slowly, but never attempted t" renew hostilities. We had many dogs 
at the Chummery and he held his own until four of them attacked him at once, 
and Bodger soon became the rope part in the tug-of-war. He, however, bided his 
time, and when he got them later on separately he warmed them. Bodger also 
had an aversion to being laughed at or made ridiculous. On one occasion, 
when our tame black buck doe came in after dinner at the Chummery to have 
a few scraps, 1 tied Bodger ( o the end of the rope attached to the buck and 
told him to keep it in order. Two dogs commencing to quarrel frightened the 
buck, who made for the door, capsized the boy coming in, and made off into the 
compound, dragging poor old Bodger with him ; we gave chase and soon found 
them brought to a standstill on either side of a tree. Bodger was released, but 
for many days he would not come into the house or have anything to do with 
any one in the Chummery. He was more hurt in mind than body, although 
he turned more summersaults in that short time than any clown in a circus. 

Bodger, or rather " Chevalier de Boze " as he was called for the occasion, 
appeared once at the Gymkhana dog show — I forget in what class — but for 
some time he was not recognised, as a mixture of burnt cork and beer had 
been well rubbed into his skin, which had given him a beautiful iron grey 
appearance. It is needless to say he did not take a prize, neither did he appear 
to enter into the fun of the thing, as was shown by his sulking at the show 
and not taking the slightest notice of those who had had a hand in changing his 



313 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIIL 

colour, and he kept it up for days after he had assumed his dirty white ap- 
pearance. 

When I went home in 1880 Bodger saw me off, and remained for hours at 
the Apollo Bunder after the steamer had left, and on my return, fourteen 
months later, knew me at once, although I neither spoke nor took any 
notice of him, and seemed very pleased to see me back. In August, 1882, 
I left for Ceylon. Up to this time Bodger had carried on his same old game 
of going out and about just when and where the spirit moved him. He, how- 
ever, completely altered his ways from the time he landed in Colombo. On board 
be seemed very miserable at leaving Bombay, and although in good health, he 
never seemed to recover his old spirits. He gave up all his quarrelsome ways, 
and would never fight unless another dog commenced and would never leave 
my side for a minute, night or day, up-country, where I was stationed. I had 
several other dogs of sorts for hunting sambhur, muntjac, and hares, and he 
would always join in, and seemed to like the sport, but even in the hottest 
sun he would not remain long away from me. By this time I had got 
to be very fond of the dog, and he was evidently very much attached to me, 
and for hours would sit looking up in my face with such a beseeching expres- 
sion, which seemed to say " take me back to Bombay," and resembling so much 
the dog in that picture called " Sympathy." Bodger, except for the sad and weari- 
some look, had nothing the matter with him, and although he had always 
accompanied me shooting, I thought on one occasion I would leave him behind as 
I expected it to be pretty hot in the low country. I patted him and said good- 
bye, but he did not seem to understand my leaving him and tried hard to follow. 
I, however, sent him back and he went to my bed-room and lay down. I was 
only away a couple of days, and on arriving back at my bungalow, my friend, 
who was living with me at the time, told me the sad news that Bodger, who had 
hardly left my room whilst I was away, had died only two hours since. I was 
very much cut up, and thoroughly believe, if it is possible for a dog to die of 
a broken heart, that Bodger died in this way. Bodger was buried in my com- 
pound at Haldamulla under a large mango tree, on which I carved in deep letters 
—"Bodger, obit 27th January, 1883." 

E. L. BARTON. 
Bombay, June, 1893. 

No. IX.— DOWN A CHIN STREAM. 
We had been on a frontier expedition in the Chin hills, and our souls were 
sick of mule paths zig-zagging up and down uninteresting hills. One morning 
therefore we decided to cut out a way for ourselves and plunge boldly from 
our camp down to the little river 2,000 feet below and follow it up to our 
next camp. The next day's march by road was six miles ; we allowed twelve 
by stream, and found that it was a good deal more. Climbing up the Chin 
hills had been our hard lot from necessity ; this was our first trial at climbing 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 314 

down, and there was not much to choose between them for difficulty. Facilis 
descensus may apply to Avernus. I have not been there, but it lis not true of 
the Chin hills. Half past six one sunny morning in April found us all ready. 
Guns, butterfly nets, and a few gut casts and flies were our impediments 
which we made the pilgrim carry. He deserves a word of description. Hadji 
Mahomed Khan is one of those very tall solemn Pathans who seem veritable 
descendants of the Wandering Jew in features and proclivities. He has per- 
formed the Haj and is as good tempered and powerful as a St. Bernard pup. 
He exacts homage from the Hindus by his size, and from the Mussulmans by 
his piety. 

Far below the waving sea of bamboos which clothe the hill side, we can 
make out the belt of heavy timber marking the little hill stream we wish to 
follow. The hill side is steep and covered with the dry slippery bamboo leaves. 
Toboganning with wooden seats to our pants seems the best way of proceeding, 
but it is too late to adopt that plan. After a few casts we decided to follow 
down a small spur between two streams ; this decision was mainly arrived at by 
our both sliding down the spur in a small avalanche of rubbish. On we went — 
the slope getting steeper and steeper — till we had to hand ourselves down from 
tree to tree and had finally to take to the little stream, which here consisted 
of deep pools with miniature canons and precipices. We sidled along their faces — 
oh, how wet the water looked !• — grasping ferns, roots, and bamboos. Here 
and there we made impromptu bridges of nervously flexible bamboos, across 
which we sidled with the want of grace of the amateur rope-dancer. Each 
narrow shave was greeted with encouraging chuckles and inward disappoint- 
ment. The nullah became more and more like a knife-gash in the hill side, 
and at last we came to a narrow pass a hundred yards long with per- 
pendicular sides, through which in two feet of water we splashed and 
found ourselves at the foot of the hill in a little open glade. 
The vegetation all round was so clean that, after going 50 yards on, we 
could not distingush the path we had come down. We had been in deep 
shade the whole way down, and the only butterflies we had seen were a few 
Helanitis and one or two skippers. We disturbed one barking deer, and once 
a loud whirring close by told us we had startled a pheasant. It was still early 
when we started down the main stream. It was very beautiful, and a true 
wild forest landscape, with the luxuriant profusion of growth which is so 
hard to describe, but which tempts particularization. The charm of the early 
morning was on everything. The sunlight danced on the pools and sent 
emerald shafts of light through the little bosky dells. There were tall forest 
trees clothed with moss and wearing buttonholes of brilliant orchids. Here 
and there a fallen giant lay, partially propped up by his brethren and covered 
with a hoary fringe of grey-beard moss. Everywhere the bamboos rustled 
and filled in the spaces left between the big trees with feathery fronds. 
Gigantic creepers covered with blossoms tied the big trees together and spread 
20 



315 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

acres of net work, beneath which the tender ferns might grow. The little 
stream wandered on in close touching curves round the cliffs and with 
cheerful leaping over obstructions, and drinking in enjoyment at every grove 
we followed. Here culling a tempting bunch of orchids, or casting a fly 
over a ripple, there stopping to admire the exquisite effect of a bunch of maiden 
hair ferns set off with caladiums and begonias. On we wandered, and as the 
sun mounted higher, the butterflies came out and hurried past us in an endless 
gorgeous procession. Charaxes were there in half a dozen strong-bodied varieties. 
Delicate Lycamidce gleamed a moment in the hot sun, or formed a fairy ring 
over some small pool. Orntihoptera pompeus, with his broad expanse and 
yellow satin under-wings, sailed by proudly, and as a rule just out of reach. 
Flitting in the shade a dusky Melanitis or an YphtUma would tempt us 
to arm-reaching tripping rushes over the bamboo roots. Delias sailing tempt- 
ingly just over-head seemed to know our exact reach and keep beyond it. 
While Enthalia, Lebadia and Lepidia Iomene outspread on the shining leaves 
were missed over and over again. On we went, our cigarette box getting fuller 
and fuller of paper envelopes and alas ! also our gut-casts and flies disappear- 
ing rapidly. The pilgrim followed us anxiously ; he objected to pilgrimages 
whose route seemed so obscure, and during which he had to carry so much, 
what he called, " cutchra." However the sahibs are all mad, and there is but 
one God, so he came on gloomy but mute. We then calculate that wo allowed 
for 12 miles, that it is now one o'clock, we have been travelling for over six 
hours and must have covered 12 miles ; but there is no appearance of the next 
camp. We are now showing signs of wear and tear ; we are both wet to the 
waist as the only road is the bed of the stream. I have lost the sole off one of 
my boots, and the pilgrim is rapidly losing his temper. We have a goodly stock 
of butterflies, and the pilgrim is laden with orchids, but we have lost all our flies 
and not one fish to show. We have seen nothing shootable and have nothing 
eatable. Inward pangs remind us that it is a long time since " chota hazri ;" and 
the more remote our chance of satisfying the pangs become, the more we 
remind each other that even " bully" beef has its attractions, that under certain 
conditions preserved potatoes can be eaten with relish and that whisky is no 
despicable drink, and we are both Scots ! As we go on, we begin to lose our 
appreciation of the scenery ; here and there we distinctly disparage hill and 
stream ; we even mutter about this beastly country. As we get tired, tumbles 
become frequent and are endured in gloomy silence and watched without 
sympathy. The pilgrim disdains our companionship, and, though keeping 
behind, declines to follow the route we affect. The stream has been getting 
broader and deeper, and we have either to wade down it or scramble along 
the rocky banks. Three o'clock comes and no signs of camp ; but instead a 
heavy thunderstorm comes up suddenly and drenches us ; we huddle through 
the worst of it in a small bat-lined cave, but are disturbed by the gloomy 
pilgrim who tries to prove that the stream is rising. The pilgrim's 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 316 

spirits are now at so low an ebb that ours, out of sheer contrariety, 
rise, and in chaffing him we try and forget we are tired, cold, hungry, 
and wet. Thirsty we are not, but oh for something to take the edge off 
the water ! We ask the pilgrim when he thinks we shall get in — and what 
ills are in store for us, and badger him till he takes refuge in a surly " Ehoda 
Janta" and is thereafter unapproachable. We had before come up this stream 
for about a mile from the camp, and we now tried hard to recognise the corner 
which we had then reached. Again and again this rock or that tree seemed 
familiar, but again and again we were disappointed. Four, five, six o'clock 
still found us plodding on very tired, very wet, and excessively hungry. At 
last we sighted the corner and, after a few minutes' hesitating recognition, saw 
high overhead the grass huts of the camp. We hurried on, and the pilgrim 
smiled. Ten minutes later we were getting into dry clothes, and soon were 
discussing our long-looked for bully beef, commissariat biscuits, and whisky, 
and, needless to say, enjoyed them. 

F. E. DEMPSTER, 
Rangoon, June 1893. 



No. X.— A DOG KILLED BY A DABOIA. 
Mr. W. H. Traill, writing from Jhansi, Central India, states that on the 1st 
July one of his dogs, a large terrier, was killed by a full-grown viper {Daboia 
russellii). Although bitten severely in four places, the dog appears to have 
lived for about eight hours, when it died without convulsion, but with all the 
symptoms of paralysis. The daboia was found to contain 40 fully-developed 
young ones, 



No. XI.— SOME SHOOTING NOTES. 

In turning over the leaves of a shooting diary of recent date, I find some 
odds and ends which I venture to transcribe, as I think that they may be of 
interest to others. 

Here is an extract from a letter from a friend in Somali Land, dated 25th 
August, 1891 :— 

" I left Aden 10th July and went over to Zaila, where I found A . . .He 
was not able to start for a week. We set off 18th July in a boat 40 miles down 
the coast, where we had sent on a tent, four camels, and guns. The main body 
of our camp had gone up to the first wells at the foot of the hills some 60 miles 
off. Our camp for the first two days was by some muddy wells in the sandy 
maidan, and it was very hot. There were a lot of Wart Hog about ; they used to 
come to the water ; so we rode them. A . . . was too seedy to do much, but I 
managed to stick three boars ; two of them had grand tushes quite twelve inches 
or more ; they can go like blazes, and for pluck I never saw them equalled ; 
every one charged false. I touched them ... It takes a fast beast to come up 



317 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII, 

to them ; they are so quick in getting to ground. We had a shocking long night 
march after that, 40 miles, to our main camp. The want of water is the curse 
of the country ; one has to march 20 to 40 miles often without water ; where 
I am going to next week I shall have to send camels daily for water for the 
camp ; my camp consists of three shikaris, eight camelmen, a syce, a cook, a 
boy, a native policeman from Government, and a man to look after and drive 
my donkeys for lion tie-ups. I have 16 camels, all of which I had to tyuy ; they 
cost me between Es. 600 and Rs.700. You see I have to carry rice and dates with 
tins of ghee for all those men ; it is a very expensive trip ; I like what I have 
seen of the natives very much ; they are a cheery sporting lot, but the greatest 
liars I have ever met ; it is no use trying to get the truth out of them. We 
hurried up to the hills as fast as we could. When we got on the first pass, we 
got into quite a different climate— rain and two blankets at night. We were 
very unfortunate in not getting any lions on our way up, but they are very 
scarce there. We also just missed the main body of elephants as they passed up 
to the Abyssinian hills, but we managed by good luck to shoot five ; three of 
them were very fair bulls, but the last one we got was a grand beast and had 
very good ivory for this country, 60 lbs. the pair. I always took them behind 
the shoulders ; they never go far with a big bullet behind the shoulders ; your 
rifle (D.-B. 8-bore nominal by Greener, 12 to 14 dram E. F. B.) was just the 
thing for them, but it is certainly a bit heavy to run with, and I had some cruel 
runs after wounded ones ; they are very hard to kill ; they will drop to the shot 
but are up again in a twinkle. We killed every one we fired at except one . . . 
I have seen them knocked over twice, and yet get up and go for a mile ; I got a 
big koodoo on my way up, horns 36 inches. I also got two good Gazella walleri, 
also some Oryx, and since A . . . left me I got three more elephants and a 
fine lion. I have done nothing but march for the last fortnight across the foot 
of the hills and must have come over 200 miles. I could not go where I first 
intended, as there was an intertribal row and the next hill tribe was in arms 
because one of them had been shot by a policeman, and I have just heard that 
the Sultan of the place, where I have been looking forward to getting some 
sport, is also up in arms against the English, so I am done all round . . . 
If I cannot get into Kansan, where I want to go, I have a bad chance of any 
more lions . . . The whole of the central part of the country has been so 
shot over that there are no lions left . . . From what I see and hear they 
are a great deal bolder than tigers, but not so quick. At every water you get 
lots of guinea-fowl and partridge ; so I had some capital partridge shoots 
round the camp of an evening — twenty brace in an hour. There are two 
sorts. There are lots of florican and bustard, the latter smaller than the big 
Indian ones. I could shoot any number of them." 

There is a popular delusion that a tiger once shot at from a machan is 
frightened away and will never come back. Personally this has been my own 
experience, but I will quote extracts from three letters, direct testimony 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 318 

to the contrary. From these it will appear that if a tiger does not see or hear 
the sportsman, he is not as alarmed as one would suppose. 

Extract from letter from Lieut. Hardy, R.A. : — 

"... I sat up for him the next night, and my people coming back from 
my machan first met a bear, which they drove off, and then the tiger himself. 
At 8-30 out came a pack of wild dogs ; they stood for a long time under my 
tree, so I had a good look at them. I was just debating about killing one, 
when out came the tiger after them, and there was no end of a row. The 
moon was just going down, so I did not see him well enough to fire ; he 
chased them all over the hill and then came back. I shot at him in the dark as 
he was crossing some white sand, but he did not mind me ; he went for the kill 
and he and another tiger were round my tree all night, but I could not 
see them." 

Extract from letter from Surg.-Major Wolseley, M.S., dated 22nd February, 
1890 :— 

" We got kubber that he had killed a fine wild hog and not eaten it, so off 
we went. There sure enough was the pig ; his big head in a pulp, every bone 
being broken. I did not think a tiger could have done it ; he had put big stones 
over it to hide the body ; it was in a deep water course running down a gorge * 
some coolies had found it in the morning and pulled it from under the stones 
As we could not pug him, I decided to sit up ... . Unfortunately I had 
not come prepared for a sit up and had no white rag or anything except some 
chalk .... He came about three-quarters of an hour after sunset, when 
it was almost quite dark. I expected that he would be very coy when he 
found the pig moved, but not a bit of it. He came bounding down to where 
he had left it, and then he stopped for a minute, having a good look round to 
see what had become of his pork. Then down he came and stood stock-still 
within about five paces of the dead pig. I could only just make him out. I 
put up my rifle two or three times, but could not get on him. The third time 
I decided to chance it and fired in his direction. Where the bullet went I 
never found out, except that it did not enter the tiger. Now for the most 
extraordinary behaviour of this beast ; he did not go off with a bound, but 
walked up to where he had:at first stopped about sixty yards up the nullah 
and stood still. I thought he must be wounded ; so, after a little while, I said 
to my Shikari, " he is wounded." No sooner were the words out of my mouth 
than down he charged to within five yards of my tree, but I could not see him 
properly; it was so dark and thick. He then quietly went off over the hill • it 
was altogether bad luck, for had it been only the other side of the nullah I 
should have been able to see him and could have fired. Well, this tiger went up 
to a tie-up of ours only two miles off and killed it and had his supper. I fired 
two shots about ten minutes after he had left. These he must have heard." 

As regards the tiger concealing the pig like a dog burying a bone, this 
seems a very peculiar proceeding, and certainly we have not known a similar 



319 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol, VIIL 

case ; but if the tiger did not do so, who did ? The natives moreover, on 
whose testimony it rests, could have no object in lying. 

The last account I give is, I think, of the boldest tiger of all. My autho- 
rity is Mr. Harriott, of the P. W. D. :— 

" . . . . Two nights after I had tied up, my men reported that a panther 
had mauled one and had been close to my tents ; so I tied up a goat and made a 
machan. About 7-30 I saw a hysena coming for my goat across a well-lighted 
open piece of ground. As I did not intend to sacrifice my goat to a hysena, I 
shot him and he dropped without a sound. I whistled to my boy at my tents, 
which were near, and he and two other men started to come to me. (I wanted 
the hyasna removed, but I did not move myself or call out.) They had just 
reached the edge of the nullah on the tent's side (my machan was a little 
distance on the other side) when I heard a rush, and the panther was on my 
goat like a flash of lightning. He lay on his back for a few seconds with the 
goat held up in the air by his mouth and paws till it was quite dead. Then 
he stood up and I shot him. My men heard the report and the death growl 
and fled back to the tents .... Two days after this occurred I was told 
that another panther had molested one of my garas nearest to my tents, 
goat and machan as before, except that this time it was about 150 yards 
further off than the other one. I remained awake till 11 p.m. and 
then went to sleep. About midnight a rush woke me up, and I saw 
a tiger sitting on his haunches with my goat in his mouth. I must 
tell you that about 7-30 one of my kills got loose and came along the 
cattle track to where the goat was tied up. Not understanding the 
goat, he became frightened and began to move about in the ravine close by. 
Thinking he would disturb my sport, I had him tied up among some bushes 
to my left rear. To resume about the tiger. He evidently had not seen the 
buffalo. I fired and missed. I could not see the foresight at all owing to the 
sighting arrangement having come to grief, and as the tiger fled towards the 
jungle, I fired a second shot and missed again. I loaded again, but had hardly 
got the cartridges in when I saw him break cover again. He was bolting and 
obviously making for the buffalo. I fired two more shots and missed both. He 
bounded past between my machan and the buffalo to my rear, and I thought 
he had gone. I sat perfectly still however. I could not make out how I had 
missed, for it was a clear bright moonlight night and the tiger was within 30 
paces of me every time I fired. However, I soon discovered that I had lost the 
linen off the foresight and that I had doubtless been taking too much fore- 
sight and firing over the beast. Fortunately I had a poultice on one of 
my fingers, so I took it off and tied the rag on to the foresight. All this took 
about five minutes, and then I again saw the tiger on the cattle track about 
80 yards to my right looking at the goat and buffalo. He had gone right round 
the back of my machan, and was evidently thinking the position over, and was 
for a time undecided, for he advanced a few paces, then went back, and stood 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 320 

behind a bush looking at the goat. At last he made up his mind and walked 
straight along the cattle track towards the goat, at the same time keeping his 
eye on the buffalo. He walked very slowly and deliberately. When he got 
opposite my machan I dropped him with a bullet in his shoulder and gave him 
a second as he lay. He did not make a sound, but lay perfectly still as if dead. 
At first I thought of getting down and having him carried in, but fortunately 
I changed my mind and decided to sleep where I was till morning. I had 
just dozed off, when the tiger got up and went off before I could get a 
shot in. Next morning I found a pool of blood where he lay ; he had laid down 
frequently, but I never got him, and he died some eight days later in a cave. 
My theory of the above incident is first that the tiger was very hungry. When 
he had got back to . the jungle after the first two shots, which had doubtless 
gone over him and not disturbed him except by the noise, he saw the buffalo, 
put the noise down to it, and started to kill it. The second shots were high 
too I am sure, and no doubt put him quite off tackling the buffalo, and he 
decided to keep well away from it and content himself with the goat." 

E. F. BECHEft 
London, 12th April, 1893. 

No. XII.— NESTING OE THE CRAB-PLOVER. 

I have posted to your address .a box containing an egg of the Crab-Plover 
(Dromas ardeola) and an egg of the Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia) ; so I sup- 
pose some account of the taking of these eggs, with a description of the nests, 
&c, will be expected. I fear I am not qualified to give a scientific description 
or to offer any remarks of much value ; still I trust they may be of 
interest, and at any rate induce others as ignorant as myself of the technicali- 
ties of the science of Natural History to follow my example and endeavour 
to describe what they see without waiting for the knowledge that is only 
obtained by study and experience. 

On the 29th May, 1893, 1 landed on the Island of Sad-ad-din, a reef island 
about five miles from the town of Zeila, on the Somali coast, and with my 
friend, Captain E. R. Shopland, commenced to search the island for eggs, as we 
had heard that great numbers of seagulls breed there every year. While 
we were crossing the level and open plains, we saw at the north-east end of 
the island a sand-hill about half a mile long and raised above the level about 
six or eight feet. This is one of the features of reef islands ; the wind and 
sea throw up matted seaweed, which is covered with sand, then again more 
seaweed and sand, till the coast line on the weather side is several feet higher 
than the rest of the island. We saw on this hill a great number of white 
birds and a number of seagulls with them. As we approached, we saw that 
they were a species of plover, and from their consternation we knew they 
must be breeding. The gulls all flew away and left the plovers to their 



321 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

difficulties as we approached. When we reached the sand-hill, to our 
disappointment we could find no trace of a nest. Yet the birds, some 
hundreds of them, seemed greatly disturbed and kept flying round calling 
loudly to their mates. While the flock was at some little distance, solitary 
birds suddenly began to start up in the most unaccountable manner as the 
little vegetation covering the sand-hill was far too low and scanty to have 
hidden these white birds from view. We then found that they came from 
holes in the ground. The mouths of these holes were, for the most part, 
hidden under the overhanging and spreading vegetation, which looked like 
heather, but was of course not heather. This part of the sand-hill presented the 
appearance of a rabbit warren, and was tunnelled all over with holes about 
seven or eight inches in diameter, which extended horizontally about six or 
eight feet. The holes which were on the top of the sand-hill went down 
vertically one or two feet, then turned at right angles in a horizontal direction. 
The roof of these tunnels was formed by the matted seaweed covered with sand 
and low-spreading vegetation. Underneath this matted seaweed the sand had 
been scraped out by the birds. I think these holes must be used from year to 
year, and only need a little cleaning out at the mouth or perhaps digging out 
a few inches past the last year's nest, for some were much longer than others. 
Moreover, the holes were not large enough for the birds to stand up in, so that 
the excavation must be a work of time, and I think it quite impossible that the 
time occupied in one breeding season should suffice for this labour of love. 
Although the sand under the matted seaweed is easily scooped out, we must, 
I think, consider the absence of excavated sand outside the holes as seen 
outside crab holes or even rabbit burrows. The birds have long straight 
legs like waders, which must either be bent close up to the body while 
the birds are at work tunnelling, or be stretched straight out behind 
as they are during flight. The tunnelling in that case must be done with the 
beak and wings alone, the legs being of no use whatever. This I do not 
think at all probable considering the horizontal length of the holes. We 
did not open one less than four feet in length, and some went to six or 
eight feet, and always in a straight line. Some of these tunnels entered the 
hill from the sea-face side, but by far the larger number from the top or 
from the landward side and at every conceivable angle. In many cases the 
tunnels crossed each other, but they never curved except when the hole was on 
the top of the hill, and then only close to the entrance from a vertical to a 
horizontal direction. At the end of each tunnel one egg was found, which 
appeared to me far too large for the size of the bird, and had it not been for 
Captain Shopland's knowledge of the habits of this bird and my having seen 
the birds fly out from the hole, I should not have believed the egg could have 
belonged to this bird. I should not have searched so far under the sand-hill 
for a bird's nest at all, more especially for that of a long-legged bird like the 
crab-plover. Captain Shopland shot one of the birds to make sure of its 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 322 

identity. It had a strong black beak like a crow and feet like a plover. The 
nesting season of this bird must be the middle and end of May, for out of 
about three dozen eggs taken one-third were hard-set, one-third half -set, and 
the rest quite fresh. 

On the 30th May, 1893, we landed on Efat island, another reef island, about 
seven miles from Zeila. Here I found two nests of the spoonbill {Platalea 
leucorodid) with three eggs in each about half-set. The nests were close to- 
gether and built of twigs and dry seaweed on the tops of the mangrove trees, 
and were about five feet from the ground. There was nothing remarkable 
about these nests. They were merely flat platforms of sticks on the top of 
the mangrove trees and were only three or four feet apart. I found one of the 
eggs of this bird laid on the sand on Sad-ad-din Island on the morning of 31st, 
and it was quite fresh although far from any nest, but I suppose there is 
nothing remarkable about this. 

THOS. a. R. FINNY, 

Commander, R. I. M, 

Aden, ith June, 1893. 



No. XIII.— THE "GLORIOSA SUPERBA.' 

In Dr. Kirtikar's paper on poisonous plants in our April number he asks 
for further observation of attacks of caterpillars on Gloriosa superla (p. 492). 

The plant is a favourite of mine, and so characteristic of Tanna above 
all other places where I have seen it that it might almost be taken as a 
district badge. 

I have often transplanted the bulbs in the rains, and always had the first 
shoot after transplantation attacked by caterpillars of sizes and colours 
assorted. 

In the forests and hedges I never saw it so attacked. I suspect the reason 
is that the gardeners cannot help giving it richer soil and more water than 
it gets at home, producing a more succulent shoot. 

W. F. SINCLAIR, I.C.S. 

Tanna, June, 1893. 



XIV— SIND AS A FIELD FOR THE NATURALIST. 

Extracts from a lecture delivered at the Dayaram Jethmal College, Karachi 

on the Vdth July, 1893, hy H. E, M. James, I.C.S., Commissioner in Sind. 
In the cold weather Sind is simply a paradise to the lover of birds. During 
the winter of 1872-73, when I was a happy young Deputy Collector of Sehwan, 
in a position of much greater freedom and more outdoor work than at present 
a great ornithologist, Mr. Allen Hume, visited Sind, and of all the valuable 
series of papers which he published in his periodical " Stray Feathers," that on 
the ornithology of Sind is the first in order and one of the first in value. By 
21 



323 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VJIL 

merely marching through the country he discovered several new species and 
added no less than 18 others to the avifauna of India. I had the honour of 
giving him one of these, the European G-olden Oriole, which I obtained in the 
Liyari Gardens, the only specimen ever shot in India. No less than three rare 
sand-grouse were procured : Lichtensteini (the pretty painted one which you 
occasionally see in the hills) ; Coronatus, still rarer (of which Mr. Watson shot 
the first pair right and left — I procured specimens on the Manchar Lake last 
year) ; and Senegallus, the yellow-throated sand-grouse with the spotted female, 
which is very common on the Manchar, and even extends into G-ujerat. Later 
on, other ornithologists like Mr. Scrope Doig in the Eastern Nara, Colonel 
Butler of the 83rd Regiment, and Colonel LeMessurier, R.E., sent many con- 
tributions from Sind. Mr. Doig rediscovered Blyth's Passer pyrrhonotics, a 
small sparrow peculiar to Sind, which had been lost for about 50 years, since 
Sir Alexander Burnes obtained a single specimen in his first journey through 
Sind, and which the great naturalist Blyth recognised as a new and separate 
species. But yet Gallinula bumesii, Sir Alexander Burnes' water-hen, very 
like the common one, but smaller and without the boss on the forehead, has 
not yet been found, and I believe myself it is a doubtful species. Cercomela 
melanura, the black-tailed wheat-ear (the wheat-ear of Sind has white feathers 
at the base of its tail), has also not been found, though Sir Alexander Burnes 
brought it from Sind, and as it occurs at Aden, it doubtless finds its way 
into Mekran. Mr. Doig also discovered the nests and eggs of many birds 
previously unknown to Indian ornithologists and some unknown to science. 

Placed as Sind is, on a kind of dividing line between the peninsular of 
Hindustan with its tropical forms and the temperate regions of Beluchistan 
and Persia, it is a half-way house where vast numbers of rare birds meet. I 
left Sind shortly after Mr. Hume, but I had the pleasure first of adding 10 
more to his Sind list. Mr. Hume's first list gave 280 birds. In 1877 the list 
had grown to 334, which was converted into 335 in the same year by the addi- 
tion of a wood-cock killed in the Liyari Gardens by Colonel Butler. General 
Marston has, during a residence of 50 years, only known of 2 others, both of 
which fell to his gun. In 1878 Mr. Doig and Colonel Butler added eight more, 
and Mr. Murray added quite a long list. In 1879 the Sind list of birds stood 
at 378 ascertained species and 13 doubtful ones. In 1881 Mr. Doig added 
2 more, one of them being the famous Passer pyrrhonotus. Mr. Barnes added 
another in 1882, thus making a grand total of 381 and 13 doubtful. Mr. Hume 
prophesied that the number would reach 400, but unfortunately, just before 
that goal was attained, he renoimced ornithology. 

Even about Karachi, I must tell you, most interesting birds are to be found. 
I shot the second specimen ever killed in India, of a rare web-footed sandpiper 
{Lobipes Jiyperboreus), in the harbour here. Colonel Butler, riding out to Clifton 
one day, saw on the wet ground to the right a number of terns (those exquisite 
french-grey-clad sea-swallows) wheeling about, and discovered the eggs of a 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 324 

species which were (I believe) previously unknown. A very interesting and 
rare bird frequents the sand-hills near Clifton, Alcemon desertorum, or the 
desert lark, usually only found in the wildest and most desolate tracts, a large 
lark that most people would take for a plover, showing a white bar on its wing 
when it rises. The very curious crab plover {Dromas ardeola) is found in the 
harbour. In the cold weather many a treasure is lost by its being unrecog- 
nised, or for want of some one to prepare the skins. A friend at Sukkur 
last year shot the very rare Anser eryihropus, the white-fronted goose, and— 
ate it. Mr. Hume recorded three geese and fourteen ducks from Sind, but many 
have been added since. Mr. Watson, the present Collector of Hyderabad, obtain- 
ed three wild swans in 1878, the first adults of Cygnus olor killed in India. That 
rare duck, the Smew, with pointed bill and rows of teeth, is more commonly 
obtained in Sind than anywhere else in India. On the Manchar Lake you 
obtain the great Sheldrake of Europe. Mr. Hume was the first to note the 
marbled teal as an Indian bird. It is common in Central Sind. I added the 
larger whistling teal myself to the list, and my friend Mr. Hoare has recognised 
the very rare scaup duck in the Delta. Sir Oliver St. John killed the stiff- 
tailed duck in Kandahar, so it probably strays into Sind. Colonel Augustus 
LeMessurier certainly killed one very rare duck, the lovely clucking teal, in 
Sind. The common and jack snipe are common here, but the pin-tail snipe 
is very rare. I saw three and shot one specimen last year, and only one, I think, 
had been shot in Sind before. Singularly enough, my shikari recognised it on 
the wing as different from the common snipe, which, however, it too greatly 
resembles for an ordinary sportsman to discriminate it. In Sind we find six 
of the eight sand grouse met with in India, including the three rare ones 
I mentioned and of which I have brought you specimens. And we are rich 
in other game birds also. "We have three bustards — the great bustard in the 
desert, the ruffed bustard or talore, and the ' leek ' or lesser floriken, which is 
to be found at Gadap or even on the Moach plain. Colonel Wise and Mr. 
Mulock once made a bag of 15 on the Hubb. We have the francolin or black 
partridge in abundance, the common grey, the little secsee which gets up in 
covies with a whirr, and the chukore is found on Daryaru. As for plovers, 
curlews, and the like, their name is legion. The raptorial birds, which I should 
have mentioned first, are very numerous, including the great lammergayer 
and rare hawks, such as Falco babilonicus. Out at the Hubb you get the rare 
Desert or Trumpeter bulfinch, and we have a bulbul, the white-eared, peculiar 
to Sind and the Punjab, though it travels as far as Oujerat sometimes. The 
greatest find ever made was, perhaps, by Mr. W. T. Blanford, who procured a 
very rare African bird, Hypocolius ampelinus, on the Kirthar range. 

In the highly important department of Mammals again there is work to be 
done in Sind. The Mamh, an almost mythical animal when I was first in Sind, 
has, it is true, been captured, and to our disappointment identified as a small 
variety of the ordinary Himalayan black bear. But Mr. Murray, I believe, 



325 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIll. 

discovered a new hare out at Malir, and to discover so large a mammal at the 
end of the XlXth century is no small feat. Amongst the bats, rats, and mice 
much remains to be done. I saw a rat not long ago that I feel certain is new, 
for once on a time I had to study rats on account of the desolation caused in 
Sind by a species of rodent. And in company with rats, Sind is rich in wild 
cats. The tiger is nearly, if not quite, extinct in Sind, but the panther is 
occasionally procured. These of course are well familiar to us all, but there 
are also some magnificent varieties of wild cats in the forests, including the 
lynx or shiagosh. General Marston and I once came upon a splendid specimen 
in the hills that had been killed by a panther. Several smaller varieties of 
FeMs also exist which require identification. Of deer, the magnificent " guin " 
or swamp-deer, which Mr. Watson has seen in the north of the Eohri Division, 
is almost, if not quite, extinct, but I believe that investigators might find the 
rare Arabian Ohikara or ravine deer, if they looked for it, out beyond the 
Hubb. The hog deer is still common, but the black buck is absent except in 
His Highness Mir Ali Murad's preserves. The wild ass of Sind, of which we 
have two fine specimens in the Zoological Gardens, is perhaps our best mammal. 
Then we have the splendid Sind Ibex, peculiar to Sind and Mekran ; we have 
the great Markhor on the hills to the north-west, and the Oorial or G-ud. 



No. XV.— SINGLE VALVE OP TRIDACNA SQUAMOSA, THE 
GREAT SCALY CLAM, FROM TANNA CREEK. 

This specimen was obtained by fishermen in the mouth of the Tanna Creek 
during July, 1893, and exhibited on the 31st idem. 

It is the first that I have got on this coast, and the species is unknown to 
the fishermen ; but it is figured by Woodward as a Bombay Mollusc on the 
authority of Chemnitz. In the Society's interleaved copy of Woodward's 
Manual of the Mollusca, opposite the key to the plate, there is a remark 
of my own, suggesting that Chemnitz's locality may have been the bazaar 
rather than the harbour of Bombay. All the large clams have long been 
imported in a casual way to Bombay, and used for ornamental or quasi orna- 
mental purposes. This specimen, which is large, and much worn, may have 
been lost from a boat on its way from Bombay to Tannu. 

W. F. SINCLAIR, I.C.S. 
Tanna, August, 1893. 



No. XVI.— BIRDS OBSERVED BREEDING IN KHARAGHORA. 

I write to record the finding of the Kentish Ringed Plover breeding here 

in the Salt Works. I found two nests of this bird, each with three eggs, and 

shot what I took to be the hen bird as it left its nest. I sent the skin to Lieut. 

H. E. Barnes, at Ahmednagar, for identification, and he writes to me that it is 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 326 

undoubtedly JEgialitis caniiana. I took these eggs on the 6th instant and 
hope to find more nests later on. 

I had previously taken, in the same place, numbers of clutches of the Stilt's 
eggs, also of Saunder's Little Tern. The latter, according to my experience, 
invariably lay three eggs. 

H. BULKLEY. 

Kharaghora, 12th August, 1893. 



No. XVIL— MOTHS ATTRACTED BY TOBACCO SMOKE. 

I have read with interest Mr. Oxenham's note on a butterfly attracted by to- 
bacco smoke. I have noticed the same thing more than once. The smell of 
tobacco itself is hateful, if not deadly, to most insects ; but the aroma of its 
fumes has certainly an attraction for some naughty kinds of moths. The 
smell of wine is much more generally attractive to both moths and butter- 
flies, and 1 need not say that they do not always draw the line at smelling it. 
When I have seen a moth perplexing itself to discover the source of the in- 
toxicating fragrance, I have offered it a sip in a spoon, and the offer has been 
most gratefully accepted. It is rather a curious thing that this taste, among 
butterflies at least, is confined to certain genera, which we rarely or never 
see at flowers, such as Euthalia, Kallima, Charaxes, and most of the Satyrincs. 
The Papilioninm and Danaince, which are fond of flowers, will not be tempted 
with liquor. Neither will the Nymphalid genera Hypolimnas and Junonia, nor 
any of the Blues. But those butterflies which may be caught with sugar are 
much attracted by the juice of certain trees exuding when the bark is cut, and 
they often show a taste for grosser refreshment. 

E. H. AITKBN. 

Karwae, 16th August, 1893, 

No. XVIII.— THE HABITS OF THE COPPERSMITH. 

I have watched both the Common Coppersmith and other Barbets for many 
years to settle to my own satisfaction the question which forms the subject of 
a note from Mr. Sinclair in the last number of the Journal. Where doctors 
differ those who occupy the room of the unlearned should speak with 
diffidence, but if the real question at issue is the existence of some affinity in 
habits between the Barbets and the Woodpeckers, I have no hesitation in 
saying that I think Jerdon is right. Woodpeckers run up the trunks of trees; 
tapping for the insects on which they feed. This the Coppersmith does not 
do. In fact it is scarcely an insect-feeder at all. I kept one in a cage for two 
months and could not induce it to eat animal food in any form. It lived 
entirely on fruit, chiefly plantains and dry dates. I recollect once seeing one 
feeding on insects in a wild state, but it must have been an individual of 
original mind. It was capturing flying Termites on the wing ! The idea that 



327 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

the Coppersmith does sometimes follow the avocation of a Woodpecker has 
doubtless arisen from the fact that it nests in holes, which it excavates for 
itself. When doing this, it works in precisely the same manner as a Wood- 
pecker and with surprising vigour and perseverance. I remember a nest in my 
garden at Matheran (not of the Coppersmith, but of the Green Barbet, 
M. viriclis) in which I heard the bird hammering fiercely long after dark. In 
the pitchy darkness of its hole, which was several feet deep, I suppose it did 
not know when evening came on. The entrance to the hole is commonly on 
the underside of a branch, and of course when the bird is choosing a place, or 
just beginning work, it will be found conducting itself quite after the fashion 
of a Woodpecker. 

E. H. AITKEN. 
Karwar, lQth August, 1893. 



No. XIX.— WHEKE DO SWALLOWS SLEEP ? 

Can any of the members of the Bombay Natural History Society tell me 
where our Swallows sleep ? In the cold season most parts of India swarm with 
Swallows, which perch in long rows on the telegraph wires, but not on trees, in 
the day-time. They are not on the wires at night, and I very much doubt 
their resorting to trees at that time. I think it likely that they sleep in com- 
pany, like Bee-eaters ; but though I have often startled a company of Bee- 
eaters from their roosting tree, I never startled a sleeping Swallow. At one 
time I used to meet with large flights of Swallows circling over some flat-topped 
rocky hills after dusk, very near the ground. They were not hawking insects, 
but evidently wanting to alight, either on the ground or on the low Cajoo-nut 
trees which grew on the hill. I watched them patiently several evenings, but 
it was very dark, and if I went near enough to follow their movements, they 
took fright at once and went off. 

E. H. AITKEN. 

Karwae, nth August, 1893. 



No. XX.— ESCAPE OF BLACK SWANS. 

Some years ago two Black Swans were imported from abroad by His High- 
ness the Maharajah of Darbhungah. I saw the birds swimming near his palace, 
and not very long afterwards several young black swans were also to be seen — 
about nine of them if I remember right. As soon as the young birds were 
able to fly, the swans rose from the water and flew away right across the 
station in the direction of the Nepal Frontier. They have never returned, and 
it would be interesting to know whether any sportsmen on the Nepal Frontier 
have ever shot any of these birds. 

A. GOODALL. 
Simla, August 20th, 1893. 



328 



PROCEEDINGS 

OP THE MEETING HELD ON 21ST JUNE, 1893. 
The usual monthly meeting of the members took place at the Society's rooms on 
Wednesday, the 21st June, 1893, Mr. M. C. Turner presiding. 

NEW MEMBEKS. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected members of the Society :— 
Surgeon-Major J. Parker, M.D. (Bombay) ; Mr. R. A. Lamb, I.C.S. (Alibag) ; 
Mr. Sambhu Nath Sukul (Benares) ; Mr. F. G. Brook-Fox, F.G.S. (Ganjam) • 
Mr. F. Kinsman (Mandalay) ; Mr. G. C. Minniken (Simla) ; Major J. Clibborn 
I.S.O. (Roorkee) ; Mr. Arthur Symthies (Dehra Dun) ; Mr. H. Charles Hill 
(Naini Tal) ; Major-General C. F. Sharpe (Coonoor) ; Akbar Saheb Nizamud- 
din Divakar (Kalyan) ; Mr. James B. W, Biddle (Karwar) ; Mr. C. H. Fawcett 
I.C.S. (Satara) ; Mr. A. Kinloch (Rangoon) ; and Mr. C. F. Gilbert C.E. 
(Burmah). 

CONTRIBUTIONS DURING MAY. 

Mr. H. M. Phipson then acknowledged receipt of the following contributions to the 
Society's collections since the last meeting : — 



Contribution. 



Description. 



Contributor. 



3 Crocodiles' Eggs 

1 Hartbeest's head 

3 Panther Cubs, foetal speci- 
mens. 

1 Cuckoo 

A skull of a Dugong found 

on Coast of Cutcb. 

2 Panther Cubs (alive) 

Boar Tusks 

1 Snake 

Shells, Snakes and Scor- 
pions. 

1 Leopard's Skin 

5 Lizards (alive) , 

1 European Roller (alive).. 

Spur Fowl (alive) 

1 Pair of Large Kudu 
Horns. 

1 Pied Cuckoo (alive) 

1 Scaly Ant Eater (alive)... 
1 Black Ant's Nest 

4 Painted Snipe (alive).. . 
Eggs of Crab Plover and 

Spoonbill. 

15 Birds' Skins 

1 Pied Cuckoo (alive) 

1 Myna (alive) 

2 Tortoises 

A number of Birds' eggs ... 
1 Dharnan 

3 Bats 



Crocodilns palustris 

Bubalis swaynii 

Felis pardus ......,., 



Cu cuius canorus.. 
Halicore dugong 



Felis pardus 

10f" X 2|" 

Lycodon aulicus 
From Aden 



Felis pardus , 

Sitana ponticeriana 

Coracias garrula , 

From Africa 

Strepsiceros kudu ... 



Coccystes jacobinus ... 
Manis pentadactyla .... 

From Matheran 

Rhynchcea bengalensis , 
From Somali Coast .,. 



Coccystes jacobinus , 
Acridotheres tristis . 
From Africa ......... 

From Mahableshwar. 

Ptyas mucosus 

Megaderma lyra 



Mr. S. Tomlinson, C.E. 
Dr. H. F. Cleveland. 
Mr. C. W. Davies. 

Mr. H. Bulkley. 

Dr. Ardeshir Dadabhai. 

Mr. H. E. Winter, C.S. 
Mr. F. A. Hill. 
Capt. Churchward. 
Capt. E. Shopland. 

Major H. B. Thornhill. 
Rev. F. Dreckmann, S.J. 
Capt. Durant. 
Mr. E. R. Jardine. 
Dr. H. F. Cleveland. 

Mr. Wm. Mountain. 
Mr. Daji A. Khare. 
Dr. J. C. Lisboa. 
Mrs. Pearson. 
Capt T. G. Finny. 

Capt A. Newnham. 
Lord Colin Campbell. 
Mr. G. V. Evans. 
Mr. J. H. Hale. 
Vet. -Capt. Jas. Mills. 
Hon. Mr. Justice Parsons. 
Mr. W. George. 



329 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

MINOR CONTRIBUTIONS. 

From Mr. R. Thorn, Miss Baird, Mr. N. S. Symons, Mr. J. M. Coode,and Mr. 
F. A. Little. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 

Indian Moths, Vol. 1. (Hampson) From Mr. W. F. Sincilair, C.S. 

Transactions of the Entomological Society of 

London for 1892 In exchange. 

A Hunter's Wanderings in Africa, 3rd Edition 

(Selous)..* ....Purchased. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 

London, Part IV., 1892 From Mr. W. F. Sinclair, C.S. 

Actes de la Societe Scientifique du Chili. Tome Il.In exchange. 
Proceedings of the Linnsean Society of New 

South Wales. Vol. VII, Part IV In exchange, 

Pharmacographica Indica (Dymock, Warden, 

and Hooper), Part VI. . 

PAPERS READ. 

The following papers were then placed before the meeting, and extracts 
from them were read and discussed :— 1. Notes on Sport in Somali Land, by 
C. G. Dodgson, I.C.S. 2. Small Game Shooting in the neighbourhood of 
Bombay, Season 1892-93, by E. L. Barton. 3. Habits of the Indian Robin, 
by Capt. A. Newnham. 4. Note on Argynnis niplie, a nymphalid butterfly, 
by Mrs. S. Robson. 5. Note on same, by L. de Niceville. 6. On the 
occurrence of the Hyaena in South Travancore, by H. S. Ferguson. 7. The 
flowering of Bamboos, by G. Jasper Nicholls, I.C.S. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING HELD ON THE 31ST JULY, 1893. 

The usual monthly meeting of the members took place at the Society's rooms on 
Monday the 31st July, 1893, Brigade-Surgeon-Liutenant-Colonel G. A. Maconachie 
presiding. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected members of the Society :— 
Mr. J. Rivett-Carnac (Cachar) ; Mr. A. Bagshaw (Assam) ; Mr. E. G. Gahagan, 
C.E. (Sind) ; Mr. Alexander M. Tod (Bombay) ; Mr. R. Kennedy (Bombay) ; 
Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel H. Cook (Kamptee) ; Hon. Sec, Mhow Military 
Library; Captain Chas. J.Melliss (Pishin); Mr. G. D.Marston, C.E. (Sholapore); 
Mr. F. Ede, C.E. (Cachar) ; Major D. de Hoghton (Bombay). 

ELECTION CANCELLED. 

It was resolved that the election of Mr. Sambhu Nath Sukul of Benares 
be cancelled. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



330 



The Honorary Secretary then acknowledged receipt of the following con- 
tributions to the Society's Museum since the last meeting : — 



CONTRIBUTIONS DURING: JULY. 


Contribution. 


Description. 


Contributor. 


] Pair of horns of Clarke's 




Lt. H. E.Barnes 


gazelle. 


From Somali Laud 


Miss M Smith 




Mr. E. L. Cappel, I.C.S. 
Mr. Alex Tod 


1 Spotted Owlet (.alive) ... 
Shell of 




Tridacna squamosa found in 
Tanna Creek. 


Mr. W. P. Sinclair, I.C.S. 








Surgeon-Capt. C. M. Moore. 
Capt. C. W. F. Whyte. 
Mr3. N. C. Pearson. 
Capt. C. J. Melliss. 
Mr W H Traill 


12 large sand Lizards (alive) 




1 Wild Cat's skin 










Mr. J. A. Douglas. 

Mr. W. F. Sinclair, I.C.S. 

Capt. H. F. Jacob. 
Mr P R Mehta 


7 Eggs of the blue-breasted 
bauded Rail. 

A collection of Butterflies... 






Mr E Litchfield. 


3 Eggs of the Stilt 








Mr. A H Saklatwala 









Do. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 

Perak Museum Notes, No. 1 In Exchan^ 

The Hawks and Owls of the United States in their 

relation to Agriculture (Fisher) 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

Part I of 1893 From Mr. W. F. Sinclair, I.C.S. 

Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 

Vol. XIII., Part 6 Do. 

Sind as a field for the Naturalist and Antiquarian 

(H. E, M. James) From the Author. 

Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, Part I, with 

Plates (Trimen) Do. 

Journal of the Marine Biological Association In Exchange. 

LAND AND FRESH-WATER SHELLS. 

The Honorary Secretary made a special appeal on behalf of the Society's 
collection of Land and Fresh-water shells. He stated that it was at this time 
of the year that such shells were most easily procurable, and he trusted that 
members in all parts of India would assist in increasing the Society's 
collection. 

PAPERS READ. 

The following papers were then read : — 

1. A Day's Sport in the Berars ; by Colonel Kenneth Mackenzie. 

2. The Indian Snake-bird {Plotus melanog aster*), his Works and Ways ; by 

W. F. Sinclair, I.C.S. 

3. The Jackal, or Lion Provider ; F. J. A. Hill. 

4. Nesting of the Crab-plover ; by Capt. T. Gr. R. Finny, R.I.M. 

5. Jungle Notes ; by P. H. Clutterbuck, A.C. Forests. 



Jo-am Bombay.Nat.Hast.Soc.Vol.VIlI.1833 . 



Plate I 




Isaac Benjamin del MirLtern Bros . CKroixio litK.i 

THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 
Strycluaos n.ux vomica. Nat Opd.Logardacece. 
1 . IrcurLSV&tse. Seottoru of Fr-ujjb . Ai ruxt.. si/ze . 
3. Flower' 3. S&eoL . 4-. V&i'~bbcal/ SectCoru of Se&cL. JVott.suze' . 



JOUKNAL 

OF THE 

B O 3VL" IB -A.^ 

ftatoal liitftfrg Jiflmtg* 



No. 3.] BOMBAY. [Vol. Vlll. 

THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 

By Surgeon-Major K. R. Kirtikar, i.m.s., f.l.s. 

PART VII. 

(With Plate I.) 

(Continued from page 230.) 

STRYCHNOS N UX- VOMICA.— (Linn.) 

(Natural Order — Loganiace^e.) 

Marathi — 3v3W; *i«ki. 

A tree over 40 feet in height, with a straight thick trunk. 

Root. — Thick and with a yellowish epidermis ; very bitter. 

Stem. — Often 12 feet in circumference. 

Branches, — Dense, irregular, covered with a smooth ash-coloured 
bark. Young shoots shining and deep green, often tinged with red ; 
bark nodose, bitter, glabrous. 

Petiole. — \ — \ inch long ; deeply grooved. 

Stipules. — None, says Roxburgh in his " Coromandel Plants." 
Between the opposite leaves there is a raised line, which is perhaps a 
rudimentary interpetiolar stipule. 

Leaves. — Glabrous on both sides, shining, opposite, entire, coria- 
ceous, often decussate in an oblique manner, arising from stout nodes ; 
ovate or rotundate, sometimes elliptically oblong ; 3 — 5 nerved ; 
shortly acuminate of almost apiculate. 1£ inches X 6 inches ; usually 
3 — 5 inches long. Base obtuse, somewhat unequal. 

Peduncle. — \—2 inches. 
l 



332 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII 

Flowers. — Many, small, greenish-white, appearing with young 
leaves on short slender pedicels ; collected on small terminal pubescent 
corymbose cymes 1 — 2 inches in diameter, at the end of the branch- 
lets or on short axillary shoots ; pentamerous ; bisexual. 

Calyx. — 5-parted ; persistent ; £ or ^ the size of the corolla. 

Corolla.— -Valvate, hypogynous ; regular, tubular or funnel-shaped, 
with a 5-lobed reflexed short limb.. Tube J to ^ inch long, glabrous 
at the throat, lobes valvate, about £ inch long ; glabrous ; a few conical 
hairs lower down the tube. 

Stamens. — 5, epipetalous in the throat of the corolla tube, alternating 
with the corolla segments. 

Filaments. — Scarcely any, or exceedingly short ; inserted over the 
bottom of the division of the corolla. 

Anthers.— Oblong, glabrous, half within the tube, half out. 

Style.— -Of the length of -the corolla tube; glabrous; filiform. 

Stigma.™ Small or short ; undivided, capitate ; sometimes indis- 
tinctly 2-lobed. 

Ovary.— Free ; 2-celled. 

Placentas. — Fleshy ; adnate to both sides of the dissepiment. 

Fruit. — A berry, globose, smooth, indehiscent, with a fragile shell- 
like rind, orange-sized and orange-coloured when mature ; filled with a 
soft white jelly-like pulp, which is intensely bitter. 

Seeds,— immersed in the pulp,— 2 — 5 in number ; \ inch in diameter, 
circular, discoid, shining, light grey, silky ; not reniform as Brandis 
says, but having one surface convex, and the opposite correspondingly 
concave, with a small foveola in the centre of each side. 

Albumen,— white, horny or cartilaginous as Gaertener calls it. 

Embryo.— Very small, compared with the size of the seed ; straight, 
eccentric ; milk=white. 

Cotyledons.— Cordate, acuminate, tri-nerved, very thin. 

Radicle,— Clavate, very small, placed near the hilum. 

Remarks. 
The wood is very hard and close-grained, white or grey, with 
numerous medullary rays. One cubic foot weighs 52 pounds. It is 
used for many purposes, such as ploughs, cart-wheels, cots, and fancy 



THE POISONOUS PLANTS OF BOMBAY. 333 

cabinet work. The tree appears to be a native of Ceylon. My de- 
scription is mainly drawn from the specimens obtained from the two 
handsome trees growing at Bassein in the Salsette Island in a garden 
near the ruins of the old Portuguese Fort. 

Every part of the plant is exceedingly bitter, particularly the root. 
The pulp of the fruit, says Roxburgh, " seems perfectly innocent, as it is 
eaten greedily by many sorts of birds." Colonel Drury quotes this obser- 
vation in his " Useful Plants of India." The root has the reputation 
of curing intermittent fevers. Rheede says that when boiled and drunk, 
it is purgative. The bark is used as an antidote for snake-bite. 
Brandis says that the pulp in the fruit is orange-coloured. It is not so; 
it is white. It is difficult to understand how such a careful observer 
as Brandis says so. It is evidently a misprint or slip of the pen. 

The seeds contain 0*28 to 0*50 per cent, of an alkaloid called Strych- 
nia^ mixed with another alkaloid Brucia, closely related to it. 
Igasuric acid, similar to malic acid, is associated with these alkaloids,. 
It is these alkaloids which render the plant poisonous. 

The late Professor Sir Robert Christison says that the bark might be 
advantageously substituted for the seed in the preparation of strychnia. 
The tree flowers in the cold season. Kurz in his " Forest Flora of 
British Burma," (vol. II. pp. 166 — 167), says it flowers in April 
and May. It may be so in Burma. The trees in Bassein flower in 
January. The fruit is ready in the early part of the cold season. 
Kurz says that the tree sheds leaves in the hot season. It is not 
known to do so in Salsette. 

Brandis says the seeds are flat. If it be so, it is quite exceptional. 
The general form of the seed is correctly described by Gaertener when 
he calls it convexo-concave. 

Roxburgh observes in his " Coromandel Plants " that the shell cover- 
ing the fruit is somewhat hard. It is not so when mature and dry. It 
has the appearance of being so when the fruit is but half developed and 
the pulp has not yet become jelly-like, but is dense and comparatively 
drier. When, however, the fruit matures and the pulp is well formed 
and becomes almost isolated from the shell, the thinness is apparent. 
It is still more so when the fruit becomes dry ; the seed and the pulp 
then lie loose in the cavity, and the shell easily cracks with a resinous 
fracture when pressed between the fingers. 



334 JOURNAL, BOMBA 7 NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII 

Hooker adds a very imporant note in the description of this plant 
(Vide " Flora of British India," Vol. IV, p. 90), which is as follows :— 
" Bentham also reduces to the present species Strychnos ligustrina 
(Blume, Rumphius I, 68, t. 25 ), which does not differ by any 
tangible character, but has smaller somewhat different-looking leaves." 
Poisonous Properties. 

Nux- Vomica is so well-known for its poisonous properties that it is 
hardly necessary to do more in these pages than state them briefly. 

Strychnia, the chief active principle of this plant, is one of the most 
powerful poisons acting on the nervous and muscular systems. It 
causes tetanus — that is to say, tonic contractions of all voluntary 
muscles. These contractions are generally sudden and last from a few 
seconds to many minutes. They follow each other in rapid succession. 
In severe forms there is hardly any intermission. The whole body in 
such cases becomes " rigid, immoveable, and hard as a board " 
(Schmiedeberg). 

The convulsions excited by this alkaloid originate in the spinal cord 
probably by acting directly upon the motor-cells. The reflex irrita- 
bility of the spinal cord, of the medulla oblongata, and of the brain 
is excessively increased. This causes tetanus. When the brain and 
medulla oblongata are in this state, the spasms get excited by the 
slightest, often imperceptible, stimuli, which may meet the eye, the ear, 
and particularly the organs of touch, so that they apparently come on 
without a cause (Schmiedeberg). 

Strychnia has been found in blood. It has a marked effect on 
circulation. The blood pressure rises ; there is arterial tension 
during the appearance of the convulsions ; the frequency of 
the pulse becomes simultaneously slowed. This Mayer believes to 
be due to vaso-motor spasm from increased irritability of the origins 
of the vascular nerves and the cardiac inhibitory fibres of the vagus. 

It must be remembered that the mind is perfectly clear in strychnia- 
poisoning. Strychnia is a cumulative poison. It also diminishes the 
process of oxidation in blood — that is to say, the amount of oxygen ab^ 
sorbed and of carbonic acid given out by blood are diminished (Barley). 

Brucia is another alkaloid found in Nux- Vomica, but in smaller 
quantity than strychnia. It possesses properties similar to strychnia, 
but as a poison brucia is less active than strychnia. 



335 

THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY 

SHORE. 

By A. Abeeckombie. 

PART II. 

{Continued from page 222.) 

THE BIVALVES. 

These shells have received a great variety of scientific names based 
upon the peculiarities of animal formation which the various authorities 
have considered best adapted for their own mode of classification, but 
all are agreed that it is difficult to divide them into well-defined sub- 
classes. 

The authority which we are following places at least three-fourths 
of the Bombay Bivalves, which he calls 

LAMELLIBRANCHIATA, 

under the head of Veneracea, but we shall endeavour to subdivide them 
according to some other writers on more or less marked differences in 
the shells themselves. 

The bivalves have the power of attracting currents of water into 
their shells, which they filter of all nutrimental or shell-producino- 
matter it may contain, and then pass out again. 

Some of them accomplish this simply by slightly opening the valves 
of their shells ; others are provided with siphons or fleshy tubes (either 
one with two divisions or two separate ones) which they can protrude 
in varying lengths from the mouths of their shells. 

The opening and shutting of the shells is performed by certain 
muscles, and the number and arrangement of these muscles, as shown by 
the scars left on the interior, is our first help to the classification we 
adopt. Next, the presence or absence of the aforesaid siphons is also 
denoted by scars on the valves, but it is not always easy to detect these 
scars, especially if specimens are old and worn ; further we have the 
interlocking teeth of the hinge of the shell, which are very variable and 
are a distinct feature in some families ; and, lastly, the ligament holding 
the two valves together is sometimes externa], sometimes internal. 



336 JO UMNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL EISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol VI IL 

The bivalves have very limited powers of locomotion. The oyster 
family, when first they come into existence, can swim about, but they 
soon attach themselves to rocks or stones, and then become permanently 
fixed. Other families, notably the mussels, spin what is called a byssus, 
a horny or fibrous material which passes through an aperture in the 
valves of the shell, and enables them to attach themselves more or less 
firmly to rocks or stones, but by far the greatest proportion are simple 
burrowers in sand, mud, or even stone. 

This burrowing in sand or mud is effected by means of a fleshy lobe 
or foot (it is often the shape of a foot), and the process may easily be 
watched if a live shell be placed in a tank or basin upon some sand. 
When a sufficient time has elapsed to calm the fears and suspicions of 
the animal, it will protrude its foot from between the valves of the shell, 
thrust it down into the sand, and then with a jerky motion the shell is 
drawn vertically downwards a little ; and the process is repeated till it 
has disappeared. The whole proceeding occupies only a very few 
minutes, but some are much more rapid in their actions than others. 

The depth the animal will burrow seems to depend upon the length 
of its siphons ; these, when it is down, are protruded until their fringed 
mouths lie exactly on the surface of the sand, and in this position they 
are quite invisible until the currents of water they attract and repel 
point to their presence. 

The only instance of activity I have seen amongst the bivalves was 
some young specimens of the family Meroe, which, after driving their 
foot into the sand, jerked it out, causing their shells to shoot a distance 
of a few inches through the water. 
We now come to our classification : 

Division I. — Shells with two muscular impressions or scars on the 

inside of the valves at opposite sides and nearly equal in size. 
Division II. — Shells with two unequal impressions ; but this 
division will not be further considered in this paper, as the only 
representatives of it are some specimens belonging to the well- 
known mussel family, and they are very uncommon. 
Division Hi. — Shells with one impression, or two or three close 
together and centrally placed. 
Before going further, it is necessary to note that the umbo is the 
name given to the beak or commencement of growth of the shell, and 



THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY SHORE. 337 

the ventral border is the edge of the shell opposite the umbo and which 
constitutes the length of the shell. The breadth is, of course, a measure- 
ment from the umbo to the ventral border in a straight line, and this 
measurement also determines whether a valve is equilateral or not, i.e., 
whether the umbo is centrally placed with regard to the shape of the 
valve. When dimensions are given, they are of what I believe to be 
full-sized specimens. 

Unfortunately nearly all the common bivalves belong to Division I, 
but two large subdivisions are fairly easily determined — the Integri- 
pallia and the Sinupallia. Still regarding the inside of the shell, there 
will be found running parallel to the ventral border a line or scar 
formed by the muscular attachment of what is termed the mantle 
of the animal to the shell. In cases where this line (the pallial line) 
simply follows the outline of the shell between the two muscular scars, 
it indicates that the animal has no siphons and belongs to the class 
Integripallia. Where this line is inflected and forms a sinus or bay, 
the animal has siphons — the Sinupallia. 

Division I. 

INTEGRIPALLIA .—Ligament Exteknal. 

ARCACEA. 

There are many species of this family, and it is easily recognised 
by the long straight row of similar and comb-like teeth of the hinge. 
Shells generally white and covered more or less with a rough 
or bristly epidermis, also radiately ribbed from the umbo. 

Area in&quivalvis (Brug.) is a large thick swollen shell with about 
34 broad smooth ribs. Umboes curled over the broad ligamental area. 

Length 2|— 3", breadth 2— 2|", depth of double shell 2". 

Area bistrigata (Dunker) lives attached to rocks or stones by a 
horny byssus coming out of the centre of the ventral border, and can 
only be removed by the use of a considerable amount of force. It is 
generally a rough dirty-looking shell often covered with limy matter 
and a bristly epidermis. The shell is oblong, and the hinge line is very 
long and straight. 

Ribs numerous, slightly noduled and in pairs at the sides. 

Size 2— 2i"*li". 



338 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Area granosa (Lam.) — Shell nearly equilateral and strongly ribbed 
with about 20 noduled ribs. 

Epidermis brown, thin, and scaly. Shell pure white. 

Size 1%" x 1|". 

Area japonica (Reeve). — Shell oblong, very inequilateral, shining 
white, with 32 to 33 broad flat ribs. 

Size If" X 1". 

Area tenebrica (Reeve) is a small oval flattish shell with the hinge 
line slightly curved. The ribs are close set and very numerous. 

Size \" X 4", but I have one specimen f " X i". 

Area lactea (Linn.) is the smallest of the family and very common 
amongst shell shingle. White or yellow tinged, hump-backed and 
somewhat squarely shaped, with the umbo curling over the ligamental 
area. Radiate ribs numerous and somewhat beaded. 

Size f" x £''. 

LUCINACEA. 

We have two specimens of this family which are so widely different 
in every respect that it is hard to believe they are correctly classified. 

Cardita antiquata (Lam.) is one of our commonest shells. Very 
massive, white beneath, with a yellow-brown epidermis, and with irre- 
gular burnt blotches or streaks scattered over the radiate ribs. Ribs 
broad, and about 23 in number. Hinge remarkable for long ridge, 
which fits into a corresponding groove. 

Size 2f X 2". 

Diplodonta indica (Desh.) is a very delicate white globular little 
shell, smooth and shining, or very finely concentrically striated, 
About the size of a small marble.* 

CYPRINACEA. 

Cardium asiaticum (Brug.)=coronatum (Speng.) — This is our re- 
presentative of the cockle family, and the double shell viewed side- 
ways gives a perfect outline of a heart. The ventral border is semi- 
circular. Shell light yellow and deeply ridged, with 33 to 34 radiate 
ribs, which are notched or lamellated towards the ventral border. 
Hinge, central teeth small, but two sharp pointed prominent ones on 
either side, widely separated from the others. 

* N.B. — Dr. Fischer puts this shell under the Ungulinidw.') 



THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY SHORE. 339 

SIN D PALLIA.— Ligament Exteknal. 
VENERACEA. 
Cypricardia lellicata (Reeve).— This is a smallish, dull, chalk-white 
shell, shaped something like a bean, very inequilateral ; in fact the 
umbo is quite at one side. It is smooth, but irregularly roughly 
ridged or striated with the lines of growth. Hinge teeth one small 
one on each valve. Sinus slight. 
Size 1£" X |". 

We now come to seven shells which are much mixed up in sub- 
classes, but which I shall endeavour to take together under some lead- 
ing features. 

They are all polished shining shells, thickish, with f " sharp closely 
set prominent teeth in the hinge, and are generally smooth and 
coloured. 

Meretrix morpluna (Lam.) is about the largest, very shining, thick 
and smooth, and of all colours, from pale buff to deep rich brown. Shell 
somewhat triangularly cut and ventral border rounded. Umboes 
nearly straight, making valve not far off being equilateral. Sinus very 
slight. 

Size 2|" X 2". 

The shells figured in Reeve as Cytherea castanea, C. petechialis, and 
C. impudica appear also to be this species. 

Chione pinguis (Hind's) is also very shining and smooth, but the shell 
is much thinner and more swollen, especially towards the umboes. 
Colour generally light or dark slate with concentric bands or wavy lines. 
Shape ovalish, umboes curling away from the ligament side of the 
shell, which side is produced or elongated. Sinus broad, deep, and 
oval. 

Size 2" X 1|". 

Chione radiata (Chem.)—Similar in shape to the last, but more 
oval, flatter, not so shining, and with irregular concentric striations. 
Umboes straightish and not very prominent, i.e., they do not much 
distort the general oval shape of the valve. Sinus deep and oval. 
In colouring, this shell, as is the case with many of the bivalves, 
defies description. Young specimens have a reddish tinge which 
turns to brown or grey when older, and many are marbled or clouded 

2 



340 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIIL 

with angular dark grey colourings on a light ground, also frequently 
radiately dark banded. The variations in colour and shape no doubt 
account for its having received three names and being figured 
in Reeve's Conchologia as Tapes marmorata and T. orientalis. The 
Dame of C. radiata is that applied to the adult specimens in the 
British Museum. 

Size If" X li". 

Tapes textrix (Chem).-^-One of our commonest shells, elongated, oval, 
very smooth and shining (old shells sometimes irregularly, concentri- 
cally striated), and with very pronounced blackish zigzag or net- 
shaped markings on a yellowish ground. Sinus rather small, not 
pointed. 

Size If" X |". 

Meroe solandri (Gray) and M. effossa (Hanley).— These are two oval, 
flattish, thick, very shining shells remarkable for a deep linear cut 
or depression in the shell behind the umboes and in which the 
ligament lies. Beaded on the inner edge of ventral border. 

M. solandri is quite smooth and of a uniform cream to buff. Young 
specimens are often prettily flame marked with yellow to brownish 
colourings. 

Sinus broad, not very deep. 

Size If" X li". 

M. efossa is concentrically lined or grooved, most clearly so towards 
the linear cut spoken of. Nearly covered with flame or sharp 
pointed wavy bands of yellow or light brown, often tinged with 
purple. 

Sinus as last. 

Size 11" X If. 

Pullastra malabarica (Chem.).— This shell differs from the others 
in being strongly concentrically ridged or furrowed } umboes a good 
deal curled ; ventral border rounded, and large specimens look about 
as broad as they are long. 

Colour yellowish with fine grey frecklings and frequently four 
dark radiate bands of colour. 

Sinus deep and broad, extending to middle of shell. 

Size 21" X H". 



THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY SHORE. 341 

Venus imbricata (Sow.) is a very small shell found in great 
quantity amongst shingle. White, sometimes yellow or purple-tinged 
towards the umbo. Radiately ribbed. Ribs about 18—19 and noduled. 

Length §" and nearly the same breadth. 

Circe divaricata (Chem.) .—Shell oblong, oval, flattish, thick, radiately 
ridged, ridges diverging from umbo and centre line of shell, also 
partially concentrically ridged, giving a beaded appearance in places. 
Colour fulvous-white, mostly streaked or blotched with red brown. 
Sinus inflection hardly noticeable. 

Size li" X If". 

Dosinia or Artemis.— There > are four species of this genus, all 
more or less circular in shape and closely concentrically striated. 
The umboes are pointed and curled, and stand out of the circular contour 
more or less. Immediately under the umboes is a small heart-shaped 
impression indented in the shell. Sinus large and pointed, extending 
to middle of valve. 

D. prostrata (Linn.) is a large flat fawn-coloured, shining shell. 
Striations at sides run into converging ridges. 

Diameter about 2". 

D. pubescens (Phil.).— White, sometimes faintly pink tinged ; finely 
silkily striated. Most frequently found about the size of a 4-anna 
piece, but grows to 1£" diameter. 

D. rustica (Homer) is a rough chalky-looking shell about the 
size of a rupee. Striations fine and becoming ridged at the sides. 

D. gibba (Adams) is about the same size as the last, but the umbo 
is much produced^ destroying the circular form. The shell, too, is 
thinner and more swollen towards the umbo. The heart-shaped 
impression is comparatively large and faint j pure white and finely 
evenly striated. 

Donax or Wedge-shells.— We have three members of this genus. 
Ligament short, and side of shell on which it lies (the posterior side) 
truncated. Sinus deep. Shell inequilateral. 

D. scortum (Linn.).— Easily known by the polished purple interior 
and the sharply truncated side ending in a point at the ventral border. 
Outwardly the shell is brownish-grey concentrically striated, forming 
ridges towards anterior side. Shell also radiately striated, especially 
on anterior side. 

toize 2* x U". 



342 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

D. abbreviatus (Lam.) is a small, thick, very inequilateral shell 
finely concentrically striated, varying in colour from pure white to 
purple-brown. When coloured there is generally a light ray from umbo 
to ventral border. Hinge-teeth, one prominent in one valve fitting bet- 
ween two smaller ones in the other. 

Size l"*f". 

D. incamatus (Chem.)=Z>. dysoni (Desh).— A pretty little whitish 
shell often delicately tinged with yellow, pink or purple. Smooth and 
shining, truncated end concentrically furrowed. Apex pointed and 
straight, giving the shell an angular shape. 

Size |"Xf", but found much larger than this at Ratnagiri. 

Psammotcea atrata (Desh.)-— This shell, being the only true, purple 
bivalve I have found, will not need much description. It is thin, 
oblong, somewhat transparent, generally partially covered with a 
greenish epidermis, and with 2 light rays running from umbo to 
ventral border in a slanting direction. 

Length If" X f ". 

The Tellinas form a very numerous family generally taken by itself 
and even much subdivided. 

The Bombay specimens are thin flattish inequilateral shells generally 
white, and the posterior side (i. e., the side with the ligament) is 
truncated or more frequently plicated. 

Hinge-teeth insignificant, sometimes obsolete. 

Sinus in all cases very large. 

The following are all white. 

T. sinuata (Spengler).- — Large, very flat, oval, very silky, and 
finely concentrically striated ° s posterior side produced and slightly 
flexuous. 

Size 2f" X If". 
' T. capsoides (Lam.). — Also flat, chalky-white, slightly rough, and 
clearly concentrically striated ; posterior side short, plicated, and trun- 
cated ; anterior rounded and faintly radiately striated. 

Size If" X If". 

T. edentula (Spen.). —Large, thin ; umbo pointed, rather swollen and 
angular ; inequilateral ; posteriorly strongly flexuous, anteriorly pro- 
duced and oval ; smooth, shining, and striated with lines of growth. 

Size 2f" X If. 



THE COMMON MARINE SEELLS OF TEE BOMBAY SEORE. 343 

T. ala (Hanley).— The chief feature is the pointed and plicated 
posterior end. Anterior end rounded ; umbo pointed, but not much pro- 
duced ; silkily minutely concentrically striated ; sometimes rusty-tinged 
by the epidermis. 

Size 11" X |". 

T. truncata (Ionas) is a very thin, pure white, perfectly smooth, 
oval shell, very inequilateral ; umbo pointed and angular. Posterior side 
slightly flesuous. 

Size If" X 1". 

T. emarginata (Sow.).— An oblong, very highly polished, smooth 
shell with concentric agate-like veins frequently pinkish towards the 
umbo, or pink-rayedj posterior side sharply flexuous, forming sometimes 
a sort of dip in the shell. 

Size iyx |". 

EXTERNAL LIGAMENT SLIGHT OR WANTING. 

Semele cordiformis (Sow.) is the name of a whity-pink, some- 
what circular and thickish shell often pink-rayed and banded espe- 
cially towards the umbo. Both radiately and concentrically striated, 
the former being particularly permanent towards the ventral border. 

Sinus deep and broad. 

Central teeth obsolete, a long internal ligament taking their place. 
Lateral teeth two. About the size of a rupee. 

The Madras are chiefly known by the pecularity of the hinge-teeth 
In the centre is a more or less hollowed-out triangular or spoon- 
shaped projection or pit which holds the internal ligament. Beside 
this are sharp interlocking teeth, beyond which the hinge area is 
more or less grooved laterally. 

M. luzonka (Desh.) only occurs here as a small nearly equila- 
teral and triangular shell, very shining, and finely concentrically 
striated. Colour variable, but generally a grey purple towards the 
umbo. 

Size about f " X f or smaller. 

Cacella transversalis (Desh).-An oblong equilateral shell gene- 
rally covered, all but the umbo, with a yellow-brown epidermis, beneath 
which it is quite white. 

Size 1J" X £". 



344 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

Of the genus Standella there seem to be two species— S. capillacea 
(Desh.) and S. pellucida (Chem.), but the hinge-teeth and ligament- 
pit are so exactly alike in both cases that I am in some doubt, 
from a recent examination of a number of specimens, as to 
whether we have or have not two species. If we have, S. capillacea is 
much the larger, rough, oval, and inequilateral, white or more often 
tinged with rusty-yellow, rough, and irregularly concentrically 
Striated with lines of growth and fine wrinkled striations in a radiate 
direction, especially towards the ventral border. 

Size 3|" X 2i". 

S. pellucida is much smaller, and the oval shape is more pointed. 
Shell shining white and silkily, very finely, concentrically striated. 
Radiate wrinklings not present. 

Size 2i" X 11". 

MYACEA. 

The Bombay specimens of this family are so widely different in 
form that they must be taken separately. 

Thracia salsettensis has been described and figured by Mr. 
Melvill, and a copy of his diagram and pamphlet has been reproduced 
in this journal. 

Anatina labiata (Reeve) is an extremely fragile oblong some- 
what swollen, pearly-looking shell ; semi-transparent ; interior vitreous, 
and with a single spoon-shaped projection to hold the internal ligament. 
The shorter side of the shell is rostrated or slightly thrown back, 
causing it to gape. 

Solen truncates (Sow.)— (The razor shell) — is very common ; the 
double shell forms a long cylinder open at both ends, often covered 
with a greenish epidermis. Shell tinged with rusty-pink often trans- 
versely banded with this colour. 

Length 3" to 7". 

PHOLADACEA, 

One species* JPholas bakeri (Desh.), is certainly common, and I 
believe these shells have been called angels' wings, the imaginary 
drawings of which they faintly resemble. A very elongated, pure 
White, thin and brittle shell concentrically and radiately roughly ridged, 
the ridges forming sharp points at the junction. At the umbo the shell 
is curled over on itself, a very marked feature. Interior porcellanous. 

Length about 3"X1". 



THE COMMON MARINE SHELLS OF THE BOMBAY SHORE. 345 

DIVISION III. 

This comprises all the oysters, and I give the following extract from 
the paper already mentioned ; — 

Ostrea crenulifera (Sow.)=p^'cafr% (Chem), 

Ostrea bicolor ( Hanley). 

We give these names as most closely corresponding to the Bombay 
specimens that have come under our notice, but this genus is so widely 
distributed in all seas and the similarity of shell sculpture is so close, 
whilst the shape is so varied, that it is impossible to speak with abso- 
lute certainty. 

0. lacerata (Hanley). — Found on stones at low tide, densely clustered 
and arranged vertically. 

Of the genus Anomia we have two species. 

A. achceus (Gray).-— A translucent, silky, copper-tinged (yellow to 
red) shell with often a roughly wrinkled exterior and a very polished 
metallic interior. The lower valve is flat and has a large circular or 
oval hole extending to the middle of the valve through which the 
byssus passes. The animal lives attached to rocks or stones, and, like 
the oysters, adapts itself in the shape of its shell to its surroundings. 

Muscular impressions central and so close together as often to make 
one scar. 

Hinge-teeth absent. 

Size about li"X li". 

Placuna placenta (Linn.). — Circular, very flat and thin discs, often 
as large as a saucer. Texture like mica or talc, smooth towards the 
umbo, otherwise finely wrinkled with minute thread-like shining lines. 
Young shells faintly pink-tinged ; old ones often blackened with mud, 
otherwise they are white. In the interior at the umbo there are two 
diverging ridges. 

The Pectens. — These well known scallop (expanded fan-shaped) shells 
are only represented here by one or at most two species. Umboes 
pointed and angular, and with wings or ears on either side ; ventral 
border semi-circular. 

P. singaporinus (Sow.) has about 21 ribs, is whitish and generally 
densely covered with transverse bandings or blotchings of dark brown 
or rusty-red. 



346 

COLLECTING WAYS AND COLLECTING DAYS. 

By Majoe C. T. Bingham, f.z.s., Forest Department^ Burma. 

{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society, 13tf/i Nov., 1893.) 

Collecting on the Kawhareih and Myawaddy Road, 

I know of no forests in all this forest-bearing country of Tenasserim 
so interesting as those lying in the East Salween sub-division of 
the Salween — Ataran Forest Division. 

Apart from the fact that from a forest point of view the East 
Salween contains perhaps the most valuable forests in the province, the 
whole country, from the configuration of the land and from the char- 
acter of the vegetation covering it, forms the very happiest of hunting 
grounds for a natural history collector. From north-west to south- 
east right along the whole length of the sub-division runs the range 
of the Dawnat mountains, covered for the greater part by dense 
evergreen forests, and possessing peaks running to 4,000 and 5,000 
feet. 

One of these, Mulayit, has been made famous by the collections 
made thereon by Mr. Limborg, the late Mr. W. Davison, and Signor 
Fea. The Dawnat range forms the watershed between the Thaungyin 
river on the east and the Hlaingbwe and Haungdraw rivers on the 
west. For the most part it is covered by unbroken forests, and its 
wilder portions are only known to the wandering Karens ; no white 
man has penetrated to their depths. Here and there rough pathways, 
leading over high and rugged passes, cross the range, and being often 
the only breaks for miles in the dense forests are, at most times, 
thronged with birds and insects. In all Tenasserim I do not know any 
collecting ground so good as the road leading from Kawkareik, a large 
village in the Haungdraw valley across the Taungjah pass (1,500 ft.) 
to Myawaddy, a village on the Siamese frontier in the Thaungyin 
valley. For some reason or another, possibly attracted by the dense 
evergreen vegetation, many Malayan species, both of birds and insects, 
originally recorded from the Malay Archipelago, Malacca, or from the 
extreme south of Tenasserim, creep up along the Dawnat range 



COLLECTING WAYS AND COLLECTING DAYS. 347 

and have been procured by H., myself, or others on the Taungjah 
pass. 

Witness to this fact among birds, the black-and-red broad-bill 
(Cymborkynchus macrorhynchus), the tufted tree-swift (Macropteryx 
comatus), the greater red-billed malkoha (Rhamphococcyx erythrog- 
nathus), and many others : among butterflies I have taken the 
eminently Malayan forms of Papilio butleri and Sithon nedymondy 
not to speak of scores of others : and in the Hymenoptera it is 
sufficient to mention as common Sphex tyrannica^ Smith, originally 
recorded by Wallace from the Celebes ; Ctenopledra chalybia, also 
from Malacca and the Celebes, Megachile atrata, from the Philippine 
Islands, etc. 

Years ago I was stationed at Kawkareik and knew the Taungjah pass 
and road well. My best collections of birds and insects were made 
along it and in the Thaungyin and Haungdraw valleys. Of late years 
however, only when professional work has taken me there, have I 
been able to revisit my old hunting grounds and collect during such 
leisure as the ever-increasing duties that press on one now-a-days have 
allowed me. Here is an account of one trip made along this road. 

Leaving Maulmain by launch one day early in February, H. and I 
got up to Kyundo, a little village on the bank of the Haungdraw 
river, on the same day, early enough to proceed on to Kawkareik, 
which is fifteen miles further in towards the foot of the hills. Leaving 
our servants to load and bring on our baggage on carts, we started on 
foot with a light empty cart and a fast pair of bullocks following close 
behind in case we found the sun hot and decided to ride. We both 
carried nets, and H., who had lately taken again to bird-collecting, 
had a man behind carrying a gun. 

The road for some miles from Kyundo is uninteresting, passing 
between low-lying marshy ground and paddy fields over which it is 
built with high embanked sides, pierced by bridges so as to allow of 
outlets for the water in the floods of the monsoon. At about the fifth 
mile, however, the road gets up among low forest-clad laterite hills, 
and here our collecting began, the first prize being a fine adult 
Poliornis teesa, an exceedingly rare bird in Tenasserim. H. spied it a 
little distance off the road, seated high upon a dead tree (Dipterocarptis 
3 



348 JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

tuber culatus), and after a careful stalk managed to bring it down. 
While H. went off after the hawk, I wandered in among the bushes 
and undergrowth, keeping a sharp look-out for any good butterfly 
or Hymenoptera. Butterflies were plentiful enough, but all of 
common species. Flitting up suddenly and after a short jerky flight, 
dropping close to the roots of some thick bush and becoming perfectly 
invisible until put up again, were dozens of Melanitis ismene, M. asiva, 
and M. zitenius ; I caught specimens of all three in a couple of minutes. 
Here were two or three Myealesis mineus going with steadier flight and 
settling higher up on the leaves of the bushes, while Terias, Ypthima, 
and the delicate weak-flighted Leptosia xipliia were all to the fore. 
Suddenly I saw a flash of blue, and a little bright Arhopala went 
with a thump on to the underside of a leaf of a Yendike bush 
(Dalbergia cultrata). A careful sweep of the net, and it is caught and 
proves to be Acesina aberrans, de N iceville, an Arhopala pure and simple, 
but with rather unusual markings on the underside of the wings. The 
bushes grew thick, and tramping about among them I disturb insects of 
all kinds, among them a rather lively solitary wasp (Eumenes arcuata), 
which gives me a good deal of trouble to get into the cyanide bottle* 
By the time H. has recovered his bird and returned to the road, I have 
at least a dozen butterflies in papers and three or four Hymenoptera 
in the killing-bottle ; and so it goes on, H. helping me with my 
insect- collecting, while keeping a look-out for birds for himself, until 
we get within a mile or so of Kawkareik ; then we get into the cart 
and rattle in in time for a bath, and get dinner later on when our 
servants and baggage turn up. 

We stopped a day at Kawkareik, and the next morning started for the 
Thaungyin valley. Carts had here to be abandoned and elephants taken 
on. The nest day what with getting our baggage straight and loading 
the elephants, we did not get off till after 8 o'clock. The march was going 
to be a short one, only to a camp at the foot of the hills, some five or sis 
miles off ; so our late start did not matter. Passing through the village, 
which is long and straggling, we did not get into any collecting ground 
until we had got clear of the Shan hamlet of Tadanku, which joins on to 
the east end of Kawkareik village. The morning was bright and the 
sun already beginning to feel hot, so that we were glad to get past all 



COLLECTING WAYS AND COLLECTING DAYS. 349 

cultivation and clearings into the cool evergreen forest. The road or 
pathway, for it is really only a bullock-track, iollows the bed of the 
Kawkareik chaung, a regular little mountain torrent, shallow but swift, 
which or its feeders are crossed by the road some twenty-five to 
thirty times within a distance of four miles. A considerable trade 
in live cattle brought from Siam has been carried on for years, 
and this pathway, rough and ragged as it is, is well marked, 
and forms a broad winding break in the forest. The hills rise 
on either side of the road steep and densely crowded with vegeta- 
tion, evergreen bushes with sharp recurved thorns, creepers of all 
sizes and lengths, huge clumps of bamboo and giant forest trees, Thin- 
gan (Hopea odorata), Kaungmoo (Parasliorea stellata), Pyinma (Lager- 
strcemia flos-regince), and numbers of others are all jumbled together in 
one matted mass through which it is impossible to penetrate any dis- 
tance without free use of axe and dah. All wooded scenery has a 
sameness that becomes, after a time, rather monotonous. But on this 
road the abrupt turns and the distant views obtained of bare hill and 
rocks between the lower wooded vistas are most striking. You as- 
cend a height and look over a waving sea of green broken by the 
winding road crossed here and there by the stream. The contrast of 
the vivid green of the trees, with the brown-black and gleaming white 
boulders in the torrent's bed, and afar off a bare mountain side of rock 
and grass is remarkable. The whole lit up by the morning sun forms 
a rich mass of colour which has often held me breathless and silent. 

At the first crossing we stopped and let the elephants with our 
baggage get ahead, telling our servants to pitch our camp at Taung- 
cheyin (lit. tl the foot of the hill ") and get our breakfast ready against 
our arrival. In the mean time we looked about. The near bank of 
the stream showed a wide expanse of damp sand, and on this, as the 
sun got higher and warmed it, came butterflies, bees, wasps, and 
Diptera in scores, sucking up the moisture. On one or two spots, 
where some wayfarers — Burman, Shan, or Karen — had sat down 
and eaten their meal of rice and na-pi (fermented fish-paste), a 
whole crowd of waving wings made a bright patch of colour on 
the yellow sand. It is very difficult to say whether butterflies 
are attracted more by smell or by sight. In the course of my 
collecting I have found an over-ripe jack fruit or papaya split 



350 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII 

open and laid out on bare rocks or sand — a fair bait for the Papilionida 
and Lycamida?, among butterflies and for all the solitary fossorial 
wasps, and the Apidce among the Hymenoptera. But then to bait 
of this kind insects may be attracted as much by sight as by scent, 
while there is not the ghost of a doubt that for all Lipidoptera, 
Hymenoptera, Diptera, &c, there is nothing to beat liquid ammonia* 
spilt over patches of sand where the sun is shining hot ; and to this 
there can be no question that the insects are attracted purely by 
scent. For certain foul feeders, the genus Charaxes among butter- 
flies pre-eminently, a sure find is the droppings, so common on jungle 
roads, of tiger, wild cat or dog. Again Euthalia and skippers and 
many large fossorial Hymenoptera, Pompilidce, Sphegidce, &c, are often 
found in numbers sucking the juice of jungle fruits shed and lying on 
the ground in rotting masses. On the sand for some time our nets went 
swooping out busily, and then H. suddenly said, " By Jove, what's 
that," and looking up, I saw three green birds flying on to a high tree 
on the other side of the stream. For a moment I thought they were 
parrots, but a second good look showed the beautiful cherry-pink puffed- 
out feathers of the throat, and I recognized them as Nyctiornis amicta, 
the " red-bearded bee-eater" to use Oates' name. This is a much 
rarer species than the "blue-bearded bee-eater" (Nyctiornis athertoni) 
and found only in the heaviest forests ; whereas the latter species is not 
unfrequently seen near clearings, and I have even shot one on a soli- 
tary tree in the middle of a paddy field. The call of Nyctiornis 
amicta is quite different from that of its congener, much coarser and 
rouoher. The bird breeds on these hills, and on two occasions I found 
nest holes on this very road. Unfortunately the first time I was too 
early ; the birds had just begun digging, and on the second occasion 
I found the young already hatched out and feathered. They flew out 
as I dug down into the nest. Both N. athertoni and N. amicta, 
notwithstanding their popular name of bee-eaters, live quite as much on 
beetles as on bees. From the nest mentioned above I took out quite 
a hatful of the legs, heads, and wing-cases of beetles. The nest, like 
that of all bee-eaters, is simply a large bulbous chamber at the end of 



* For the precise manner in which this ammonia is poured on the ground see 
Hogarth* s plate of the "Enraged Musician." 



- COLLECTING WAYS AND COLLECTING DAYS. 351 

a seven or eight foot tunnel dug obliquely into the bank of a 
stream, the side of a road or other cutting. I have no doubt that 
the eggs of JSf. amicta, like those of N. athertoni, are globular and 
glossy white. 

H. and I stalked the birds very carefully, but succeeded in only getting 
one. After putting this up we slowly wandered on, adding rapidly 
to our collections. The profusion of bird and insect life was simply 
marvellous. Among birds, bulbuls of many kinds were conspicuous, 
Chloropsis, Iole, Pycnonotus, Criniger, twittering, flitting and fighting 
among the tree-tops. The beautiful male of the fairy-blue-bird (Irena 
puella) with its glistening cobalt-blue wings was uttering its sharp 
" be quick," " be quick", while from the lower bushes by the road-side 
came the plaintive monotonous call of Turdinus ahbotti, and further in 
from the depths the hoarse " Hoot," " Hoot" of a Pomatorhinus . 
Every now and then too a trogon (Harpactes oreskios) with its bril- 
liant colouring, or a party of that rare hornbill (Anorrhinus tickelli) fol- 
lowing each other at intervals in single file and uttering their curious 
cackling shout, would cross the road. Above all sounds, however, 
from the hill sides rose the melancholy howlings of the black 
gibbon (Hylobates lar). Butterflies abounded at every crossing of 
the stream. Among them Euplceas with their blue-shot wings, mi- 
micking Papilios, difficult to distinguish from Euplcea and Danais, 
delicate whites Huphina^ Terias^ Hebomoia, strong- winged Char axes, 
brilliant Arhopalas, and jerky-flighted brown skippers all swarmed to- 
gether on the bare hot sands. Mixed up among the butterflies were 
swarms of hymenopterous insects ; of Megacliile (leaf-cutter bees) 
alone I caught eleven species, of Eumenes (solitary wasps) four species, 
and numerous species of Anthophora, Nomia, Ceratina, Halictus, and 
Trigona. I collected too various Coleoptera and Diptera, which were 
almost, if not quite, as abundantly represented as the other orders 
of insects with which I am better acquainted. The jungle on either 
side of the road is, as I have already stated, covered with dense ever- 
green vegetation, and hunting about among the undergrowth, I was 
overjoyed to chance on the whisker plant (Tacca Icevis) growing in 
great numbers. I had always considered this plant as somewhat rare, 
but here it was to be found literally in hundreds. It is a most curious 



352 JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

vegetable, as the old botanists would have said, with a leaf not unlike 
that of the wild cardamom, and a most peculiar, almost weird-looking 
flower, deep purplish-black in colour, with filaments fully three inches 
long, formed into two great bunches which hang down on either side of 
the corolla. 

It was one o'clock before we got into camp, which was pitched in a 
lovely spot right at the foot of the ascent of the pass over the moun- 
tains. The tents were placed under the shade of what in India would 
have been called a tope, of magnificent Pyinma trees (Lagerstrcemia 
flos-regince). 

After changing our wet clothes and swallowing a hasty breakfast, 
1 sat down to skin the birds I had collected, and to look over, arrange, 
and put away my insects. H. said he would just have a look round 
before he commenced skinning the specimens he had got and wan- 
dered off with a gun. Presently I heard a shot and then another, and 
then a long pause followed by frantic shouts for his net. One of H.'s 
servants ran off with the net, and in about half an hour H. returned 
triumphant. He had secured a lovely specimen of that most beautiful 
of birds, Calyptomena viridis, and another equally beautiful specimen of 
Rhamphococcyx erythrognathus, besides one broken and one perfect 
specimen of that rare butterfly, Thaumantis pseudaliris. 

This ended our collecting for that day, and it was nearly dark before 
we had finished preparing and putting away all the objects we had 
collected. 

Next morning we started somewhat earlier than we had done 
the previous day and climbed on for an hour without stopping to 
collect much, as we wanted to get well ahead of the elephants. 
By the time we had got the worst of the ascent over, the sun came 
over the hill-top and butterflies and birds became more lively. 
The road wound for the most part along the ridge of a long spur, 
and the hill-side was in many places fearfully steep, but all covered 
with dense ever-green jungle. In one place where the road, owing to 
the broadening of the spur, opened out somewhat, H. and I sat down 
on a fallen log and took a rest. A dead and half-rotten tree was in 
front of us a little off the road, and our attention was attracted 
to this by seeing what we both took for a woodpecker hammering 
away, but rather gently and with little noise, at the top. Every now 



COLLECTING WAYS AND COLLECTING DAYS. 353 

and then the up-and-down motion of the head would stop and the bird 
would shift its position a little. Thus moving round the trunk, it 
at last came full into sight. To our astonishment we saw then it was a 
barbet and, as we thought, the common Cyanops asiatica. To make 
certain, however, H. brought it down with a reduced charge of No. 10 
shot, and our delight may be imagined when it proved to be, not 
C. asiatica, but the much rarer C. icognita of Hume. Subsequently 
I found this bird not uncommon on this Taungjah pass. Its note is 
altogether indistinguishable from that of its near allies, Cyanops 
asiatica and C. davisoni, if indeed these two latter are not one and 
the same bird. The curious woodpecker-like action in hammering 
at the bark of a tree I have not observed in any other species of 
barbet. 

Having strung up C. icognita on the bird-stick, we proceeded on our 
way, collecting as we went. At one very steep spot on the hill-side I got 
into a flock of that curious shrike-thrush, Gampsorhynchus torquatus; 
they were flitting about on all sides uttering their curious grating note 
and threading their way with incredible rapidity through the stems of 
a thick clump of bamboos. The ground down which I had to climb 
was like the side of a house, and after innumerable shots I only managed 
to secure one specimen, but that was a beauty, scarcely damaged at all 
by the shot. Collecting on steep hill-sides, whether the quarry is birds 
or insects, is very trying work for the temper. 1 know nothing so good 
or so bad, as the case may be viewed, for bringing out an eloquent, if 
not elegant, flow of language. After I had recovered my bird and got 
up to the road again, H. said I had uttered frightful anathemas. 
However, the year before, on this very spot, he acknowledged he had 
been quite as bad. He was going to the Thaungyin in May and was 
collecting butterflies and other insects for me. Now this road in the 
end of April and the beginning of May that year simply swarmed with 
numbers of that magnificent morphine butterfly, Stictophthalma louisa. 
He had caught some half dozen, but just at this spot, where I had now 
got G. torquatus, there were some twenty or thirty Stictophthalmas 
floating about up and down the hill, and H. found himself as busy as 
he could possibly be for a few minutes trundling up and down the steep 
hill-side and making himself very hot and wet. He had just struck at 
a Stictophthalma that had disappeared with a whop into the centre of a 



354 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

thick and alas ! thorny bush, when buz-z-z there came flying down the 
road at an astonishing pace a huge sand- wasp which H. recognized as a 
prize, having seen one in my collection. It was Scolia procer, which by 
the way is rare in Tenasserim. He struck at it wildly and got it in, 
but the end of the net was hitched up in the thorny bush and the 
efforts of the Scolia to escape were terrific. McH., another forest 
officer who happened to be with H. at the time, told me afterwards 
that the sight of H. struggling with that ferocious Scolia in the 
hitched-up net and endeavouring to get the beast into a two-inch 
cyanide killing-bottle, while he tried at the same time to keep his 
own footing on the fearfully steep slope, was a thing he would never 
forget. McH. declares so remarkable was the language used that on 
the road at that spot for hours afterwards the air had a most 
sulphurous and brimstonic smell about it. However the Scolia was 
secured, which was the chief thing after all, and by H.'s kindness now 
adorns my cabinet. Gampsorhynchus torquatus was discovered by 
Davison in Northern Tenasserim, and I subsequently procured it on 
this very road. It extends down southwards to as far at any rate 
as Ye, where I came across it in the dense ever-green forests on the 
Minla stream. 

So far as I have had opportunities of observing the bird, it occurs 
only in the heavy ever-green hill forests, never descending to the 
plains. It is always in flocks, and works noisily through the jungle 
exactly like garrulax. 

By the time we got to Taungjah (lit. valley) itself, where the road 
descends from one ridge and ascends another, the sun was well up, 
and in the open valley here birds and insects were all abroad in 
numbers. We shot several specimens of a beautiful broad-bill (Psari- 
somus dalhousice), which was going about in small flocks of six or 
seven. It is one of the stupidest of birds. A flock will allow its 
individual members to be shot down one after another without moving 
from the tree they are perched on. We got here also specimens 
of the coral-billed hill bulbul (Hypsipetes concolor), and two or three 
of that plain plumaged rninivet, Pericrocotus cantonensis. The species of 
butterflies and other insects were much the same as those procured 
yesterday, but 1 got a fine Papilio and two or three Arhopalus that I 
had not met with below. On the ascent of the opposite ridge to 



COLLECTING WAYS AND COLLECTING DAYS, 355 

Taungjah also I found parading about among the dead leaves on the 
ground, and managed to catch with some difficulty, two magnificent 
specimens of Satins intermedins, Smith, one of the fossorial hyme- 
noptera of the family of the Pompilidce. On the top of the ridge 
we came across a lovely snake of a bright green colour coiled 
round, or rather on, the root of a tree, about a foot off the ground. 
On these steep hill-sides the washing away of the soil under the 
drenching rains often leaves the roots of trees entirely bare, giving 
a rather curious appearance to the trees, which seem to be raised 
above the ground on their roots. H. pushed the snake off gingerly 
with a stick and, holding its vicious- looking flat head down, seized it 
with finger and thumb behind the jaws. As he held it up, the 
brute opened its mouth angrily and showed its two recurved fangs 
clearly, which, as in all the viper family, were rather long. Suddenly 
it gave a twist and a wriggle and, distinctly protruding its fangs, 
jt managed to shake a minute drop of clear poison on to H.'s thumb. 
I never saw H. in such a hurry to drop anything : he flung the 
snake from him, wiped his thumb on his coat and then with his hand- 
kerchief, and sucked at it violently for at least a minute. However 
there was no abrasion of the skin and no harm done. I don't think 
the snake itself was a very poisonous one ; it was one of the many 
forms of Trimeressurus gramineus^ Shaw. This particular individual 
had the tail cinnamon-red. 

Further along, the road narrowed somewhat, and at one bend H., 
who was ahead, suddenly stopped and beckoned to me. I hurried up, 
and he pointed out a magnificent butterfly seated with closed wings 
on the under-side of a bamboo by the edge of the road. Its wings on 
the underside were grayish brown marked on the hind wing with 
faint ocelli. As I approached cautiously, it half opened and closed its 
wings once or twice and then, spreading them suddenly to their full 
extent, it soared and went down the hill-side with a dash that seemed 
to annihilate space. A broad blue bar on the upper side of its wings 
flashed in the sun, and ] recognized it as Amathusia portheus^ one of the 
most beautiful of the Morphince found in Tenasserim. It was hopeless 
following the creature, so we went on, and by 2 p.m. reached the 
village of Thinganyinaung in the valley of the Thaungyin, where we 
were to camp that night. That evening we had enough to do to 

4 



356 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII, 

get all the specimens we had procured on the march prepared and 
put away, and then a bird or two had to be left over to be skinned 
the next day. 

The third day's march brought us to Myawaddy on the bank of the 
Thaungyin river. The country between our camp at Thinganyinaung 
at the east foot of the Dawnat range and Myawaddy was quite 
different in character from anything we had passed over yet. The road 
wound over a series of low hillocks with gravelly sandy soil, parched 
and dry and covered with what the Burmans call " Indaing" jungle, 
in which the chief trees are In (Dipterocarpus tuberculatum), Engyin 
(Pentacme siamensis), Theya (Shorea obtusa), Yindike (Dalbergia 
cultrata), Kone pyinma (Lagerstrcemia macrocarpa), Bamhue (Carey a 
arborea), and Khabaung (Strychnos nux-vomica), with here and there a 
clump of Myinwa (Dendrocalamus strictus), and a sparse undergrowth 
of coarse thekke grass. 

Just after striking and leaving camp, passing over some paddy fields, 
we manage to secure a magnificent specimen of Rutherford's crested 
serpent-eagle (Spilomis rutherfordi), and further on, on the bank of a 
tiny stream, the last water we should meet till we got close to Myawaddy, 
I had a busy five minutes with my net procuring specimens of 
Euripus halitherses with its queer indented wings and prominent yellow 
eyes ; of Apatura parysatis, a little velvetty-black butterfly allied to the 
European purple emperor ; of Cyaniris, Castalins, and Rapala ; and a 
great prize, ThaduJca multicandata, a remarkable form among the 
Lycamidce, possessing three tails on the hind wing, and having the under- 
side of the wings curiously mottled. Among the bees and wasps I took 
a fine specimen of Vespa magnified, a species which is not often found at 
such a low elevation, and a few Megacliile momia and xylocapa. 
While I was at work with my net, H. went on, and I heard him fire 
twice ; when I came up I found him placing a pair of that beautiful 
little falconet (Poliohierax insignis) on the bird-stick. Soon after this 
we got into a flock of the white-cheeked jay (Garrulus lencotis), and on 
a dead yindike tree (Dalbergia cultrata) I shot a specimen of that 
lovely wood-pecker (Gecinus erythropygius). The call of this last bird 
is a strange one for a wood-pecker, a sort of garrulous " quitch-quatch, 
quitch-quatch," quite unlike the shrill ringing cry of the other Gecini. 
Poliohierax insignis, Garrulus lencotis, and Gecinus erythropygius are 



COLLECTING WAYS AND COLLECTING DAYS. 357 

all rare birds, being very locally distributed and occurring only in 
" Indaing," the kind of forest we were passing through. 

The progress of our march to-day was much less interrupted by stop- 
pages to collect. The dry hot jungle we were passing through yielded 
few things beyond what are mentioned above, and these, though all good 
and rare, were limited in numbers. It was still early in the forenoon 
when we got into the belt of teak and bamboo close to Myawaddy, and 
here we found wood-peckers plentiful ; several species were associated 
together, and in company with numbers of Garrulax belangeri, G. moni- 
liger, and G.pectoralis, and a few green jays (Cissa sinensis) were work- 
ing in regular mobs through the forest. Of wood-peckers, beside Gecinus 
erythropygius which we had already obtained, we got the large Thripo- 
nax feddeni, a handsome black and white species, with, in the male, a 
bright scarlet crest ; Blyth's three-toed green wood-pecker (Gecinulus 
viridis), Chrysophlegma flavinucha, and C. chlorolophus, Chrysocolaptes 
str ictus and Tiga javanensis with their shining golden backs, the quaint, 
familiarly-tame and compact-built Hemicercus canente, and the pretty 
little rufous piculet (Sasia ochracea). It was a perfect paradise of wood- 
peckers, and I am sure we could have, if we had liked, got over a hun- 
dred specimens in the two days we stopped at Myawaddy afterwards. 
Myawaddy must once have been a considerable town. The remains of 
huge earthwork fortifications lying half a mile or more on the west 
and south attest to its former extent and importance. At present 
it contains about a couple of hundred houses— most of them mere huts, 
the usual three or four pagodas, kyaungs (monasteries), woots (image- 
houses), and zayats (rest-houses). 

In one of these last we put up, and as it was getting on in the after- 
noon (our collecting just outside Myawaddy having delayed us consid- 
erably), we changed our clothes, scrambled through breakfast, and set 
to work to prepare and put away our collections. 

This ended our three days' collecting for the time on the 
Kawkareik and Myawaddy road. 



358 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA FROM 

INDIA, BURMA, AND CEYLON. 

By Majok C. T. Bingham, f,z.s. (Forest Department, Burma). 

The fossorial Hymenoptera belonging to the family of the Pompilida, 
Leach, are some of the most difficult of insects to classify and group 
into well-defined genera. One of the latest arrangements of them is 
that by Herr Kohl of Vienna as laid down in his paper " Die Guttun- 
gen der Pompiliden" in Verh. der k. k. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 1884. 

Herr Kohl divides the Pompilidce into 15 genera. Species belonging 
to the following occur in the Indian region ; Macromeris, Pel., 
Pseudagenia, Kohl, Ceropales, Latr., Salius, Fabr., sec. Kohl, and Pom- 
pilus^ Fabr., sec. Kohl. 

Salius is further subdivided into 4, and Pompilus into 18 groups, 
or subgenera. Under the Salius groups are included in part species 
belonging to the genera Salius, Fabr.; Priocnemis, Schioedte ; Hemi* 
pepsis, Dahlbom ; Homonotus, Dahlbom ; Entypus, Dahlbom ; Pallosoma> 
Pel.; and Mygnimia^ Smith. And under the Pompilus groups, in part, 
species belonging to Pompilus, Fabr.; Aporus, Spin.; Episyron, 
Schioedte ; Anoplius, Pel.; Evagethes, Pel.; Salius, Dahlbom ; 
Homonotus, Dahlbom ; and Ferreola, Smith. 

I give a translation of Kohl's description of the five genera men* 
tioned above. 

" I. GEN. MACROMERIS (Tab. II, Fig. 1). 

" Maceomeris, Pel. Guer. Mag. Zool., pi. 29, 1831. 

c 'Type : Macromeris splendida, Pel. ; Ibid, pi. 29, 1831. 

A wide space between the lower rim of the orbits and the base of 
the mandibles. The mesosternum in front of the coxse of the inter- 
mediate legs, cone-shaped. Wings large, overlapping the abdomen. 
The radial* cell of the front wing rounded at the apex ; three cubital 
cells, the 2nd cubital cell trapezium-shaped, a little smaller than the 

* Throughout this paper I have adopted, with one exception, the English equivalents of the 

- Latin terms used by Dahlbom (Hym. Eur., I, plate) for the wing nervures and cells. The one 

exception is that for Dahlbom's " 1st and 2nd Venula-transverso discoidal " I have used the 

terms " 1st and 2nd recurrent nervures " as more familiar to English and American Hymenop- 

terists. 

I give (PI. II, Figs. 2 & 3) a diagram of the front and hind wing {Hymenoptera) with the 
names of the cells and nervures according to Dahlbom, 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA. 359 

1st or the 3rd ; the third cubital cell also trapezium-shaped, widening 
out a little towards the margin of the wing beyond the radial cell. 
The first recurrent nervure terminates in the 2nd cubital cell before its 
apex ; the 2nd recurrent nervure in the middle of the 3rd cubital cell. 
The transverse-medial nervure is interstitial or strikes on the externo- 
medial nervure before the apex of the 1st submedial (interno-medial 
Smith) cell. The 1st discoidal cell, as in the genera Pepsis, JSotocyphus 
and portions of Salius with a hyaline spot formed in the inner angle 
through the upper concave discoidal line. The cubital nervure of the 
hind wing coalesces with the transverse anal nervure (interstitial). 

Legs, very long. Tibiae having neither spines nor hairs. Tibial 
spur, short. The metatarsus of the posterior legs arched. Claws with 
one stout tooth in the middle on their inferior edges. The 3rd 
ventral segment without a transverse impressed line. In the male the 
middle segment is short, shorter than the rest of the abdomen. Coxeb, 
trochanters and femora, especially of the anterior legs, thick. Femora 
on the underside having a sharp denticulated edge. 

" III. GEN. PSEUDAGENIA, nov. gen, 

Agenia, Dhlb. (Non Schioedte), Hym. Eur., I, p. 454, 1845. 
PompHus, pt., Smith, Cat. Hym., P. Ill, p. 118, 1855. Anoplius, 
pt., Pel. Hym,, III, p. 440, 1845. Sphex, Evania, Ceropales, pt., 
Fabr., Pilpomus, Costa, Fauna del Regno di Napoli, 1859, p. 3. Pom* 
pilidea. 

Type : Agenia carbonaria, Scop, (pimctum, Schioedte, Fabr.). 

The characters of the maxillae resemble those of the genus Pogonius, 
Dhlb. The lower rim of the orbits reaches up to the base of the 
mandibles. The antennas are at times, as in the genus Ceropales, 
inserted at a distance from the clypeus, at times close to it. Mesono- 
tum, transverse, short. Front wing with three pubital cells ; the 3rd 
cubital cell, trapezium-shaped or trapezoidal, much larger than the 
2nd. The radial cell, long, lanceolate. The 1st discoidal cell termi- 
nating in or a little after the middle of the 2nd cubital cell, the 2nd 
discoidal cell in the middle of the 3rd cubital cell. The transverse 
medial nervure unites with the 1st transverse-submedial nervure, of 
strikes on to the externo-medial nervure before the apex of the 1st 
submedial cell. The cubital nervure of the hind wing is discharged at 
or after the apex of the anal cell. Antennas and legs, long and slender* 



360 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

The armature of the latter, in general, very weak or wanting. The 
tibise of the posterior legs never serrated, bearing, at the most, short, 
isolated spines. The tibial spur of the posterior legs not extending 
beyond the middle of the metatarsus. Claws having a tooth in the 
middle on their inferior edges. The species belonging to this genus 
have a tendency to a lengthening of the 2nd segment of the abdomen. 
The 3rd ventral segment bears a transverse impressed line, as in 
Priocnemis, Pepsis, Agenia, &c. The middle segment convex, never 
emarginate or bearing an impression. In the male, the clypeus is 
evenly truncated, rounded, or neatly incised. In the female, the cly- 
peus seldom has its anterior margin transversely truncated, more often 
the centre is produced sharply. 

XII. GEN. CEROPALES (Tab. II, Fig. 12). 

Cbeopales, Latr., Prec. caract. Gen., MS., 1796, p. 123, 25, Gen* 
Ceropales, pt., Fabr. Syst. Piez., p. 185, 31, Gen., 1804. Ceropales, 
pi, Latr., Hist. Nat. Crust., et MS., t. XIII, p. 283, 1805. Evania, 
pt., Fabr. 

Ichneumon, pt., Oliv. ; Pompilus, pt., Illig. 

Type : Ceropales rnaculata^ Fabr., Syst. Piez., p. 185, Nr. 1, 1804. 

Labrum produced below the clypeus. The eyes reaching up to or 
approaching the base of the mandibles. The antennae in the female 
only arched, their point of insertion lying, as a rule, at a moderate 
distance from the clypeus. The posterior margin of the pronotum, 
arched. The front wing with one lanceolate radial cell and three 
cubital cells ; the 2nd cubital cell receives the 1st recurrent nervure 
after the middle, the 2nd before or in the middle.* The transverse 
medial nervure is interstitial. The cubital nervure of the hind wing 
arises at some distance after the apex of the anal cell. Legs armed 
only with minute spines, or altogether spineless. 

The tarsal brush is absent from the anterior legs. Claws with one 
bent tooth in the middle or at the apex on their inferior edges. The 
middle segment is well proportioned, short and broad, never emargi- 
nated. The 3rd ventral segment is without a transverse impressed line* 
The sting-sheath in the female is produced. 

* There ia some error here in the text. The following is, I believe, what was in- 
tended— " the 2nd cubital cell receives the 1st recurrent nervure after the middle; the 3rd 
cubital cell, the 2nd recurrent nervure, before or in the middle." This is borne out by the 
diagram of the wing of ceropales in the plate attached to Herr Kohl's paper. 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA, 361 

IV. GEN. SALIUS (Tab. II, Fig. 9). 

Salius, pt., Fabr., Syst. Piez., p. 124, Nr. 16, 1804. Priocnemis, 
pt., Schioedte, Mon. Pomp. Kroyev, Tidsskr., I, 1837. Hemipepsis, 
pt., Dhlb., Hym. Eur., I, p. 462, 25, Gen. et Tab. Syn. Gen. Pomp., 
1845. Homonotus, pt., Dhlb., ibid, p. 441 (non p. 351), 18, Gen., 
1845. Entypus, pt., Dhlb., ibid, p. 442, 19, Gen., 1845. Pallosoma, 
pt., Pel., Hist. Nat., MS., Ill, p. 492, 4, Gen., 1875. Mygnimia, pt., 
Smith, Cat. Hym. Br. M., Pt. Ill, p. 181, 12, Gen., 1855. 

Types : S. bicolor and S. punctatus, Fabr. (Syst. Peiz,, p. 124, Nr. 
1, and p. 125, Nr. 3). 

Eyes reaching up to the base of the maxillae. Pronotum of very 
varying form and length, its posterior margin evenly transverse or 
arched or angular ; in many of the males it is of unusual length 
(Salius, Fabr., 1804 ; Homonotus, Dhlb., 1845 ; Entypus, Dhlb., 1845). 
On the metathorax, on close examination, are visible two processes ; 
they are placed at some distance from the base of the wing. 
They are often rubbed off, for one notices the pretty little pointed 
hollows in which they arise. Front wing with one lengthened 
radial cell, very frequently lanceolate in form, seldom having the 
apex rounded. Three cubital cells. The 2nd cubital cell receives 
the 1st recurrent nervure before its apex, the 3rd cubital cell, the 
2nd recurrent nervure nearly in the middle. The 3rd cubital cell 
is trapezium-shaped or trapezoidal and somewhat larger than 
the 2nd. The transverse medial nervure (of the front wing) arises 
before the apex of the 1st submedial cell. The cubital nervure 
of the hind wing at its origin is received seldom in mostly after 
the apex of the anal cell, nearer the apical margin of the wings. 
Legs long, especially the tibias and tarsi. Claws either bearing one 
obtuse bent appendix as in the genus Notocyphus, in two portions 
( Cyphononyx, Dhlb.), or armed with one, two, or more teeth (Hemi- 
pepsis, Dhlb.). The tibiae of the posterior legs angular, with in the 
female toothed and serrated spines. Middle segment of diverse 
lengths never posteriorly emarginated, in the males, with a lengthened 
thorax, it is likewise lengthened ; in several species of the divisions 
Hemipepsis and Cyphononyx, as in the species of Pepsis, there is an 
obtuse tubercle close to the stigmata. The 3rd ventral segment has, 
on or before the middle, a transverse impressed line. 



362 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VIII. 

The genus Salius will here, as is indicated by the sketch of the 
synonym given above, be taken in a wider sense than even Dahl- 
bom's genus Priocnemis. I hold that the variation in the form of the 
claws on which was founded, for example, Dahlbom's genera Cypliononyx 
and Hemipepsis can only be considered useful for the establishment 
of groups of species all under one natural genus. Under Salius then 
the following groups can be made :— 

1st Group (Subgen. Cvphononyx). 

Claws furnished with one obtuse arched appendix on their inferior 
edges, the length of which makes them appear to be double. The 
middle segment with an obtuse tubercle always placed before the 
stigmata. In the inner angle of the 1st discoidal cell a wing spot is 
indicated, but never clearly engraved (Cyphononyx, Dhlb.) 
2nd Group (Subgen. Priocnemis). 

Claws with one tooth on their inferior edges. No wing-spot in the 
inner angle of the 1st discoidal cell or at most only an indication of 
such (Priocnemis^ pt. Schioedte, Dhlb,, Schenck, Taschenb ; Priocnemis, 
Thorns.). 

3rd Group (Subgen. Hemipepsis). 

Claws with two teeth on their inferior edges. The basal tooth is in 
many species, especially in the males, rudimentary and undetermined 
(in this approaching the genus Priocnemis). The inner angle of the 
1st discoidal cell as in Pepsis, Macromeris, and Notocyphus engraved 
with a very dark wing-spot formed through the upper concave discoi- 
dal line. Middle segment mostly with an obtuse tubercle placed close 
before the stigmata as in the species of Pepsis [Hemipepsis^ Dhlb.; 
Pallosoma, Pel.; Mygnimia, Smith). 

4th Group. 

Claws with many teeth ; on the inferior edges of the claws close to 
the strong curved apex spring a number of closely arranged cilia 
which have their apices going backwards to the claw ends. For the 
rest the characters as in Hemipepsis. (Type : Hemipepsis heros, Gue- 
rin, Voy. Abyss., Lefeb., VI, p. 35, 4, T. 7, Fig. 9, ?.) 

XIII. GEN. POMPILUS (Tab. II, Fig. 6). 

Pompilus, pt., Fabr., Ent. Syst. Suppl., p. 246, 1798. Sphex, pt., 
Linn., Syst., Nat., I, 941, 1766, Aporus, pt., Spin., MS.,Sig. 3 II, p. 34, 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA. 363 

1806. Episyron, pt., Schioedte, Monog. Pomp. Kroyer, Tidsskr. I 9 
p. 331, 1837. Anoplius, pt., Pel. Hist. Nat., MS. Hym.^ Ill, p. 440, 
1845. Evagethes, pt., Pel., Ibid, p. 390, 1845. Salius, pt., Dhlb., 
Hym. Eur., I, p. 34, 18, Gen., 1845. Homonotus, pt., Dhlb., Hym. 
Eur., I, p. 35 (non p. 441), 1845. Ferreola, pt., Smith, Cat. Hym., 
P. Ill, p. 167, 1885. 

Types : Pompilus viaticus, ursus, Fabr., coccineus, Fabr., etc. 

The eyes reach, as a rule, up to the base of the mandibles ; only in 
very few cases are the cheeks developed. Forms of the clypeus, of 
the prothorax, and of the middle segment of extraordinary diversity. 
The front wing with one radial cell, which often approaches a tri- 
angular form, rarely is it lanceolate. Three cubital cells ; the 1st 
exceeding in size the following ones ; the 2nd is a little larger than the 
3rd or equal in size to it ; the 3rd quadrangular, or triangular, some- 
times also triangular and petiolated. The 1st recurrent nervure 
discharges itself in the middle of the 2nd cubital cell or nearer the 2nd 
transverse cubital nervure ; the 2nd recurrent nervure in the middle 
of the 3rd cubital cell, or not far therefrom. The transverse medial 
nervure (of the front wing), with a few unimportant exceptions, 
springs somewhere before the apex of the 1st submedial cell, intersti- 
tial. The cubital nervure (of the hind wing), in by far the greater 
number of cases, springs at or after the apex of the anal cell {Homonotus, 
Dhlb., p. 35), sometimes also before it (as in the species of Ferreola). 
Legs spined. The tarsi of the anterior legs are in the female often 
furnished with pectinated spines. The tibiae of the posterior legs 
are cylindrical, not, as in the female of Salius, angular, the spines 
on them scattered, not serrated. The claws are toothed in the 
middle of their inner angles, or like as in Salius, Subgen. Cyphononyx, 
and Notocyphus in two parts by reason of an obtuse appendix. The 
claw- brush is either present or wanting. Middle segment posteriorly 
rounded, or vertically truncated, or impressed, or more frequently 
emarginated ; its sculpturing is very diverse. The 3rd ventral segment 
with few exceptions (as in species of Homonotus and Ferreola) not 
bearing a transverse impressed mark. 

Pompilus will be treated of here in the comprehensive sense in 
which the genus is usually taken. I am constrained to do this by the 
fact, that characters which have been pointed out as separating certain 



364 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

genera from Pompilus, have not only in the genus Pompilus, as I 
hold it, but throughout the Pompilidce generally, proved, at the best, 
mutable. Under these mutable characters may be reckoned the form 
of the prothorax and middle segment, of the relative positions of the 
transverse medial nervure, and the 1st submedial cell in the fore wing, 
and of the cubital nervure and anal cell in the hind wing, and the 
general armature of the legs and claws. Also the Pompilidce with 
two cubital cells, which have hitherto been known as species of the 
genus Aporus, can, according to my ideas, be classed under the genus 
Pompilus, in spite of a peculiar modification of the wing nervures, 
which, after all, is unessential. The following is my division of the 
species into natural groups : — 

1st Geoup (Pompilus, Thorns.). 

The transverse medial nervure of the fore wing and the cubital 
nervure of the hind wing interstitial. Inferior edge of the claws 
toothed (one-toothed). Claw-brush generally developed. The tarsi 
of the anterior legs (in the female) with or without pectinated spines. 
Posterior margin of the pronotum angular. 

2nd Geoup (Aporus, pt., Tab. II, Fig. 7). 

By the loss of the 2nd transverse cubital nervure, diverging from 
the forms of the 1st group. In other respects resembling them. 

3ed Geoup. 

The transverse medial nervure of the front wing and the cubital ner- 
vure of the hind wing interstitial. Inferior edges of the claws toothed. 
Claw-brush wanting. The tarsal-brush (in the female), large. Posterior 
margin of the pronotum arched. Antennse short and remarkably thick. 

4th Geoup. 

The transverse medial nervure of the front wing springs in or before 
the apex of the 1st submedial cell, the cubital nervure of the hind wing 
after the apex of the anal cell. Claw toothed ; claw-brush wanting. 
Tarsal-brush (in the female), large. Posterior margin of the pronotum, 
generally arched, very seldom angular. Antennse short and extra- 
ordinarily thick. 

5th Geoup (Aporus, pt.). 

By the loss of the 2nd transverse cubital nervur© diverging from the 
forms of the 4th group. In other respects resembling them. 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA, 365 

6th Geoup. 

The transverse medial nervure of the front wing interstitial. The 
cubital nervure of the hind wing arising after the apex of the anal 
cell. Claws toothed and possessing a claw-brush. The tarsal-brush (in 
the female) developed. Also the labrum (in the female) of many of the 
species is exerseted. 

7th Geoup. 

The transverse medial nervure of the front wing interstitial. The 
cubital nervure of the hind wing arising after the apex of the anal cell. 
Claws toothed and possessing a claw-brush. Tarsal-brush (in the 
female) wanting. The labrum (in the female) never much exerseted. 
8th Geoup (Aporus, pt.) 
By the loss of the 2nd transverse cubital nervure diverging from 
the forms of the 7th group. In other respects resembling them- 

9th Geoup. 

The transverse medial nervure of the front wing and the cubital 
nervure of the hind wing are interstitial. Claws furnished with a 
curved obtuse appendix on their inferior edges, bifid. Claw-brush 
present or wanting. Tarsal-brush (in the female) well developed. 
10th Geoup (Aporus, pt., Tab. II, Fig. 8.) 

Fore wing with only two cubital cells. The transverse medial nervure 
of the front wing interstitial. Cubital nervure of the hind wing 
arising after the apex of the anal cell. Claws bifid. Claw-brush 
wanting. Tarsal-brush developed. Antennas often incrassate. Posterior 
margin of the pronotum angular. (This group, from the position of 
the recurrent nervures and from the closing inwards of the 2nd 
recurrent nervure, approaches the forms of Pompilus in which the 2nd 
and 3rd transverse cubital nervures have by degrees become united to 
form one single nervure. The facts can, I think, be accounted for as 
follows. The cubital nervures originally began to come in contact on 
approaching the radial cell, as, for example, in the individuals of 
P. nigerrimus, and later little by little they anastomozed against the 
cubital nervure in the direction of the radial nervure, until the enclosed 
triangular 3rd cubital cell disappeared completely.) The pedigree of 
this and of the following group may possibly be contained in the 12th 
group. 



366 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol VI11. 

11th Group (Aporus, pt.) 

Characters as in the 10th group ; only in the front wing by absorption 
of the 2nd transverse cubital nervure one cubital cell is lost, and the 
posterior margin of the pronotum is arched. 

12th Group {Episyron^ Schioedte). 

The transverse medial nervure, (of the front wing) interstitial. 
The cubital nervure of the hind wing arising before the apex of the 
anal cell. Claws in both sexes (in the male distinctly apparent) bifid, 
without claw -brush. Tarsal-brush developed. Antennae in most of the 
species thick (P. rufipes, Linn., albonotatus v. d. L.) 

13th Group 
{Pomp. 6-maculatus, Spin ; venustus, Wesm ; fraterculus, Costa). 

The transverse medial nervure of the front wing and the cubital 
nervure of the hind wing interstitial. The 3rd cubital cell appendi- 
culated. Claws toothed ; the claw joints furnished with a claw-brush. 
Tarsal-brush (in the female) developed. The middle segment prolonged 
posteriorly into a conical tubercle on either side. 
14th Group (Aporus, pt.). 

Differs from the Pompilus forms of the 13th group in that the 
2nd and 3rd transverse cubital nervures anastomoze. 

15th Group 
(Homonotus, Dhlb., p. 35 ; Salius sanguinolentus, Dhlb., p. 34). 

The transverse medial nervure of the front wing interstitial. The 
cubital nervure of the hind wing arising after the apex of the anal cell. 
Head posteriorly more or less excavated. Prothorax and middle 
segment lengthened ; the latter, as in the 13th and 14th groups, emar- 
ginated, and produced on both sides into cone-shaped projections. 
Claws with an obtuse appendix on their inner angles. Claw-brush 
wanting. Tarsi of the anterior legs without ciliated spines. 3rd ventral 
segment with or without a transverse impression. 

16th Group (Ferreola, pt., Smith). 

The transverse medial nervure of the front wing and the cubital 
nervure of the hind wing interstitial. Claws toothed, seldom bifid ; 
claw-brush developed or wanting. Tarsi of the anterior legs not 
furnished with ciliated spines. Middle segment posteriorly vertically 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA. 367 

truncated, impressed, or emarginate, and the sides frequently provided 
with an obtuse tooth or hook, 3rd ventral segment not bearing any- 
transverse impression. Abdomen towards the apes not compressed 
laterally. 

17th Group (Ferreola, pt., Smith). 

The transverse medial nervure of the front wing interstitial. Cubital 
nervure of the hind wing arising on the medial nervure before the 
apex of the anal cell. Claws in two portions (bifid). Claw-brush 
developed ; tarsi of the anterior legs with or without ciliated spines. 
The eyes frequently not reaching the base of the mandibles. 3rd 
ventral segment not bearing any transverse impression. The abdomen 
compressed laterally. Middle segment as in the foregoing group. 
18th Group (Pedinaspis, Kohl.). 

The transverse medial nervure (of the front wing) interstitial, or 
arising well before the apex of the anal cell. Cubital nervure of the 
hind wing frequently interstitial, in a few cases arising a little after the 
apex of the anal cell. Claws toothed, very seldom bifid. The joints of 
the tarsi of the anterior legs thick and without ciliated spines, 2nd, 3rd, 
and 4th short. Head flat, clypeus generally vertically flat, seldom 
forming a projecting plane. Pronotum of diverse forms not unfre- 
quently of remarkable length (P. cubensis, Cr.), very commonly verti- 
cally truncated in front. Middle segment rounded posteriorly, some- 
times sloping at a sharp angle, or flatly impressed or even emarginate. 
The abdomen, at least towards its apex, visibly compressed laterally 
(Type : Pompilus operculatus, Klug.). 

The following is a list of some of the Pompilidce, in my collection, 
which I have been unable to identify or compare with already described 
species, and I have come to the conclusion that they are as yet 
undescribed. 

1. MACROMERIS VIOLACEA, Pel. 

Macromeris Violacba, Pel., Hist. Nat. MS., Hym., Ill, p. 464. 

Habitat : India, Burma, Tenasserim, and the Malay Archipelago. 

The characters of the genus defined by Kohl are well marked in this 
species, more especially the unarmed tibiae bearing neither spines nor 
hairs, the cone-shaped posterior portion of the mesosternum, the 
thickened coxse, trochanters, and femora, as also the sharp denticulated 
inferior edge of the last. 



368 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

This lovely species is fairly common in Tenasserim, and is one of the 
few Pompilidce I have noticed as occasionally coming into buildings 
and houses in the jungle. In a " zayat" (rest-house) near the large 
village of Kawkareick in the Haungdraw valley, I found its nest in the 
latter end of May, and watched a female carrying a huge hairy spider 
to it. The nest was in a crevice between one of the wooden posts and 
the side walling of the rest-house. I was only passing by, and was 
unfortunately pressed for time, and so I am unable to record whether 
the insect subsequently closed up the hole with earth. 

2. PSEUDAGENIA ^iGINA, Smith. 
Pseudagenia ^gina, Smith, Proc. Linn. Soc, II, 94, 9. 
Habitat : Borneo (Sarawak), Tenasserim (Yunzalin valley, Ataran 

valley). 

I found this pretty and well-marked little species frequenting the 
bushes and moving over the stones in a quick excited way in the dry 
beds of streams in the hot weather. 

The clypeus is oval, broader than long, and in the female produced 
sharply to a point ; in the male it is transversely truncated anteriorly. 
The face in front, the coxse of all the legs, and the abdomen are in 
fresh specimens covered by a glistening sericeous pile in fine contrast 
to the dull red of the thorax. 

3. PSEUDAGENIA ALARIS, Saussure. 
Agenia alakis, Sauss., Bym. d. Novara Reise, 52. 
Habitat : Ceylon, Tenasserim (Thaungvin valley). 

Rare. I have only come across it on one occasion, when I caught some 
five or six specimens in a deserted garden close to a village in the 
Thaungyin valley. They were flying about and alighting every now 
and then on the broad leaves of a species of cucumber. 

4. PSEUDAGENIA BIPENNIS, Saussure. 
Agenia bipennis, Sauss., Hym. d. Novara Reise, 52. 
Habitat : Ceylon, Tenasserim (Ataran valley). 

Rare. I have one specimen, a male, which flew into my tent while 
in camp one day in the Ataran valley. 

5. PSEUDAGENIA TINCTA, Smith. PI. II, Fig. (nest). 
Pompilus tinctus, Smith, Cat. fiym., MS., B. M., Ill, p. 145, 132. 
Habitat : India, Burma, Tenasserim. 

This is the commonest of the genus Pseudagenia, and is generally dis- 
tributed. I have specimens from all parts of Tenasserim, also from the 
Pegu Yoma and from near Rangoon. 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYHENOPTERA. 369 

Mr. Cameron (Hym. Orient., p. 441) says he has failed to notice in 
his specimens any green tinge about the head and thorax. In all the 
specimens I have taken the fine silky pile on the head and thorax is 
quite markedly of a beautiful greenish silvery hue. 

I have more than once found the nest of this species. One nest I 
found in July was made in the hollow end of a bamboo projecting from 
the thatch of a ruined zayat or rest-house in the Domdami valley. A 
reference to the figure (PI. II, Fig. 1) will show that the nest consists 
of a series of oval, thin, convex shells of clay, not unlike those made by 
the different species of Eumenes, only shallower, not so high. These 
shells were filled with spiders (Epeira). It was a remarkable fact that 
at least a dozen of the Pseudagenia were flying to and from the nest. 
In about a quarter of an hour I had caught nine of them. To a 
certain extent therefore this species, unlike any other member of 
the family Pompilidce known to me, nests in societies. A still 
more remarkable fact was that among my captures I found not 
only females, but males (known at a glance by the much shorter 
abdomen and heavier and longer thorax in proportion). Half 
an hour's careful watching of the individuals left uncaught, however, 
showed me that it was only the females that were busy making 
the cells and collecting the spiders to provision them with. The males 
simply flew around settling occasionally on the thatch of the zayat close 
by. I took the nest cutting off the end of the bamboo. In November 
four of the cells hatched out, one insect each, all females. The rest of 
the cells have remained intact, not even yielding any parasite, such as 
Stelis, which attaches itself to the genus Megachile, or Chrysis, which I 
have seen attending Rhynchium and Eumenes. From the circumstance 
that I have found Pseudagenia tincta making its nests in February and 
March and again in July, I presume it is double-brooded. 

6. PSEUDAGENIA BLANDA, Guerin. 

Pompilus blandus, G-uer., Voy. Coqs, Zool., II, pt. 2, p. 260. 

Habitat : India, Malacca, Borneo to Flores, Burma, Tenasserim. 

This species is almost equally common as the last. It comes into 
houses and nests in the chinks and crevices in the wood walls, storing 
its nests invariably with the smaller Lycosa or jumping spiders. I saw 
a female one morning in the verandah of my house in Moulmein in hot 
combat with a spider rather larger than what this Pseudagenia generally 



370 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

attacks. The two creatures rolled and struggled one over the other for a 
good five minutes, the spider dodging and biting and the Pseudagenia 
trying vigorously to sting, and so render its opponent insensible. At 
length the wasp managed to succeed, the spider lay helpless and 
quivering. Then Mrs. Pseudagenia (for it was a female) paraded 
round in a sort of triumph, flirting her head and antennae, and finally 
picking up the spider between her fore and intermediate legs flew off 
to a crevice at the corner of the ceiling. This species, I believe, has 
also two broods during the year. I have found nests in January and 
again in June. 

7. PSEUDAGENIA HYPSIPYLA, n. sp. 

Habitat : Tenasserim. 

Female : Length 16 m.m. ; expanse 28 m.m. 

Male : Unknown. 

Description : $ . Head black, covered with a fine, but not dense, 
grey pile ; mandibles black, their tips castaneous ; clypeus transversely 
oval, convex, its anterior margin rounded ; antennae black, a small 
blunt tubercle above their base of insertion ; eyes distinctly converging 
above, a shallow sulcation from the anterior ocellus to the base of the 
antennae ; back of the head slightly emarginate. Thorax black, covered 
with a thin silvery pile most dense on the sides of the metathorax ; 
prothorax anteriorly arched, posteriorly sub-angular ; mesothorax short, 
its posterior margin transverse, scutellum and proscutellum raised, 
gibbous ; metathorax very slightly sloping, its sides rounded and 
bulging, the dorsal surface rugose with fine transverse striations, and 
bearing an indistinct longitudinally impressed central line not reaching 
its apex ; wings yellowish hyaline, a dark fuscous fascia covering the 
base of the radial cell, and passing through the 2nd and 3rd cubital 
cells to the 3rd discoidal cell, nervures and tegulae dark brown, the 
transverse medial nervure of the front wing arises almost 2 m.m. before 
the apex of the 1st submedial cell, and the cubital nervure of the hind 
wing the same distance after the apex of the anal cell ; legs black, 
covered with cinereous pile, the femora of the posterior legs bright red, 
their apex black, tibiae and tarsi of the intermediate and posterior legs 
with minute spines, claws toothed on their inferior edges. Abdomen 
black with a thin sericeous grey pile, which has a tendency to 
form submarginal bands on the segments, like in Tachytes and 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA. 37 

Larrada, posterior margins of the segments narrowly testaceous, the 
1st segment petiolated, the 2nd lengthened, the anal segment with a 
few fuscous hairs at the apex, the whole abdomen perceptibly verti- 
cally compressed. 

This species I believe has been hitherto undescribed. In general 
appearance it resembles P. tincta, from which, however, it can 
be distinguished at a glance by the considerably larger and more 
level metathorax, and from its having a fascia across the wings. It w 
not P. Mpennis, Saussure. which is a much smaller insect and has " ore 
clypei marginibus genis aw pedebusque 1, 2 antiee ' lute is." Pscuda- 
genia hypsipyla is rare, and I have hitherto only found it in thick 
bamboo jungles. Like the rest of the species of the family it seems 
a restless creature of quick flight, often walking rapidly among fallen 
leaves and hunting them over and under diligently. 

8. CEROPALES ORNATA, Smith. 

Ceropales ornata, Smith, Cat. %m., MS., B. M., Ill, p. 179. 
Habitat : India, Burma, Tenasserim. 

It is rather remarkable that this is the only species of Ceropales I 
have come across in Burma. It is generally distributed but rare. 

9. SALIUS FLAVUS, Fabriceus. 

Sphex flava, Fabr., Ent. Syst., II, p. 217, 80. Drury, 111. Exot., 
MS., Ill, t. 42, f. 4, $. ' 

Pompilus flavus, Fabr., Syst. Piez., p. 197, 51. Pel. Hist. Nat., 
Hym., III., p. 430, 21. 

Hemipepsis flava, Dhlb., Hym. Eur., I, p. 123 and p. 462. 

Habitat ; India, Burma, Tenasserim. 

I am somewhat puzzled as to what the true Sphex flava of Fabriceus 
Is. The insect I identify as it, agrees best with Dahlbom's description 
of Hemipepsis flava. It is one of the commonest of the Pompilidce, 
and very much affects the grassy sides of roads, hunting about among the' 
tufts of grass and herbage. In May I found one digging vigorously 
into the bank of the drain along the side of the high road between 
Moulmein and Amherst. It had not dug far, and being disturbed by 
my approach flew away, and did not return again, though I waited and 
watched for nearly an hour. 

10. SALIUS SEVERUS, Drury. 

Sphex severds, Drury, 111. Exot. Hist., Ill, t. 42, f. 4. 
Habitat s India (Drury, Smith), Burma, Tenasserim. 



372 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. V1I1 

I have compared specimens of a very large species, which is found 
not unfrequently in thick bamboo jungle on the Pegu Yoma and 
throughout Tenasserim, with Druiy's figure, and they are identical. 
I once got stung by one of these insects on my thumb, and my whole 
hand and my arm to the elbow were quite numb for a couple of hours. 

11. SALIUS INTERMEDIUM Smith. 

Mygnimia intekmedia, Smith, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. IV, 
Vol. XII (1873), p. 257. 

Habitat : N. India, Ceylon (Smith), Tenasserim. 

A species which agrees well with Smith's description of this insect 
is not uncommon in April and May and again from September to 
November on the Dawnat range in Tenasserim at from 1,000 feet to 
5,000 feet elevation. 

12. SALIUS AUDAX, Smith. 

Mygnimia audax, Sm., Cat. Hym., MS., B. Mus., Pt. Ill, p. 182, 4. 
Bingh., Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. V, p. 239. 

Habitat : Sylhet (Smith), Kumaon (Bingham), Tenasserim. 

I have once met with this handsome species in Tenasserim on the 
Taungjah pass (1,000 feet) on the Kawkareik and Myawaddy road 
crossing the Dawnat range. 

13. SALIUS HERCULES, Cameron. 

Salius hekcules, Cam. Bym. Orient. Mem. and Proc. Manchester" 
Lit. and Phil. Soc. 4th Ser., Vol. IV, Pt. Ill, p. 447. 

Habitat : Naga Hills (Cameron), Thaungyin Valley, Tenasserim, 
Pegu Yoma. 

This species must be rare. I have only twice come across it, both 
times in dense forest on low hilly country. 

14. SALIUS ELIZABETHS, n. sp., PI. I, fig. 9. 
Habitat : Hills of Tenasserim. 

Female : Length 43 to 46 m.m., expanse 83 m. m. 

Male : Length 38 man., expanse 80 m. m. 

Desckiption : $ . Head clothed with dark golden pubescence ; 
mandibles ferruginous-red, their tips black : labrum slightly produced ; 
clypeus convex, twice as broad as high, its superior margin bisinuate, 
the anterior transversely truncate ; antennse convolute, ferruginous- 
red, a shallow sulcation around the base at their insertion, this sulcation 
coloured brown and covered with scattered punctures ; eyes arched 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA. 373 

distinctly approaching at the vertex, front slightly concave and 
having a short deep impressed line leading from the anterior 
ocellus to the base of the antennas, the space between the two 
posterior ocelli equal to the space between either and the nearest 
orbit, but greater than that between them and the anterior ocellus ; 
head posteriorly slightly hollowed out. Thorax ferruginous-red, the 
pubescence on the pro- and mesothorax, the tegulse, the scutellum, 
proscutellum, coxse, trochanters, and the outside of the tibisa and tarsi 
rich glistening golden-ferruginous, the mesothorax and femora red- 
dish without pubescence ; the pronotum square in front, the shoulders 
projecting, its posterior margin arched ; the mesonotum slightly convex, 
bearing a longitudinally impressed line on either side ; the metanotum 
transversely striated, rounded, gently sloping to the apex, its sides 
bulging, the side tubercles and stigmata well marked and prominent ; 
the wings deep reddish-yellow, paling towards the margins, which are 
broadly but very lightly infuscated, the nervures ferruginous ; the 
transverse medial nervure of the front wing and the cubital nervure of 
the hind wing both arise respectively well before the apex of the 1st 
sub-medial cell in the one case and the apex of the anal cell in 
the other case, the 1st recurrent nervure unites with the 2nd trans- 
verse cubital nervure (interstitial), the latter being angled just 
above the apex of the 2nd cubital cell ; the 2nd recurrent nervure is 
received in the 3rd cubital cell at a point about |rd the length of the 
base from its inner angle ; a clear hyaline spot at the inner angle of 
the 1st discoidal cell ; legs long, the tibise and tarsi of the intermediate 
and posterior legs strongly spined, the former grooved with a serrated 
angular edge, the claws toothed, abdomen black obscurely puniose, 
the 3rd segment having a transverse impressed mark, the anal seg- 
ment studded with a few fuscous hairs. 

The $ resembles the $ , but is slighter and smaller ; the antennse are 
arched slightly, not convolute, and subfusiform ; the legs are less spinous, 
and the abdomen somewhat compressed vertically. 

This insect, though closely resembling S. aureosericea, Guerin, cannot 
be that species, of which Guerin says : " L'abdomen est d'un noir 
obscur avec les deux derniers segments garnis d'un duvet dore." 

It is not uncommon here in the dense forests on the higher ranges 
at from 1,000 to 4,000 ft. elevation. In May I chanced on one, a?, 



374 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

carrying a huge grasshopper clasped tightly between its forelegs. It 
passed me flying fairly fast and pitched on the trunk of a large tree, 
up the bole of which it proceeded to laboriously climb with its burden. 
Two or three times, owing to the tree having a smooth bark, it slipped 
back, but finally, having got up about 25 ft., it disappeared into a hole 
(apparently the deserted nest-hole of a wood-pecker). I am sorry the 
tree was much too large to fell easily, or I should like to have got the 
nest. 

The figure in the plate, though perfectly correct in drawing, being 
that of a $ , ought to show the antennas convolute, not arched. The 
hyaline spot in the inner angle of the 1st discoidal cell has also been 
omitted. 

15. SALIUS INDICUS, Cameron, PI. I^fig. 10. 

Salius indicus, Cam. Hym. Orient. Mem. and Proc. Manchester 
lit. and Phil. Soc, 4th series, Vol. IY, pt. Ill, p. 448. 

Habitat : Tavoy (Cameron), Tenasserim generally. 

This very beautiful species is common throughout the hill jungles 
in Tenasserim from May to October. At first sight it somewhat 
resembles, and might be mistaken for, S. lata, Smith, but apart from, 
the fact that in S. lata the whole head and the thorax anteriorly are 
reddish-yellow, while in S. indious only the antennae are yellow, the rest 
of the head and the thorax being entirely black, the two insects differ 
in structure, S. indicus being stouter built and larger than one (for there 
are two, vide infra) variety of S. lata, and longer and less compact than 
the other variety. 

I have hunted high and low, and have watched a $ of this species 
for hours, without having yet chanced on its nest or seen what it 
provisions it with. 

16. SALIUS LMTA, Smith. 

. Mygnimia ljsta, Sm., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. IV, Vol. XII, 
p. 257 (1873). 

Habitat : Burma (Smith), Tenasserim. 

It is remarkable that there seem to be two varieties of this species 
absolutely indistinguishable except in size, and in the arrangement of 
the nervures of the hind wing. The large variety is perhaps the more 
common and measures 9 9 22 to 24 m.m., $ $ 11 to 21 m.m. in 
length. It is a much stouter, more robust insect than the other. The 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN EYMENOPTERA. 375 

cubital nervure of the hind wing arises 2 m.m. before the apex of 
the anal cell. The smaller variety is a slight elegant little insect 
measuring $ 9 16 to 18 m.m., $ $ 14 to 17 m.m. (in this agreeing 
with Si IcBta (vera) as described by Smith). The cubital nervure of the 
hind wing springs exactly at the apex of the anal cell. I do not think 
the two forms can be separated. 

17. SALIUS S^VISSIMA, Smith. 

Mygnimia s^vissima, Sm., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. IV, 
Vol. XII, p. 256 (1873). 

Habitat : India, Bombay Presidency (Smith), Tenasserim. 

A species which for the present I identify as this occurs somewhat 
unfrequently in May and June along the roads and in the open patches 
of jungles on the Dawnat range. The Tenasserim insect differs from 
the description and from a Bangalore specimen of this species in my 
collection in having the coxae and trochanters yellow anteriorly, 
instead of all black. 

18. SALIUS CONVEXUS, Bingham. 

Priocnemis convexus, Bingh., Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, V, 
p. 237. 

Habitat : Ceylon, Tenasserim. 

This species belongs to Kohl's Hemipepsis, not Priocnemis group. 
I described this species from Ceylon in 1890. Since I have found it 
occur commonly in the more open and dry jungles in Tenasserim. 
{Salius — Priocnemis group.) 

19. SALIUS MADRASPATANUS, Smith. 

Pompilus madraspatanus, Sm., Cat. Hym. M. S. B. M., Pt. Ill, 
p. 144, 130. 

Habitat : Madras, Nicobar Islands (Smith), Burma, Tenasserim. 

This species is remarkably like Macromeris violacca ; it is common, 
and I have found its nest in September, mere burrows in the wall of a 
deserted dry well, which it had stored with small crickets. 

20. SALIUS PEREGRINUS, Smith. 

Priocnemis peregrinus, Sm., Tran. Ent. Soc, 1875, Part I, p. 37. 

Habitat : India (Barrackpur), Sumatra, China (Hongkong), teste 
(Smith), Burma, Tenasserim. 

This is one of the very commonest of the Pompilidce in Tenasserim, and, 
unlike S. madraspatanus, makes its : nests in holes in trees, occasionally 



376 JO UENAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOR 7 SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

in a bamboo, storing them with those soft-bodied spiders that live in the 
rolled up margins of leaves. It is double-brooded ; I have found nests 
in June and again in November. 

21. SALIUS VERTICALIS, Smith, PI. I, fig. 5. 

Priocnemis verticalis, Sm., Proc. Linn. Soc, II, 94, 6. 

Habitat : Borneo, Malacca (Smith), Tenasserim. 

This well-marked species is rare ; I have only twice met with 
it. In September on a jungle road I found a $ carrying cock- 
roaches to a hole in a tree. Subsequently in May I procured a $ on 
the flowers of Acacia pennata. The $ has not previously been 
described. 

Length, #, 15 m.m., expanse 37 m.m. 

Description: #, Head black, mandibles yellow, their tips black 
clypeus and sides of the face as far as the vertex broadly yellow, the 
back of the head, the vertex, and front, as far as the antennae, black, 
with scattered black hairs, and in certain lights a thin golden pubes- 
cence, a streak behind the eyes yellow, the latter arcuate, closer above 
than below ; clypeus convex, transversely oval, its anterior margin 
truncated ; antennae sub-fusiform, black, the scape with a spot of 
yellow below. Thorax and abdomen black, the prothorax with a 
broad band and the mesothorax with a square spot along their posterior 
margins, and the scutellum and the proscutellum with a central spot 
chrome-yellow ; the metathorax convex sloping abruptly towards the 
apex, which latter is almost vertically truncated ; the scutellum and 
post-scutellum gibbous cone-shaped, the dorsal surface of the meta- 
thorax finely rugose, clothed with scanty fuscous pubescence, the false 
stigmata and tubercles on the sides well-marked and prominent ; wings 
golden yellow of a deeper tint than in the 9 , their tips and outer 
margins broadly but lightly infuscated, the tegulse and nervares dark 
ferruginous-brown : in the fore wing the transverse medial nervure 
springs well before the apex of the 1st submedial cell, the 1st recurrent 
nervure is received in the 2nd cubital cell close to its apex, the 2nd 
recurrent nervure in the 3rd cubital cell well before its middle : in the 
hind wing the cubital nervure is interstitial. Legs long, slightly 
spinose, the coxse trochanters and femora black, the remainder of the 
legs chrome-yellow, the claws black, abdomen somewhat vertically 
compressed, the 2nd segment remarkably long. 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA- 377 

The nest mentioned above, when I caught the $ , was unfinished, 
but some seven or eight unfortunate cockroaches were stuffed tightly 
in, and were all semi-unconscious but still living. 

The markings on the head and thorax and the colour of the legs of 
the 9 depicted in the plate are shown of a reddish-yellow instead of 
a clear chrome-yellow. 

22. POMPILUS BRACATUS, Bingham. 

Pompilus beacatus, Bingh., Jour. Bom. .Nat. Hist. Soc, V, 236. 

Habitat : Burma, Tenasserim. 

Since describing this species in 1890, I have found it common in 
the more open forest along the foot of the Dawnat range in Tenasserim. 
In coloration it curiously resembles Salius (Priocnemis) peregrinus, 
Smith. 

23. POMPILUS ANALIS, Fabricius. 
Sphex analis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. II, 209, 42. 

Habitat : India generally, Burma, Tenasserim, Malacca, &c. 

This widely distributed species is one of those which often come into 
houses hunting for the smaller Lycosa or wolf-spiders, with which it 
stores its nests. 

24 POMPILUS UNIFASCIATUS, Smith. 

Pompilus unifasciatus, Sm. Cat. Hym., MS., B. M., Pt. Ill, p. 
145, 133. 

Habitat : East India, Sumatra^ North China (Smith), Burma, 
Tenasserim. 

This common species is rather variable in colouring. The form got 
in Pegu has the head and thorax reddish-yellow ; the Tenasserim form 
has the same parts more or less variegated with black. One specimen 
I procured on the Dawnat range is a most lovely insect, having the 
yellow and black on the pro- and mesothorax sharply defined, and the 
metathorax on its dorsal surface covered with rather long glistening 
golden pubescense. 

25. POMPILUS HONESTUS, Smith; 

Pompilus honestus, Sm., Cat. Hym. Ins. B. M., Pt. Ill, p. ^144^ 
129i 

HAbitat : India, Burma, Tenasserim. 

This species is rare ; I have myself only procured two specimens. 



378 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

26. POMPILUS CAMERONII, n. sp., PI. I, fig. 6. 
Ferreola fenestrata, Bingh. (non Smith), Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. 

Soc, Vol. V, 239, 10. Cameron, Hym. Orient. Mem. and Proc. Man- 
chester Lit. and Phil. Soc, Ser. IV, Vol. IV, Pt. Ill, p. 460. 

Habitat : Burma, Tenasserim. 

In 1890 I identified this species with Smith's insect. Mr. Cameron 
(loc. cit.) from the description recognized it as new. I have since pro- 
cured specimens of the true P. fenestrate both from India and Burma, 
and find on comparison that the red mesothorax in P. cameronii is a 
constant and well marked difference. I have ventured to name 
the species after Mr. Cameron. 

27. POMPILUS ILUS, Bingham, PI. I, fig. 7. 

Ferreola fasciata, Bingh., Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. V, 
p. 241,12. 

Habitat : Burma, Tenasserim. 

I have ventured to re-name this species as I find the name fasciata 
pre-occupied (Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B. M., Pt. Ill, p. 169, 8). 

This species seems always to occur in dense forests by streams, 
In May I procured both $ $ and 9 9 by the bank of a mountain 
torrent on the Dawnat range at about 1,500 feet elevation. 

The $ resembles the $ but is smaller (16 m.m., 9 23. m.m.) ; the 
deep blue-black of the abdomen is duller, being only just visible in 
certain lights, the wings are infuscated further towards the base, and 
are longer in proportion than those of the 9 . 

The above 27 species are all the Pompilida> from Tenasserim in my 
Collection which I have been able to identify. I possess examples of 
at least twice that number of species which I have not yet been able 
to compare with descriptions and work out. 

Family SHEGIDJS, Leach. 

28. SPHEX REGALIS, Smith, PI. I, fig. 11. 

Ohlorion regalis, Sm., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. IV, Vol. XII, 
p. 291 (1873). 

Habitat : Afghanistan and Sind (Smith). 

A beautiful specimen of this species was kindly sent to me by Mr 4 
Gumming of the Telegraph Department from Karachi. It is a 
lovely insect, and I regret the plate does not give much idea of the gor- 
geous purple tints of the wings* metathorax and abdomen the rich 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA. 379 

colouring of which is in fine contrast with the dull brick red of the 
head and anterior parts of the thorax. 

29. ISPHEX FULVO-HIRTA, Bingham. PI. I, fig. 8. 

Sphex fulvohirta, Bingh, Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. V, 
p. 242, 14. 

Habitat j Ceylon. 

I take this opportunity to figure the above species described by me 
(loc. cit.) in 1890. 

30. SPHEX MAIA, n. sp. 
Habitat : Tenasserim. 

Female : Length 16 m.m., expanse 26. m.m. 
Male : Length 16 m.m., expanse 29 m.m. 

Description. Belongs to Cameron's section IV. " Tarsal claws with 
two teeth (Sphex, sensu str.)." 

Head black, opaque, finely punctured, covered with soft scattered 
grey hairs, the clypeus and cheeks with silvery pubescence ; the 
clypeus sub-triangular, slightly convex, its anterior margin transverse ; 
mandibles black ; antennae arched, the scape short, the 2nd and 3rd 
joints sub-equal ; the ocelli very small and inconspicuous, placed in a 
curve on the vertex. Thorax black, finely punctured, covered with 
thin grey pubescence, that on the proscutellum short, dense, 
and silvery ; the mesothorax indented anteriorly in the centre ; 
the metathorax evenly rounded, the scutellum and proscutellum 
not raised and the latter not indented in the middle as 
in so many species. The wings hyaline, the anterior wings with a 
fuscous cloud beyond the radial and 3rd cubital cells not coming 
lower than level with the base of the latter, the nervures ferruginous, 
the tegulse black and shining. Legs black, the apex of the tibise of 
the posterior legs clothed with rich golden pubescence on the inner 
side. Abdomen black, very finely punctured, the 2nd segment dark 
blood red, the rest narrowly margined with testaceous brown. 

The $ resembles the 9 , but has larger wings and a more lengthened 
petiole. 

This well marked little species is very common at the beginning 
of the rains on the flowers of Acacia pennata. 

Family BEMBECW^E, Westwood, 

This family, so far as I know, is represented by several species in 
Burma and Tenasserim. Of these three have not as yet been described. 

7 



380 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. 7 III. 

31. BEMBEX TREPAN DA, Dahlbom. 
Bembe^ trepanda, Dahlb., Hym. Eur., I, p. 181. 
Habitat : India (Dahlb.), Burma, Tenasserim. 

Fairly common in the plains during the hot weather. Like others 
of the family it is very often found frequenting flowers. 

32. BEMBEX FOSSONUS, Smith. 

Bembex fossonus, Sm., Jour. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. XLVII (1878), 
Pt. II, p. 168, 7. Bingh., Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. V, p. 243. 
Habitat : Burma, Tenasserim. 
This species as mentioned by me (loc. cit.) is also common. 

33. BEMBEX WESTONII, n. sp. PI. I, fig. 1. 
Habitat : Salween Valley, Tenasserim. 

Female : Length 22 in.m., expanse 39 m.m. 

Male : Unknown. 

Description : 9 , Head black, mandibles yellow, their tips black, 
labrum clypeus, and front as high nearly as the vertex of the 
head, the cheeks and the scape of the antennae in front pale 
wax yellow ; two large spots at the base of the clypeus, 
a spot above them between the insertion of the antennas, a 
spot at the apex of the scape and the flagellum of the antennae 
black, the top of the head and occiput clothed with fuscous 
hairs, which are rather dense and long behind, the clypeus 
convex semicircular above, its anterior margin almost transverse. 
Thorax black, minutely and densely punctured, pubescent posteriorly ; 
the prothorax with a broad yellow posterior margin ; the meso- 
thorax slightly convex ; the metathorax short, square, and poste- 
riorly vertically truncated ; the sides of the thorax varie- 
gated with dark brick red, the pectus black ; the wings hyaline and 
iridescent, tegulae and nervures dark brown ; legs yellow, the under 
side of the coxae, trochanters, femora, tibiae and tarsi of the anterior 
legs and the same parts except the tarsi of the intermediate and 
posterior legs streaked with black, the anterior tarsi armed on the 
outside with ciliated spines, the claws yellow, their tips black. 
Abdomen black, finely punctured, pubescent, in certain lights it is seen 
to be covered with very short rather sparse stiff black recumbent hairs ; 
the 1st and 2nd segments bear a large yellow irregular macula on 
either side, the following segments except the anal, with biarcuate central 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA. 381 

yellow bands ; the band on the 3rd segment is interrupted in the 
centre on the dorsal surface, and the anal segment is black with a few 
stiff black hairs studding the apex ; the macula on the anterior seg- 
ments and the bands on the others are indistinctly stained with red 
anteriorly. 

This species was first procured and given to me by Mr. A. Weston, 
Deputy Conservator of Forests, who informed me that he had found 
its nest also. As the nesting habits of all the Bembecidce seem alike., 
and I myself found the species next described nesting, I have given all 
the information I am possessed of below. 

This species seems excessively rare ; beyond the specimen kindly 
given me by Mr. Weston and one in his collection I have seen no 
others. 

34. BEMBEX HESIONE, n. sp. 

Habitat : Maulmain, Thaungyin Valley, Tenasserim. 

Female : Length 24 m.m., expanse 37 m.m. 

Male : Unknown. 

Description : $ . Head black, labrum yellow, mandibles yellow, 
their tips black, the clypeus, the cheeks behind the eyes, the lower half 
of the frontj a heart-shaped spot on the forehead, and a line, not 
reaching the vertex, on the inside of the orbits, yellow ; two irregular 
spots at the base of the clypeus, a spot above them on the short carina 
between the antennae, and the flagellum black ; the scape in front and 
at the base above yellow ; the ocelli almost aborted, placed on a sort of 
raised platform between two shallow sulcations which run down on 
either side of the front almost to the base of the antennae ; the vertex 
and back of the head fringed with soft dark brown and the cheeks and 
chin below with silky white hairs. Thorax black, finely punctured, 
indistinctly pubescent, the posterior face of the metathorax, which is 
vertically truncated, covered with a short scanty white down, protho- 
rax yellow, the centre anteriorly and two spots on the shoulders black ; 
the posterior margin of the mesothorax transverse ; the scutellum 
and postscutellum have curved submarginal yellow bands, and the 
metathorax a yellow streak extending from the anterior angles, 
which widens out inwardly and nearly meets in the middle, 
where it is divided by a fine impressed line. Posterior shoulders 
of the metathorax produced and sharply angular, yellow, which 



382 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII, 

colour extends on to the posterior face of the metathorax ; the sides of 
the thorax variegated black and yellow, the pectus obscurely brownish 
with lateral black macula, the brownish portion transversely striated. 
The wings hyaline and iridescent, the togulse and nervures dark brown. 
The legs yellow, streaked with black on the coxse, trochanters, femora and 
tibise above and below, tarsi and claws yellow, the former with ciliated 
ferruginous spines, the latter with their tips black. Abdomen black 
with a purple gloss, minutely and finely pitted, and seen in certain 
lights to be covered by short rather sparse recumbent black hairs 5 
the 1st segment with an elongated triangular macula on either side, 
the 2nd to the 5th segments with biarcuate submarginal bands of the 
same colour, the bands on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th segments 
have in the middle on either side an oblong black macula, 
the anal segment and the whole ventral surface of the abdomen black. 
All the segments, both above and below, are narrowly edged piceous. 

The first time I came across this species was in September on a road 
near Maulmain. She, for it turned out to be a 9 , was flying with a 
large blue-bottle fly tightly clasped between her forelegs. Watching 
her carefully I saw her enter a burrow in the side of the ditch by the 
road. Examining it 1 found the soil was sandy and the burrow not 
deep, so. in order to get a view of the interior of the nest I began 
gently to enlarge the entrance. As I removed the soil the Bembex flew 
out and, after buzzing around for a few seconds, went off. The nest 
hole was sunk obliquely into the ground, and was about 1 1 inches long 
by about \ inch in diameter, slightly larger or bulbous at the end. A 
heap of dead blue-bottle flies in various stages of decay lay piled on 
the floor of the nest, and one yellowish fleshy grub about ^rd of an 
inch long struggled in and out among them battening on the half 
putrid mass. 

The smell was most offensive. While I was examining the nest 
the $ returned with another blue-bottle. She came straight for 
what had been the entrance, but puzzled apparently by the 
change in its size, kept hovering about buzzing loudly. Finally she 
alighted, walked to the end of the nest and deposited the fresh fly and, 
after parading around for a few seconds, flew off. I then caught her 
as I noticed she was different from the ordinary Bembex fossorius 
which is the common species here. Mr. Weston had told me that the 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA. 383 

Bembex, whose nest he had found, was, at the time he chanced on it 
feeding its grub in the same way as I now observed this Bembex 
doing, but as the proceeding was so opposed to all the previously- 
observed habits of the Fossores I felt inclined to think he had been 
mistaken. Here, however, was strong confirmation of the fact. And 
a wonderful fact it is that the Bembecidce of all the fossorial 
Hymenoptera should be the sole insects which, like the social bees con- 
tinually tend and feed their grubs after they are hatched. I do not 
know whether the Bembecidce in other countries have the same habit. 
Judging from the following statements by Kirby and Packard I 
should say not invariably. " These insects form their burrows in the 
sand, scratching a hole with their fore-feet like a dog, as observed by 
Sir S. S. Saunders, in the Ionian islands, and lay up a store of Diptera 
or Hymenoptera which they sometimes capture on the wing and 
sometimes fairly stalk down ; then they deposit their eggs and close 
up the hole" (Kirby, Text-book of Entomology, p. 123.) 

" The female Bembex burrows in sand to a considerable depth 
burying various species of Diptera (Syrphidce, Muscidce, &c.) and 
depositing her eggs at the same time in company with them, upon 
which the larvae when hatched subsist. "When a sufficient store has 
been collected the parent closes the mouth of the cell with earth." 
(Packard : Guide to the study of Insects, p. 164.) On the other 
hand confirmation of the facts noticed by Mr. Weston and myself is 
given by Professor Duncan in " Transformations of Insects," p. 239, 
from which I extract the following :— 

" The examples we have offered showing the habits of the fossorial 
Hymenoptera have a certain sameness, for in every instance the female 
builds the nest, fills each cell with victims for the future larva, lays an 
egg close by them and shuts up the habitation, and then dies without 
ever seeing its progeny." 

" But M. Fabre, of Avignon, has described the habits of Bembex 
vidua, which are certainly most remarkable and suggestive, and 
probably very rare, in the history of the Hymmoptera. In this 
species the female does not close up the cell, but penetrates into it 
every day, carrying a fresh victim for the larva ; and it always chooses 
a fly. Here is a case of a female insect caring for its larva which 
it sees, and which it notices to eat and care for food, so that 



384 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

the daily visit becomes a pleasure and a duty according to the 
usual 'laws of maternity. Of course the larvae of this species 
run great risks, for their cell remains unclosed, and carnivorous insects 
may enter in and destroy them. Moreover the mother may be taken 
and killed herself, and then as no food would be forthcoming they 
would die from starvation. There is no doubt that the habits of this 
species cast a light upon those of the insects which only provide one 
store of provisions and then close their nests ; for it is not difficult to 
imao-ine that if the egg of a former Bembex vidua, the predecessor of 
all these, should not happen to have hatched at the second visit of 
the mother, she would have closed the hole and left it uncared for, not 
seeing the use of troubling herself to no purpose." 

35. BEMBEX OVANS, n. sp. 

Habitat : Tenasserim. 

Female : Length 22 m.m., expanse 34 m.m. 

Male : Length 21 m.m., expanse 36 m.m. 

Description : 9 . Head black, back of the head, vertex, upper por- 
tion of the face, cheeks and chin pubescent; labrum, mandibles, clypeus, 
a triangular mark above the clypeus, and the scape of the antennas 
chrome-yellow ; the tips of the mandibles, a spot on the scape, and the 
flagellum of the antennae above black, the under side of the flagellum 
and a broad streak behind the eyes not reaching the vertex fulvous, the 
clypeus convex, broader than long, the anterior border deeply emargi- 
nate in the centre, the sides vertical, a vertical short though well 
marked raised carina between the base of the antennae. Thorax black, 
finely pitted but shining, slightly pubescent, the pubescence on 
the metathorax long and soft ; the prothorax, the scutellum and post 
scutellum posteriorly margined with chrome-yellow, the metathorax 
posteriorly truncated, the sides produced into obtuse tubercles, these 
latter with a band above them running from the anterior angles of the 
metathorax and nearly meeting in the centre chrome-yellow ; sides 
of the thorax yellow, pectus black : wings hyaline, tegulae yellow, 
nervures ferruginous-brown; legs and feet yellow, the coxae, trochanters 
and femora outwardly, and all the tibiae on the underside, streaked with 
black, apical joint of the tarsi and claws ferruginous-brown. Abdomen 
black, with, in certain lights, obscure purple reflections, finely but 
sparsely pitted and covered with minute recumbent black hairs ; the 1st 



ON NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN HYMENOPTERA. 385 

to the 5th segments with submarginal bands of a glancous- yellow, 
these bands anteriorly bisinuate, and on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd segments 
interrupted in the middle, the anal segment black with an obscure 
yellow sub -terminal and ferruginous terminal spot, below the 
abdomen is smooth and shining, with the posterior margins of the 
segments narrowly piceous. 

This $ resembles the $ exactly, only on the under side of the 1st 
abdominal segment there is an obtuse tubercle. 

This pretty and well marked species is not uncommon along the 
jungle paths in April and May. In the beginning of June I found 
them swarming on the side of a road over a low hill in the vicinity of 
Maulmain, and digging into a soft sandy bank just as I had seen 
Bembex fossorius doing in Pegu. 

Tribe DILOPTERA, Latr. 
Family VESPID^E, Steph. 

36. ISCHNOGASTER RUFO-MACULATA, n. sp. 

Habitat : Tenasserim (Salween Valley, Tavoy). 

Female : Length 22 num., expanse 32 m.m. 

Male : Unknown. ' 

Description : $ . Head black, coarsely pitted, the sides of the face 
as high as the base of the antennae and the sides of the clypeus blood 
red, the mandibles black, clypeus pear-shaped, its centre sharply pro- 
duced and bearing a short verticle raised carina ; a spot in the emargina- 
tion of the eyes yellow. Thorax rather pear-shaped, not so globular 
as in some of the species, the pro- and mesothorax rugose, the scutel- 
lum, post scutellum, and metathorax smooth and shining, a line on the 
posterior margin of the prothorax interrupted in the middle, a spot 
under the base of the wings, with a crescentic mark below that, a spot 
at the angles of the scutellum, a line on the post scutellum, and two 
spots one above the other on the posterior angles of the metathorax 
blood red ; the scutellum gibbous cone-shaped, the metathorax 
sloping steeply but regularly to the apex : wings brownish hyaline 
with bronze iridescent reflections in certain lights^ the nervures and 
tegulse dark brown ; legs black, the tegulse and tarsi of the anterior 
legs in front, and a spot on the tibiae of the intermediate and of the 
coxae of the posterior legs blood red, the tibiae of the posterior legs 
also clothed on the inside with a dense soft golden pubescence ; "the 



386 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. VIII. 

tibial spur on the intermediate and posterior legs double, the claws 
toothed. Abdomen black, the petiole smooth and shining, having a 
fulvous-red streak below and two yellow spots at the apex above, 
the rest of the abdomen finely pitted, the 1st segment with two spots 
at the base followed by two larger submarginal spots, and the 2nd 
segment with a sub-basal band interrupted in the middle bright chrome- 
yellow, the remainder of the segments above unmarked; on the ventral 
surface the 1st segment has two oblong basal spots, and the 2nd seg- 
ment two small round submarginal spots chrome-yellow. 

This species belongs to the section of the genus which live in pairs, 
building a large globular nest such as fig